Social responsibility Basedon: J. Crane, J. Hannibal (2009) Psychology Course Companion, Oxford Univeristy Press
Patrick Morgan was a 16-year-old student when he made headlines in Australia. He and some friends were waiting for the train to Sydney when he saw an emergency situation. An elderly woman fell down the gap between the train and the platform when she tried to get off her train. Patrick ran over as fast as he could. He risked his life by jumping under the stationary train to give the woman first aid. Meanwhile, his friend ran to tell the train driver not to pull away from the station. A police officer said: "I think it's particularly special—a young person of his age without looking for his own safety has gone to assist her." But the teenager says he was just acting instinctively. Patrick said: "I thought I was just doing what anyone else would do."
Do youknowotherpeoplewhotookrisk to safeothers life? Whatis an altruism?
Altruism is when one helps another person for no reward, and even at some cost to oneself. This is the case in the story of Patrick Morgan.
Evolutionary explanations of altruism Kin selection theory predicts that the degree of altruism depends on the number of genes shared by individuals. The closer the relationship between the helper and those being helped, the greater the chance for altruistic behaviour. This has been supported by a number of empirical studies with animals.
Is altruistic behaviour selfish? Can you give an example of Kin selection theory?
Evolutionary explanations of altruism Reciprocal altruism theory is an attempt to explain the evolution of altruism among individuals who are not related. The theory postulates that it may benefit an animal to behave altruistically if there is an expectation that the favour will be returned in the future. In other words, you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours.
The prisoner'sdilemma Axelrod and Hamilton 1981) A and B maycooperateordefect
To whatextentis „reciprocalaltruismtheory” part of politics? Canyougiveanexample of reciprocalaltruismtheory?
Eksperiment - Lernerand Lichtman (1968) carried out an experiment where participants were assigned to workin pairs. For each pair, one of the participants was a confederate—thatis, they were playing a role, working in conjunction with theresearcher. Participants were told that one of them would be thelearner—who would receive electrical shocks, and the other would bethe control. Participants then drew from a hat what they thought wasa random number, but in fact the confederate always received the roleof “learner”. When the confederate acted distressed, most of the trueparticipants behaved altruistically and took over the role of learner. How can this be explained?
Psychological explanations of altruism Schaller and Cialdini (1988) Negative – state relief model – egoisticmotivesleadus to help othersinbadcircumstancesin order to reducethedistress we experiencefromwatchingthebadsituation. (walk awayinstead of helping – anotherway of reducingdistress)
Psychological explanations of altruism Batson (1981) Theempathy – altruism model: peoplecanexperiencetwotypes of emotionswhentheyseesomeonesuffering. One ispersonaldistress (e.g. anexiety and fear), whichleads to egoistichelping A secondisempatheticconcern (e.g. symphaty, compassion) whichleads to altruisticbehaviour.
Are you a volunteer? What is your motivation in helping? Why do you help other people? Do your reasons make a difference to the ones you help? And to yourself?
Bystandereffect Kitty Genovesewas stabbed to death in 1964 by a serial rapist and murderer.According to newspaper , the attack lasted for at least a half an hour. Theyclaimed that 38 witnesses watched the stabbings and failed to intervene or even contact the police.
Bystander effect Hugo Alfredo Tale-Yaxwas stabbed to death in April 2010, after coming to the aid of a woman who was being attacked. At least twenty people walked by while he lay dying on a sidewalk in Queens
Bystander effect Simone Back on Christmas Day 2010 (Brighton UK), posted on her Facebook status, "Took all my pills be dead soon bye bye everyone.” Several of her 1,082 friends commented on her status but none of them called for emergency services or went to check on her personally. Some of her friends lived within walking distance of Simone's flat. Her body was discovered by police the next day.
How canyouexplainthatnobodyhelp in thosethreesituations?
Bystander effect Latane and Darleyfound (based on researches) two most commonfactorswhich influence whetherpeople will help or not. Theseare: Diffusion of resposibility Informationalsocialinfluance
Diffusion of responsibility Whenseveralpeoplewatch an incidentlike Kitty Genovesemurder, theythinkthatsomebodyelsecan, should, and probably will offerassistance. Peoplearemorelikely to help whentheyaretheonly person available to offerassistance. (Latane and Darley 1968)
Informational social influance Whenin a group, peoplelook to others to knowhow to react. (Latane and Darley 1969)