Taller Las funciones ambientales de los bosques y su rol en la reducción de la pobreza. Christo Marais NRR & Pro Poor Rural Development (Bolivia Nov. 2010)
Natural Resource Restoration and
Pro-poor Rural Development.
Christo Marais, Dudu Soginga, Michael Kawa & Thabisa Motolwana
Department of Water Affairs: Natural Resource Management Programmes
1. Some History & Social Context
2. Natural Resource Management (NRM) Objectives
3. Basic Outputs.
4. Extent of Ecosystem Services
5. High level Natural Resource Restoration &
6. Some Measurement of Ecosystem Services
7. Challenges & Opportunities
8. Recommendations on a Way Forward
Libertas Centre - November 1993
The question on everybody’s lips was - How was conservation
of natural resources going to compete against the social
demands in post apartheid South Africa?
In 1993 - Two Resolutions were Adopted by
a Group of Scientists to be Presented to
• to present to local decision makers the
threat that invasive alien plants pose to the
country’s scarce water resources and
• to approach “the rich north” for support in
the battle against invasive alien plants and
its impacts on biodiversity
Who was the target audience? - Reconstruction &
Development Programme of President Mandela.
A New Beginning – April 1994
In September 1995 the then Minister of Water
Affairs and Forestry, Prof. Kader Asmal took the
visionary step to include invasive alien plant
management as a programme in the department’s
contribution to the Reconstruction and
Development Programme of the new government.
Government Decided to
Invest R25million in the
Clearing of Invasive
Alien Plants through the
The Face of
The Target Audience Today:
• Job Creation
“Over simplified” Spectrum of
Bush Encroachments & InvasivesDesertification
Photograph: Courtesy Prof. Rudi van Aarde
Natural Resource Business Stream
• Improved water
• Improved productive
potential of land
Socio-Economic Business Stream
opportunities in the
• Human and social
How the NRM Programmes contribute to
addressing the objectives?
Land Management Impacts
In total more 1.9 million hectares of invasive
alien plants treated and followed up since
1, 387 Hectares
Working on Fire
• 2008/09 WoFire Attended to
891 fires over an estimated
567, 000 ha.
• 2009/10 WoFire Attended to
747 fires over an estimated
336, 000 ha.
• During 2009 around 29, 800
fires burnt covering 2.4
• WoFire therefore attended to
only 2.5% of the number of
fires but 16% of the area
How do the NRM Programmes contribute to
addressing the objectives?
Socio Economic development & employment
1. 2.32 million Person Days created during 2009/10
(WfW,WFL,WoF & WfWet) and
2. Around 18 million since 1995 (WfW,WFL,WoF & WfWet).
1. More than 26, 000 beneficiaries in Working for Water and
Working for Land.
2. 1,850 in Working on Fire and
3. 1, 500 in Working for Wetlands
The Cost to Deliver Services at these
Working for Water grew from a programme of R25
million a year to –
• Working for Water = ±R695 million
• Working for Land = ±R32 million
• Working on Fire = ±R223 million
• Working for Wetlands = ±R75 million
• More than R1 billion per year! (and it is still not
Current Marketable Ecosystem Services
– Flood/high flows
– Low Flows
– Yield from water
– Ecological Reserve
– Siltation of dams
• Water quality
– Purification costs
– Waterweed management costs
– Carbon Sequestration
Impacts of Vegetation Structure – Invasive Alien Plants
(Prinsloo & Scott 1999)
Vegetation Densification and the Impacts on Soil after
• Good land management
practices can increase low
flows by 12.8 mil. m3/yr
• Reduce sediments by 1.2mil.
• Lows flows will increase by
3.8 mil. m3/yr and
• Sediments will reduce by
4.9 mil. m3/yr
Opportunities in the Carbon Market:
Working for Land in the Eastern Cape
Thicket Restoration Programme
Challenges & Opportunities
• Government simply does not
have enough money to do it
on it’s own.
• Dire poverty in rural areas, if
the livelihood profile is not
better after the intervention
than before it simply won’t
• Legislation on its own is
simply not enough.
• Restoration is expensive.
• South Africa is not very
competitive on the carbon
market, the climate simply
does not allow it to be.
• There are opportunities to get
local and international resource
users involved in restoring
• The people are out there where
the services are required.
• Job creation and rural
development are government
Challenges & Opportunities cont.
• Institutional arrangements
is still difficult for rural
communities to work
• We need more primary
science when it comes to
• There are extensive
opportunities for the
sciences to be developed.
• The programme could
effectively become an
outdoor class room for
students working in the
Recommendations on the way forward
• If governments can give incentives to the commercial sector
why not for the restoration of ecosystem services.
• NGO’s, CBO’s and private land users should be incentivised to
promote and change land management practices.
• The focus of government NRM investment needs to be revised
in order to unlock private and international investment.
• Appropriate institutional arrangements need to be established.
• Uncertainty with regards to the quantification of ecosystem
services must be reduced (We must get the science right, models
need to be informed by sound natural/ecological science).
• If you can’t beat the socio-economic lobby, join them.
• Dr. Terry Everson – Okhombe PES Projects
• Mike Powell – Thicket Pictures
• Ecosystem Services - James Blignaut, Guy Preston, Kate
Philip, Mathieu Rouget, Myles Mander, Jane Turpie,
Lozelle du Plessis, Thami Klassen, and Norma Tregurtha
• Andrew Wannenburgh
• Prof. Rudi van Aarde – Sekhukhune Pictures