• What do you think: how will mother and baby react if they would be separated from each other?
Attachment and its role in the subsequent formation of relationship• Most babies of mamals: – Seek proximity to the mother – React with anxiety to separation from her This is the essence of attachment behaviourAnd it supports the idea of an evolutionary basis of attachment
John Bowlby • John Bowlby was a British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. • He is best known for his work on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mothers. • He worked with children who had been separeted from their parents during the Second World War.John Bowlby(1907 – 1990)
According to Bowlby• Attachment is an innate pattern and it help infant to survive• Close relationship between the child and the mother is a basic biological need
• Bolwby observed monkey babies reacted with distress and screams when separeted from their mother for a brief period.• The mother and the baby called for each other durning the separation period, and the mother constantly tried to get her baby back.
• What encourage parents to take care of their baby?
What encourage parents to take care of their baby? • Smiling, babbling, grasping and crying are genetically based social signals, which encourage parents to care and interact with their baby.
A desire to be near the person Returning the attachment figure the baby is attached to – for comfort and safety in the PROXIMITY MAINTENANCE face of distress – SAFE HAVEN ATTACHMENT BEHAVIOUR Reacting with distress when Attachment figure acting as aseparated from the attachment SECURE BASE for the childfigure – SEPARATION DISTRESS
• Attachment develops until around the age of SEVEN MONTHS.• Babies show SEPARATION ANXIETY when the primary attachment figure leaves the child.• Why in the age of seven month? – probably it is connected with brain maturation and general cognitive development – object permanence – maybe with crawling
Interactional synchrony• A number of research studies have shown that maternal sensitivity is important in the development of attachment.• If the caregiver does not respond to the child`s signals, the child become very upset.• interactional synchrony – is when baby and mother imitate each other movements and emotional expression.
Ideas about how the self and others relate INTERNAL WORKING MODELIdeas about attachmentfigures and what can be Ideas about the self expected from them
Internal working model• Infants develop working models of the world based on the development of a secure and attached relationship with a parent or caregiver.• In such a situation, the child will develop a working model of the world as safe and secure.• If there are problems in the relationship with the infant and caregivers, the working models developed may be negative - the world may come to be seen as dangerous, frightening, unpredictable, etc.• As children get older, their working model changes to incorporate both the new ways that they are treated and their new abilities to understand the world.
Internal working model• If child experiences love and affection, he or she come to see himself or herself as worthy of love and attention.• Children who have experienced neglected or rejection may develop a working model on denial (not on reality). In order to protect the idea that their parents do not love them, they may think that they deserve the neglect.
Mary Ainsworth and the strange situation paradigm• Mary Ainsworth was a US psychologist who tested empirically Bowlby’s concept of attachment.• Her study: strange situation paradigm is still used in Mary Ainsworth research on attachment. (1913 – 1999)
The Strange Situation Procedure1. Observer takes mother and infant into room, then leaves (30 secs).2. Mother allows baby to explore – stimulates play if necessary (3 mins)3. Stranger enters room.4. Stranger silent (1 min).5. Stranger converses with mother (1min).6. Stranger approaches baby (1 min) – then mother leaves.7. Mother enters, greets and picks up baby.
TYPES of ATTACHMENT• Type A – avoidant (20%)• The child shows apparent indifference when mother leaves the room, and avoids contact with her when she returns.• The child is apparently not afraid of strangers.• The mothers of type A children tend to be insensitive and do not seem interested in their child’s play.
TYPES of ATTACHMENT• Type B – securely attached (70%)• The child is upset when the mother leaves the room, and is happy when she returns.• The child is easily comforted by the mother.• The mothers of type B children are very interested in their child’s play, and actively support play and communicate with their children during the play.
TYPES of ATTACHMENT• Type C – ambivalent (10%)• The child is very upset when the mother leaves the room, and she has difficulty to calm down the child when she returns.• The child is seek comfort but at the same time rejects it.• The mothers of type C children tend to be inconsistent in their reactions to the children.
TYPES of ATTACHMENT• A supplementary attachment type suggested by Main and Solomon (1986) has now been included.• Type D – insecure-disorganised/ disorientated attachment• The child shows no particular reaction when the mother leaves or returns.• This attachment type has been associated with childhood abuse and chronically depressed mothers.
Factors to be consider in attachment1. PARENTAL SENSITIVITY.2. INFANT`S TEMPERAMENT – differences in children’s temperament influence how the enviroment interacts with them. Jerome Kagan (1982) claims that it is more a matter of temperament than attachment that is measured in the strange situation paradigm.3. FAMILY CIRCIUMSTANCES – some families may not be capable of providing the necessary support to the child: abusive families or social conditions.
• Most of studies of attachmanet were carried out in western world. Do you think that those three types of attachment are similar distributed cross-culturaly? page 198
• How do you evaluate the strange situation paradigm, answer these questions:1. Does this study really measure (only) attachment?2. Do you think that such a situations happen in real life?3. Is it ethical?
• Read „be a thinker” – page 199 and answer these questions:1. To what extent could the Ik tribe be seen as contradicting Bowlby’s theory of attachment?2. Why do most people not consider the Ik’s attitude to infants as normal?3. Is it possible to argue that culture overrides biology on the basis of this study?
The role of early attachment and subsequent formation of relationship• Hazan and Shaver (1987) – explore Bowlby’s attachment theory in relation to adult romantic relationship.• Transleted Ainsworth’s three attachment styles – make them suitable for adult relationship LOVE QUIZ to local newspaper (page 200)• First study: A self selected sample of 620 people, aged 14 – 82: 205 males and 415 females.• Secend study: sample of 108 college students• Researchers also asked participants to describe their parents’ parenting style.
The role of early attachment and subsequent formation of relationship FINDINGS:• Securly attached people (60%) said that their parents were readily available, attentive and responsive.• Anxious – avoidant people (20%) said that their parents were unresponsive, rejecting and innattentive.• Anxious – ambivalent people (20%) said that their parents were anxious, only sometimes responsive, and generally out of step with their needs.
The role of early attachment and subsequent formation of relationship CONCLUSIONS:• Romantic attachment serves as a secure base against the challanges of life, and involves mutual attachment, care giving and sex. EVALUATION:1. Was this study ethical?2. Was the sample gathered in a good way?3. Do you see any bias in this study?4. Can we generalise conclusions from this study to whole populations of people around the world?
Potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development• What are the consequences of deprivation or trauma in early life?• A number of longitudinal studies have demonstrated that some children are resilient.• Resilience refers to ability to recover or bounce back fom even very stressful events.• Research shows that the consequences of trauma or deprivation are to large extent dependent on the nature of subsequent life experiences.
Potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development• Rutter et al. (2001) conducted a longitudinal follow-up on a group of Romanian, institution – reared children who were adopted into UK• They copmared them to the children who had been raised in UK institutions and subsequently adopted.
Potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development• Rutter found that there was a significant differences in three areas:1. Large number of the Romanian adoptees had attachment problems. Children didn’t make a clear differentiation between adults, (go with stranger).2. There was a marked difference in measures of overactivity and cognitive impairment.3. Romanian children showed „near autistic features”.
Potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development• The age of adoption was important, there were significantly more problems with children who left Romania when they were older.• Reserchers also found children who had endured the most long- lasting deprivation to be normally functioning by the age of six.• Negative life events such as physicsal and sexual abuse have been associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders, also Rutter’s findings show that it is possible to recover from adversities of a deprived childhood.
Resilience• Should be seen as POSITIVE ADAPTATION, despite the experience of risk• Its important to differentiate between specific risk factors and specific outcomes for exemple: o How cognitive development relates to educational achievments, or o How attachment problems relate to emotional development
Why some children developpsychopatology or become criminalist?
Ther might be a number of risk factors which hindernormal development:• Parental conflict,• Collapse of the family, poverty,• Parrental drug abuse,• Social isolation,• Criminal family background,• Belonging to a minority group.
There are also a number of potential protective factors:• Intelligence,• Sociability,• Special talents,• Close relationship to a parent or parental substitute,• Authoritative parents,• Socio-economic resources,• Good school,• Relationship with pro-social adults.
Emmy Werner study (2005)• Kauiai Longitudinal Study- Multiracial cohort of 698 children, born on the Hawaiian island of Kauai• Children at ages 1, 2, 10, 18 and 40 years• 30% had experienced a number of risk factors: – They had been born and raised in poverty – There were complications around birth Emmy Werner – The family had many problems – They were reared by mothers with hardly any education• 2/3 of the children who had experienced four or more of these factors, and by the age of 2 years had developed learning and behaviours problems by the age of 10, or had delinquency records and/or mental problems by the age of 18• 1/3 of the children didn’y show this pattern , they had developed into competent, confident, and caring adults, who succeeded in their school, home, and social lives – protective factors
Be a critical thinker:1. Describe the findings of the study by Werner (2005). Can they be generalized?1. Which risk factors were identified?2. Why was a longtitudinal design chosen?
• Read Strategies to build resilience (page 204).• What programs are conducted in order to build resilience in children?
Be reflective and caring• It is common policy in most countries to remove children at risk from their family and put them in foster care or institutions.• Discuss if this is to the benefit of the children.• If you were a politician, what would you suggest to help children at risk?