Natural Resource Restoration and
Pro-poor Rural Development.
Christo Marais, Dudu Soginga, Michael Kawa & Thabisa Motolwan...
Presentation Structure
1. Some History & Social Context
2. Natural Resource Management (NRM) Objectives
3. Basic Outputs.
...
Libertas Centre - November 1993
The question on everybody’s lips was - How was conservation
of natural resources going to ...
In 1993 - Two Resolutions were Adopted by
a Group of Scientists to be Presented to
Decision Makers
• to present to local d...
Who was the target audience? - Reconstruction &
Development Programme of President Mandela.
A New Beginning – April 1994
In September 1995 the then Minister of Water
Affairs and Forestry, Prof. Kader Asmal took the...
Government Decided to
Invest R25million in the
Clearing of Invasive
Alien Plants through the
Reconstruction and
Developmen...
Prof. Asmal
Launching
Working for
Water?
And today?
The Target Audience Today:
Government Priorities
• Crime
• Education
• Health
• Job Creation
• Rural
Development
“Over simplified” Spectrum of
Degradation
Bush Encroachments & InvasivesDesertification
Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
From this!!
To This!!
And From this!!
To This!!
And From this!!
To This!!
Natural Resource Business Stream
Improved
management of
natural resources
• Improved water
security
• Improved
biodiversit...
Socio-Economic Business Stream
Improved livelihoods
of programme
beneficiaries
• Employment
opportunities in
rural areas
•...
How the NRM Programmes contribute to
addressing the objectives?
Land Management Impacts
In total more 1.9 million hectares of invasive
alien plants treated and followed up since
1995
Nearly 700, 000ha followed up during 2009/10
Land Restoration
1, 387 Hectares
Heavily Degraded
Albany Sub
Tropical Thicket
Restored
Working on Fire
• 2008/09 WoFire Attended to
891 fires over an estimated
567, 000 ha.
• 2009/10 WoFire Attended to
747 fir...
How do the NRM Programmes contribute to
addressing the objectives?
Socio Economic development & employment
Impacts
1. 2.32 million Person Days created during 2009/10
(WfW,WFL,WoF & WfWet) and
2. Around 18 million since 1995 (WfW,WFL,WoF ...
1. More than 26, 000 beneficiaries in Working for Water and
Working for Land.
2. 1,850 in Working on Fire and
3. 1, 500 in...
The Cost to Deliver Services at these
Levels
Working for Water grew from a programme of R25
million a year to –
• Working ...
Current Marketable Ecosystem Services
Watershed Services
• Flows
– Flood/high flows
– Low Flows
– Yield from water
infrast...
Geographical extent of ecosystem benefits
High Yield Catchments
Carbon sequestration
Soil retention
Water flow regulation
Natural Resource Management Needs
Hectares Invaded = 20 million
Condensed Hectares = 3.7 million
What’s the Socio-Economic Landscape?
Can we measure the marketable services?
Impacts of Vegetation Structure – Invasive Alien Plants
(Prinsloo & Scott 1999)
Vegetation Densification and the Impacts on Soil after
Fire
Maloti-Drakensberg
Upper Thukela
• Good land management
practices can increase low
flows by 12.8 mil. m3/yr
and
• Reduce s...
Opportunities in the Carbon Market:
Working for Land in the Eastern Cape
Thicket Restoration Programme
Above
ground
40 ± 3
7 ± 1
Litter
11 ± 1
1 ± 0.4
Roots
25 ± 1.3
11 ± 0.7
Soil
133 ± 27
95 ± 15
and falling?
Total
209 ± 28
...
Challenges & Opportunities
• Government simply does not
have enough money to do it
on it’s own.
• Dire poverty in rural ar...
Challenges & Opportunities cont.
• Institutional arrangements
is still difficult for rural
communities to work
with govern...
Recommendations on the way forward
• If governments can give incentives to the commercial sector
why not for the restorati...
Thank You!
Acknowledgements
• Dr. Terry Everson – Okhombe PES Projects
• Mike Powell – Thicket Pictures
• Ecosystem Services - James ...
Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo Marais  NRR &  Pro Poo...
Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo Marais  NRR &  Pro Poo...
Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo Marais  NRR &  Pro Poo...
Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo Marais  NRR &  Pro Poo...
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Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo Marais NRR & Pro Poor Rural Development (Bolivia Nov. 2010)

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Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo Marais NRR & Pro Poor Rural Development (Bolivia Nov. 2010)

  1. 1. Natural Resource Restoration and Pro-poor Rural Development. Christo Marais, Dudu Soginga, Michael Kawa & Thabisa Motolwana Department of Water Affairs: Natural Resource Management Programmes
  2. 2. Presentation Structure 1. Some History & Social Context 2. Natural Resource Management (NRM) Objectives 3. Basic Outputs. 4. Extent of Ecosystem Services 5. High level Natural Resource Restoration & Management Needs. 6. Some Measurement of Ecosystem Services 7. Challenges & Opportunities 8. Recommendations on a Way Forward
  3. 3. Libertas Centre - November 1993 The question on everybody’s lips was - How was conservation of natural resources going to compete against the social demands in post apartheid South Africa?
  4. 4. In 1993 - Two Resolutions were Adopted by a Group of Scientists to be Presented to Decision Makers • to present to local decision makers the threat that invasive alien plants pose to the country’s scarce water resources and • to approach “the rich north” for support in the battle against invasive alien plants and its impacts on biodiversity
  5. 5. Who was the target audience? - Reconstruction & Development Programme of President Mandela.
  6. 6. A New Beginning – April 1994 In September 1995 the then Minister of Water Affairs and Forestry, Prof. Kader Asmal took the visionary step to include invasive alien plant management as a programme in the department’s contribution to the Reconstruction and Development Programme of the new government.
  7. 7. Government Decided to Invest R25million in the Clearing of Invasive Alien Plants through the Reconstruction and Development Programme The Face of Poverty still haunts South Africa (1997)
  8. 8. Prof. Asmal Launching Working for Water? And today?
  9. 9. The Target Audience Today: Government Priorities • Crime • Education • Health • Job Creation • Rural Development
  10. 10. “Over simplified” Spectrum of Degradation Bush Encroachments & InvasivesDesertification
  11. 11. Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde From this!!
  12. 12. To This!!
  13. 13. And From this!!
  14. 14. To This!!
  15. 15. And From this!!
  16. 16. To This!!
  17. 17. Natural Resource Business Stream Improved management of natural resources • Improved water security • Improved biodiversity and ecosystem function/natural processes • Improved productive potential of land
  18. 18. Socio-Economic Business Stream Improved livelihoods of programme beneficiaries • Employment opportunities in rural areas • Employment opportunities in the natural resource market created • Human and social capital developed
  19. 19. How the NRM Programmes contribute to addressing the objectives? Land Management Impacts
  20. 20. In total more 1.9 million hectares of invasive alien plants treated and followed up since 1995
  21. 21. Nearly 700, 000ha followed up during 2009/10
  22. 22. Land Restoration 1, 387 Hectares Heavily Degraded Albany Sub Tropical Thicket Restored
  23. 23. Working on Fire • 2008/09 WoFire Attended to 891 fires over an estimated 567, 000 ha. • 2009/10 WoFire Attended to 747 fires over an estimated 336, 000 ha. • During 2009 around 29, 800 fires burnt covering 2.4 million ha. • WoFire therefore attended to only 2.5% of the number of fires but 16% of the area burnt.
  24. 24. How do the NRM Programmes contribute to addressing the objectives? Socio Economic development & employment Impacts
  25. 25. 1. 2.32 million Person Days created during 2009/10 (WfW,WFL,WoF & WfWet) and 2. Around 18 million since 1995 (WfW,WFL,WoF & WfWet).
  26. 26. 1. More than 26, 000 beneficiaries in Working for Water and Working for Land. 2. 1,850 in Working on Fire and 3. 1, 500 in Working for Wetlands
  27. 27. The Cost to Deliver Services at these Levels Working for Water grew from a programme of R25 million a year to – • Working for Water = ±R695 million • Working for Land = ±R32 million • Working on Fire = ±R223 million • Working for Wetlands = ±R75 million • More than R1 billion per year! (and it is still not enough)
  28. 28. Current Marketable Ecosystem Services Watershed Services • Flows – Flood/high flows – Low Flows – Yield from water infrastructure – Ecological Reserve • Sediments – Siltation of dams • Water quality – Purification costs – Waterweed management costs Climate Change – Carbon Sequestration
  29. 29. Geographical extent of ecosystem benefits
  30. 30. High Yield Catchments
  31. 31. Carbon sequestration
  32. 32. Soil retention
  33. 33. Water flow regulation
  34. 34. Natural Resource Management Needs
  35. 35. Hectares Invaded = 20 million Condensed Hectares = 3.7 million
  36. 36. What’s the Socio-Economic Landscape?
  37. 37. Can we measure the marketable services?
  38. 38. Impacts of Vegetation Structure – Invasive Alien Plants (Prinsloo & Scott 1999)
  39. 39. Vegetation Densification and the Impacts on Soil after Fire
  40. 40. Maloti-Drakensberg Upper Thukela • Good land management practices can increase low flows by 12.8 mil. m3/yr and • Reduce sediments by 1.2mil. m3/yr. Umzimvudu • Lows flows will increase by 3.8 mil. m3/yr and • Sediments will reduce by 4.9 mil. m3/yr
  41. 41. Opportunities in the Carbon Market: Working for Land in the Eastern Cape Thicket Restoration Programme
  42. 42. Above ground 40 ± 3 7 ± 1 Litter 11 ± 1 1 ± 0.4 Roots 25 ± 1.3 11 ± 0.7 Soil 133 ± 27 95 ± 15 and falling? Total 209 ± 28 114 ± 14 t C ha-1 Mills et. al. (2005) Austral Ecology
  43. 43. Challenges & Opportunities • Government simply does not have enough money to do it on it’s own. • Dire poverty in rural areas, if the livelihood profile is not better after the intervention than before it simply won’t work. • Legislation on its own is simply not enough. • Restoration is expensive. • South Africa is not very competitive on the carbon market, the climate simply does not allow it to be. • There are opportunities to get local and international resource users involved in restoring ecosystem benefits. • The people are out there where the services are required. • Job creation and rural development are government priorities.
  44. 44. Challenges & Opportunities cont. • Institutional arrangements is still difficult for rural communities to work with government. • We need more primary science when it comes to quantifying ecosystem services. • There are extensive opportunities for the sciences to be developed. • The programme could effectively become an outdoor class room for students working in the field.
  45. 45. Recommendations on the way forward • If governments can give incentives to the commercial sector why not for the restoration of ecosystem services. • NGO’s, CBO’s and private land users should be incentivised to promote and change land management practices. • The focus of government NRM investment needs to be revised in order to unlock private and international investment. • Appropriate institutional arrangements need to be established. (CBNRM models?) • Uncertainty with regards to the quantification of ecosystem services must be reduced (We must get the science right, models need to be informed by sound natural/ecological science). • If you can’t beat the socio-economic lobby, join them.
  46. 46. Thank You!
  47. 47. Acknowledgements • Dr. Terry Everson – Okhombe PES Projects • Mike Powell – Thicket Pictures • Ecosystem Services - James Blignaut, Guy Preston, Kate Philip, Mathieu Rouget, Myles Mander, Jane Turpie, Lozelle du Plessis, Thami Klassen, and Norma Tregurtha • Andrew Wannenburgh • Prof. Rudi van Aarde – Sekhukhune Pictures

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