Understanding Loneliness in Social Awareness Streams - ICWSM 2014 Presentation

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An unabridged version of the presentation for ICWSM 2014, on the paper "Understanding Loneliness in Social Awareness Streams: Expressions and Responses" by Funda Kivran-Swaine, Jeremy Ting, Jed R. Brubaker, Rannie Teodoro, and Mor Naaman. Full paper at bit.ly/kivranswaine_loneliness

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Understanding Loneliness in Social Awareness Streams - ICWSM 2014 Presentation

  1. Understanding Loneliness in Social Awareness Streams expressionsandresponses photo by @skalgubbar 1
  2. Jeremy Ting @kingofting Jed R. Brubaker @whatknows Rannie Teodoro @rannieteo Mor Naaman @informor presenting today: Funda Kivran-Swaine (@fundinha) the work with wonderful co-authors: 2
  3. @fundinha understanding loneliness Is social media making us lonely? What can we learn about the experience of loneliness from social media? 3
  4. loneliness is common everybody feels lonely at some point in their lives. however, when prolonged, loneliness can lead to severe problems like poor antibody response, depression, or even suicide ideation. photo by Hartwig HKD / Flickr Creative Commons 4
  5. loneliness is social pain occurs when there is a discrepancy between the quality or quantity of people’s perceived relationships and their relationship standards. photo by Hartwig HKD / Flickr Creative Commons 5
  6. lonelinessis idiosyncratic experience of loneliness varies greatly between people. people’s reactions to loneliness also can differ a lot. 6 photo by Hartwig HKD / Flickr Creative Commons
  7. lonelinessis not solitude one can be lonely in a crowd. photo by Hartwig HKD / Flickr Creative Commons 7
  8. loneliness What does 8 feel like? photo by Hartwig HKD / Flickr Creative Commons
  9. @fundinha understanding loneliness West Broadway, New York, 1978 © Thomas Struth Courtesy Schirmer/Mosel Researchers have been trying to understand the experience of loneliness since 1970s. *1978, NYU. Researchers collected ~25,000 responses to a newspaper survey that asked: How do you usually feel when you are lonely? * Rubenstein, C., & Shaver, P. (1980). Loneliness in two northeastern cities. The anatomy of loneliness, 319-337. 9
  10. @fundinha understanding loneliness in 2014 there is a new way to understand loneliness. 10
  11. @fundinha understanding loneliness in 2014 people are increasingly saying: ...I’mlonely.... in online public environments. 11
  12. @fundinha understanding loneliness People increasingly are using social awareness streams (SAS) to communicate about their emotional experiences, including loneliness. 12
  13. @fundinha understanding loneliness When people express loneliness on SAS, they sometimes get responses. 13
  14. @fundinha understanding loneliness We can start to address: What are the evident circumstances that surround explicit expressions of loneliness on Twitter? 14
  15. @fundinha understanding loneliness We can start to address: What are the prevalent communication practices around loneliness on Twitter? 15
  16. @fundinha understanding loneliness We can start to address: What types of responses do individuals expressing loneliness receive? 16
  17. @fundinha understanding loneliness We can start to address: What are the relationships between expressions of loneliness and the responses they receive? 17
  18. @fundinha understanding loneliness the data lonelytweets profile&interactiondataofauthors responsestolonelytweets 18
  19. @fundinha understanding loneliness the data lonely tweet: ...<lonelyphrase>...... Iamsolonely IFeelsoisolated iamfeelingleftout Ifeelsoalone ... ... lonelytweets 19
  20. @fundinha understanding loneliness I’msolonely 20 the data lonelytweets
  21. @fundinha understanding loneliness I’msolonelyat... 21 the data lonelytweets
  22. @fundinha understanding loneliness ...andI’msolonely 22 the data lonelytweets
  23. @fundinha understanding loneliness I’msolonelybecause... 23 the data lonelytweets
  24. @fundinha understanding loneliness I’msolonely #$@!#$ #$@!#$ the data (groupsof)responsestolonelytweets 24
  25. @fundinha understanding loneliness profile&interactiondataofauthors the data I’msolonely tt-24h t+24h gender # followers # friends photo by @skalgubbar # tweets # interactions / # tweets # tweets # interactions / # tweets 25
  26. @fundinha understanding loneliness 1development of the coding schemes 2qualitative coding 3quantitative analysis & hypotheses testing the study 26
  27. @fundinha understanding loneliness 1development of the coding schemas 27
  28. @fundinha understanding loneliness 3 categorical dimensions for expressions of loneliness temporalbounding context interaction 28
  29. @fundinha understanding loneliness temporalbounding context interaction enduring, transient, or ambiguous other-directed or not oneormoreof: social physical romantic somatic 29
  30. @fundinha understanding loneliness temporalbounding context interaction enduring, transient, or ambiguous other-directed or not oneormoreof: social physical romantic somatic Everyday,I’msolonely Inthishorriblehouse, withoutagirlfriend 30
  31. @fundinha understanding loneliness 3 categorical dimensions for responses to expressions of loneliness EXPLICITACKNOWLEDGMENT UN-ENGAGING EXPLICITSUGGESTIONS 31
  32. @fundinha understanding loneliness EXPLICITACKNOWLEDGMENT UN-ENGAGING EXPLICITSuggestions Everyday,I’msolonely Inthishorriblehouse, withoutagirlfriend AW...I’MSOSORRYTO HEARTHAT.THATMUSTSUCK Thatsoundsterrible. whydon’tyoucome overtodinnertotalk aboutitwithus? wompwomp.whining again... 32
  33. @fundinha understanding loneliness 2qualitative coding 33
  34. @fundinha understanding loneliness 4454 lonelytweets 903 groupsofresponsestothese We read and qualitatively coded: 34
  35. @fundinha understanding loneliness What do people talk about when they talk about loneliness? 35
  36. @fundinha understanding loneliness 0 20 40 60 80 100 social context physical context romantic context somatic context offline online What do people talk about when they talk about loneliness? night bed home room school date cuddle love relationship boyfriend hungry sick hurt tired cry eat friend wish talk text person 36
  37. @fundinha understanding loneliness 3quantitative analysis & hypotheses testing 37
  38. @fundinha understanding loneliness first, some descriptives 38
  39. @fundinha understanding loneliness Who talks about loneliness? 70% 30% men women * matches known literature on emotional disclosure. women talk about their emotional experiences more frequently than men. 39
  40. @fundinha understanding loneliness experiences of loneliness range from ephemeral and ordinary (transient) to permanent and worrisome (enduring). Transient Enduring * matches known literature on loneliness. most experiences of loneliness spark and die out quickly. 40
  41. @fundinha understanding loneliness findings 41
  42. @fundinha understanding loneliness A differences between enduring & transient loneliness B factors that contribute to receiving a response C differences in responses 42 findings
  43. @fundinha understanding loneliness A differences between enduring & transient loneliness 43 findings
  44. @fundinha understanding loneliness Expressions of transient loneliness are more likely to call for social interaction. photo by Michael J. Moeller / Flickr Creative Commons (42.1% vs. 30%) (χ2 = 62.1, df = 2, p < .001), 44 understanding loneliness in social awareness streams @fundinha
  45. @fundinha understanding loneliness Expressions of transient loneliness are more likely to call for social interaction. initiating social action is a more common reaction to milder experiences of loneliness. 45 (42.1% vs. 30%) (χ2 = 62.1, df = 2, p < .001), understanding loneliness in social awareness streams @fundinha photo by Michael J. Moeller / Flickr Creative Commons
  46. @fundinha understanding loneliness Women are more likely to express enduring loneliness than men. photo by Michael J. Moeller / Flickr Creative Commons46 understanding loneliness
  47. @fundinha understanding loneliness photo by Michael J. Moeller / Flickr Creative Commons Women are more likely to express enduring loneliness than men. (16% of women vs. 11% of men) (χ2 = 19.61, df = 2, p < .001) women communicate about emotional experiences more than men do. 47 understanding loneliness
  48. @fundinha understanding loneliness People who express enduring loneliness are less social on Twitter. photo by Michael J. Moeller / Flickr Creative Commons48 understanding loneliness
  49. @fundinha understanding loneliness People who express enduring loneliness are less social on Twitter. photo by Michael J. Moeller / Flickr Creative Commons 0 0.078 0.155 0.233 0.31 49 transient enduring understanding loneliness
  50. @fundinha understanding loneliness B factors that contribute to receiving a response 50 findings
  51. @fundinha understanding loneliness in SAS nobody is obliged to RESPOND 51
  52. @fundinha understanding loneliness percentage of lonely tweets that got at least one response: 23% overall average response-rate for these people’s tweets: 3.4% 52
  53. @fundinha understanding loneliness in SAS nobody is obliged to RESPOND but people respond to expressions of loneliness more than they respond to other tweets 53
  54. @fundinha understanding loneliness Other-directed lonely tweets are more likely to get responses. photo by David / Flickr Creative Commons 54 understanding loneliness (O.R. for self-directed lonely tweets =0.63, p<.001)
  55. @fundinha understanding loneliness Men are more likely to get responses. photo by David / Flickr Creative Commons (O.R. =1.27, p<.01) 55 understanding loneliness
  56. @fundinha understanding loneliness Expressions of enduring loneliness are less likely to get responses. 56 photo by David / Flickr Creative Commons understanding loneliness
  57. @fundinha understanding loneliness Expressions of enduring loneliness are less likely to get responses. likelihood of receiving a response reduced by 37%. 57 photo by David / Flickr Creative Commons understanding loneliness
  58. @fundinha understanding loneliness that’s not good. 58 what kind of responses do the expressions of enduring loneliness receive?
  59. @fundinha understanding loneliness C differences in responses 59 findings
  60. @fundinha understanding loneliness Expressions of enduring loneliness are less likely to get responses that dismiss loneliness. 60 photo by David / Flickr Creative Commons understanding loneliness
  61. @fundinha understanding loneliness Expressions of enduring loneliness are more likely to get responses acknowledging loneliness. 61 photo by David / Flickr Creative Commons understanding loneliness
  62. @fundinha understanding loneliness 0 20 40 60 80 transient enduring 62 photo by David / Flickr Creative Commons understanding loneliness acknowledging un-engaging
  63. @fundinha understanding loneliness enduring loneliness attracts less responses. but more responses acknowledging the experience of loneliness. 63
  64. @fundinha understanding loneliness what makes us lonely in the age of connectedness? have we forgotten how to be alone? 64 understanding loneliness
  65. @fundinha understanding loneliness 65 “American loneliness may, I think, be defined as being alone when one has not elected to be alone, when the state of being alone will be recognized by others as inappropriate.” Margaret Mead
  66. @fundinha understanding loneliness social awareness streams places where people disclose and communicate about loneliness. 66
  67. What is next? thankyou.67

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