The National Elevation Data Framework

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Progress, Directions & Challenges

Presented at LiDAR Technologies 2011
May 30-31, Cairns, Australia
by: Nerida Wilson
(Phil Tickle & Chris Inskeep)
Geoscience Australia

Published in: Technology
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  • Data Needs for Australia Climate Change – Monitoring sea level rise over time, prioritiising land zoning, land use Water Resources – improving the Australian Hydrological Geospatial Fabric by including higher resolution data to resolve network anomalies. Environmental and Natural Resource Management – Developing higher resolution elevation databases to meet the needs of resource managers. The use of LiDAR data to understand bare earth models with Canopy models. Modeling fuel loads, forest biomass, ability to give advice of forest health. Communications and Transport – the use of elevation data to plan communications infrastructure (Mobile Phone Towers,and other). Use of elevation data to develop engine management systems for heavy transport (eg US transport savings of $40m) urban/industrial infrastructure development – the use of high resolution data for modeling proposed developments as a pre survey option Emergency Management –the use of elevation data along with other GIS data sets to model fire behaviour (expert systems in GIS)
  • 9”, SRTM 3” , SRTM 1” cleaned, 25 m NSW, Lidar Main message here: 1 second SRTM captures shapes markedly better than 3 second, and in a lot of cases better than regional contour-based 20-30 m DEMs. Apart from the LIDAR, the 1” SRTM is the best of the bunch (or will be once the smart smoothing has been done) Option 2- is this better than the greyscale one. Check regional DEM res and is it 5m LiDAR or 1m? 9”, SRTM 3” , SRTM 1” cleaned, 25 m NSW, Lidar Main message here: 1 second SRTM captures shapes markedly better than 3 second, and in a lot of cases better than regional contour-based 20-30 m DEMs. Apart from the LIDAR, the 1” SRTM is the best of the bunch (or will be once the smart smoothing has been done)
  • Geodata 9 sec DEM – Developed by ANU over a 20 year period, is the base product for the development of the Australian Hydrological Geospatial fabric Free unrestricted national dataset. Regional DEM’s in a variety of resolutions developed by state organisations for specific purposes. Example: Victorian VicMap Elevation 5m DTM. Existing contours spot height hydro-network data for the development of 9 second DEM SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) 3 Second unrestricted National Dataset to be released under creative commons (Work still in progress), and 1 Second Government Restricted National Dataset (version 1.0 Released Dec 2009) ALOS (The Advanced Land Observing Satellite) and Spot HRS (High Resolution stereo imagery) Tandem-X (space borne radar remote sensing) Lidar (Light detection and Ranging) Traditional ground surveys Note: All data within the portal has value from the coarse 9 second Dem to the high resolution LiDAR the portal provides, it relates to the purpose the data is to be used for.
  • Governance structures that enhance coordination and cooperation across all levels of government and industry Mechanisms for funding which promote cost sharing, and coordination of data acquisitions which meet whole of government requirements. Technical standards which maximise the utility and interoperability of data Access, distribution and use arrangements which ensure information is discoverable, accessible and able to be used (without restriction) by government, industry and the community for improved decision making. Industry development and capacity building to help grow the ability of industry to meet the expanding needs of Australia in this area of technology. Enhancing access to information across all levels of government, industry, academia and the community Minimising duplication of effort Increasing the utility of data by developing and promoting flexible standards that meet the needs of users and providers and “future proof” our investment in data. Promoting industry development through the coordination of acquisition programs, adoption of standards, partnerships and development of appropriate licensing arrangements. Influencing the development of national and international capacity to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change
  • Example of the better quality information from SRTM compared to best available information on catchment boundaries. 10 km shift in catchment boundary. Grey – 9 sec derived catchments (MDB derived catchment using 9 sec) Black – 1 sec derived catchments AWRC – derived from 9 sec DEM drainage divisions Profile – differences between heights of black and grey line.
  • Managed by the CRCSI under contract to the Department of Climate Change with significant project and technical support from GA and ANZLIC LiDAR and imagery valued at approximately $5 million has been acquired for ~$1 million in project funding with whole of government licensing. An additional ~$10 million of LiDAR has also been accessed under restricted Commonwealth licensing in VIC and WA.
  • Approximately 20,000sqkm of LiDAR has been acquired over Darwin, greater Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, NSW Hunter coast and South East Qld with Whole of Government Licensing.
  • The National Elevation Data Framework

    1. 1. The National Elevation Data Framework Progress, Directions & Challenges Nerida Wilson (Phil Tickle & Chris Inskeep) Geoscience Australia
    2. 2. Common Framework Data Needs <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and Natural Resource Management </li></ul><ul><li>Communications, Transport and urban/industrial infrastructure development </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Management </li></ul><ul><li>A Digital Representation of Australia’s Landform and Seabed is fundamental to addressing these national priorities </li></ul>
    3. 3. Effects of different DEM types & resolutions 9 second DEM SRTM 3 sec DEM SRTM 1 sec DEM-H Regional 5 m Lidar 1 m
    4. 4. National Nested DEM Existing Regional DEMs ALOS, SPOT HRS and others Geodata 9 sec DEM SRTM (3 sec, 1 sec) Airborne IFSAR Ground Survey Existing contours spot height hydro-network data TanDEM-X (2009) LiDAR ?
    5. 5. NEDF Strategies (2009-2011) <ul><ul><li>Governance structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms for funding which promote cost sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical standards which maximise the utility and interoperability of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access, distribution and use arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry development and capacity building </li></ul></ul>Vision: To ensure that decision makers, investors and the community have access to the best available elevation data describing Australia’s landforms and sea bed to address the needs of today and the decades ahead.
    6. 6. Investment in Elevation Data
    7. 7. The New National DEM <ul><li>Being delivered through the BoM, CSIRO, GA, ANU “Geofabric” initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Defence have released the 1 sec data for “government use” (Commonwealth, State, Local and regional NRM bodies) through GA. </li></ul><ul><li>4 core streams of activity under way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapped watercourses and water bodies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEM-derived watercourses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Catchment Boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1” SRTM-derived DEM development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National foundation products completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in regional-scale data commenced </li></ul><ul><li>10 year road-map. </li></ul>Canberra – 9 second DEM v3 Canberra – SRTM2-DSM
    8. 8. SRTM-2 (1 second) cleanup <ul><li>A joint venture between CSIRO, BoM, GA, ANU </li></ul><ul><li>Fourier transform filtering to remove systematic stripes (sensor artifacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of vegetation offsets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of affected areas using vegetation mapping from remote sensing and direct detection from DEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of vegetation height offset and construction of vegetation height surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of height offset in affected areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t work everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive smoothing to reduce random height variations in flatter areas </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage enforcement with ANUDEM using mapped streams (national and regional scales) </li></ul>Raw SRTM 1 sec hydro-conditioned SRTM DEM-H
    9. 9. The 1 sec National DEM – Current Status <ul><li>4 th release of Version 1 released April, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>DSM, DEM, DEM-S and DEM-H products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEM-S – smoothed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEM-H – Hydro’ enforced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEM-H currently enforced with 1:250K drainage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2011/12 enforcement will be undertaken using 1:25K-1:100K drainage following major investment through Geofabric initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In principle agreement reached with Defence to release 1 sec into “Public Domain” (pending formal approval) </li></ul><ul><li>Data available through NEDF-Portal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// nedf.ga.gov.au </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Integration of LiDAR with SRTM SRTM-DSM SRTM-DEM LIDAR-DEM – 10m Brisbane
    11. 11. SRTM 1  contribution to catchment delineation 10 km shift in catchment boundary. 0 10 20 km 150 148 146 144
    12. 12. Urban DEM Project <ul><li>Phase 1 of the NEDF implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping key urban and industrial areas which may be subject to inundation due to the impacts of climate change or storm surge. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing an online web portal for public good data access. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing an online tool for government and public users to visualise the coastal inundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Managed by the CRCSI under contract to the Department of Climate Change with significant project and technical support from GA and ANZLIC. </li></ul><ul><li>Project outputs launched by the Minister for Climate Change and Energy Efficiency Dec, 2010. </li></ul>
    13. 13. UDEM Contributors
    14. 14. UDEM Project LiDAR Coverage
    15. 15. Tool for Visualising Sea Level Rise
    16. 17. 1m
    17. 18. 2m
    18. 19. Urban DEM Project Narrabeen Sydney - TIN Model of Hydrologically conditioned DEM
    19. 20. The NEDF Portal <ul><li>A one stop elevation shop launched Dec 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>ArcGIS server application delivering the functionality of GIS mapping tools in a web environment </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the management and maintenance of elevation and related data within GA and across government. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to million’s $ data </li></ul><ul><li>Data sharing amongst state/jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce duplication of data capture & purchasing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to monitor who is using or benefits from the data </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce effort in distributing data & signing licences </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to identify gaps in elevation data around Australia & where future acquisitions should occur </li></ul>
    20. 21. http:// nedf.ga.gov.au NEDF Portal
    21. 22. <ul><li>TBs data to ingest </li></ul><ul><li>Data preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Search extent & Rename Tools </li></ul>Behind the NEDF Portal
    22. 23. Technical Standards ICSM Elevation Working Group <ul><li>Terms of Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Develop technical guidelines and standards for the acquisition, processing and quality assurance of elevation data. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop generic best practice ‘Statements of Work’ that may be used by agencies in developing project deliverables. </li></ul><ul><li>Liaise with ICSM committees and other appropriate bodies to optimise alignment of activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate national awareness of guidelines, best practice and standards. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Future-Proofing” Our Collective Investment </li></ul>
    23. 24. Technical Standards http:// www.icsm.gov.au/icsm/elevation/index.html
    24. 25. Technical Standards http:// www.icsm.gov.au/icsm/elevation/index.html
    25. 26. Fit for Purpose? What DEM do I require?
    26. 27. Poor LiDAR Point Cloud Classification
    27. 28. A DEM Suitable for Coastal Modelling
    28. 29. Hydrologically Conditioned DEM
    29. 30. HDEM derived Innundation Contours
    30. 31. Non-Conditioned DEM
    31. 32. The Difference
    32. 33. So what next.....?
    33. 34. UDEM Phase 2 (June 2010-2012) <ul><li>Expanding the coverage of elevation data available for public good use to support the communication of inundation risk areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting a consistent approach to developing risk profiles for coastal communities, through developing products and tools communicating inundation risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing additional capacity for local governments and other coastal decision makers to identify risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing information in the public domain to assist in raising community awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting the development of a nationally coordinated, distributed approach to manage elevation data underpinned by standards and guidelines to ensure quality of elevation products. </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing priority research issues to improve the technical capacity and usage of elevation data. </li></ul>
    34. 35. UDEM Phase 2 (2010-2012) <ul><li>Work in progress </li></ul><ul><li>New data acquisition over priority areas (expanded LiDAR and imagery coverage focusing on key regional centres) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrological conditioning of acquired data in selected areas to underpin accurate modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of NEDF-Portal capacity and capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Extending the coverage and enhancement of the visualisation tool and static maps </li></ul><ul><li>Further research to address key technical capacity constraints. </li></ul>
    35. 36. 2011 Audit of High Resolution Coastal Elevation Data
    36. 37. Audit of High Resolution Coastal Elevation Data
    37. 38. UDEM Phase 2 Research Projects <ul><li>Project 1 – Performance of DEM generation technologies in coastal environments </li></ul><ul><li>Project 2 – Integration of multi-resolution DEMs </li></ul><ul><li>Project 3 – Vertical datum harmonisation across the littoral zone </li></ul><ul><li>Project 4 - User requirements for bathymetric data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Project 5 – The need for hydrological conditioning of DEMs </li></ul>
    38. 39. NEDF-Portal Roadmap <ul><li>Federation of the Capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instance of the Portal implemented in NSW LPMA. Discussions with other agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portal capabilities not only provide discovery and access, but just as importantly, improved data management at agency level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current enhancements being implemented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for alternative gridded data and image formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancements to metadata entry tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for a “federated” inter-agency catalogue that links the two Portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for a “Register of Interest” function enabling users to declare their interest in acquiring data over specific regions. This will be used to target investment and create funding consortiums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for a “Register of Intent” function to enable agencies to expose proposed data acquisitions to avoid duplication. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. NEDF-Portal Roadmap <ul><li>Proposed Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom metadata catalogue metadata schemas to allow ingestion of a wider range of agency schema in addition to core elements in the ANZLIC profile of ISO 19115 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed metadata repositories and dynamic search interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modularising of the geo-processing interface to allow ‘plug-in’ capabilities provided by a wider range of COTS and Open Source applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved scheduling and throughput of geoprocessing jobs by better utilisation of multi-core and parallel computing environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automation interface via web services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further extension into GA core business systems for data delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further federation of the capabilities in collaboration with Commonwealth and State agencies. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. If only….
    41. 42. More Information…. Contact: Nerida Wilson 02 6249 9254 Email: [email_address] NEDF-Portal: http:// nedf.ga.gov.au GA website: http://www.ga.gov.au/topographic-mapping/digital-elevation-data.html

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