Cognitive development
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Cognitive development

on

  • 3,580 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,580
Views on SlideShare
3,498
Embed Views
82

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
456
Comments
1

5 Embeds 82

http://www.ib2lotarnow.pl 32
http://ib2lotarnow.pl 27
http://consructivism4kvprimary.wordpress.com 18
https://blackboard.forsythtech.edu 4
http://ib.pedagog.net.pl 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • good
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Cognitive development Cognitive development Presentation Transcript

  •  
  •  
  • DEVELOPMENT
    • MATURATION – the unfolding of behaviours that are genetically programmed
    • LEARNING – systematic changes in behaviour, thoughts and feelings as a result of experiences
  • What is the most important factor in development?
    • GENETIC PREDISPOSITION
    • or
    • ENVIROMENT
    • Nature or nurture
  •  
  • Life Span Development
    • Stage Approximate Age
    • Prenatal Conception to birth
    • Infancy Birth to 18 months
    • Early childhood 18 mo. to 6 years
    • Middle childhood 6-12 years
    • Adolescence 12-20 years
    • Young adulthood 20-45 years
    • Middle adulthood 45-60 years
    • Later adulthood from 60 years
  • Research methodologies in developmental psychology
  • Research methodologies in developmental psychology
    • Limitations of longitudinal reserach:
    • Time-consuming
    • Participants may leave the study
    • Limitations of cross-sectional research
    • We can’t be absolutely sure that the differences found are not due to participant variables
  •  
    • Acording to Piaget children are „ little scientist ” – who come to know about world by physical and mental manipulation of objects.
  • JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
    • SCHEMAS – mental representation of how to deal with the world. Schemas may develop or change. Child’s experiences are based on limited innate repertoire of schemas: sucking, reaching, grasping which are modified as a resulat of experience – this is ADAPTATION .
    • ADAPTATION:
    • ASSIMILATION – new information can be integrated into existing cognitive schemas.
    • ACCOMODATION – existing cognitive schemas have to be altered because they no longer match new experiences.
  • Try to draw the shape , which you will see for a while. You have 30 seconds to look at it.
  •  
  • ASSIMILATION MAMMALS ZEBRA
  • ASSIMILATION MAMMALS ZEBRA IS A MAMMAL
  • ACCOMMODATION HORSES
  • ACCOMMODATION THIS IS ZEBRA
  • ACCOMMODATION HORSES ZEBRA
    • Work in pairs. Choose the person with whom you’ve never work with.
    • Give examples of two processes of adaptation: assimilation and accomodation .
    • Create a story (if you create unusual, surprising and even overdraw story you will never forget those two processes :)
  • Piaget claimed that:
    • children’s intelligence progresses through a series of cognitive stages
    • Each stage different in quality from the next
    • Each stage is described as changes in logic of thinking
  • PIAGET'S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
    • THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
    • THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
    • THE CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE
    • THE FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
  • THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (AGE 0-2 YEARS)
    • Newborn baby relies on innate reflexes
    • K nowledge of the world is gain by sensory perceptions and motor activities
    • Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimul ation
    • Children use skills and abilities they were born with, such as looking, sucking, grasping, and listening, to learn more about the environment
  • Object permanence
    • Object permanence develop at around 8 months old
    • This is an idea that object exist even when they can no longer be seen
    • 4 months old will not look for an object if it is hidden
    • 8 – 12 months child will keep looking for the object in the place where he or she found it the last time
  • THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (AGE 2 – 7 YEARS)
    • Child learns to speak
    • Child become capable of thinking in symbolic terms – they can form ideas but they can only focus on one aspect of object, they can’t transform knowledge from one situation to another
    • EGOCENTRISM – children can’t understand that others might have another point of view, they see world only from their own point of view – this is a cognitive limitation
  • The three-mountain task (Piaget and Inhelder 1956)
    • Classic demontration of egocentrism
    • From around nine years children can adopt the doll’s perspectiv
  • Hughes’ task (1975)
    • Children are able to take another person perspective if material is more familiar
    • Nearly all children from age of three and a half to five could perform the task (more meanigful and interesting)
  • THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (AGE 2 – 7 YEARS)
    • Children can not understand the concept of CONSERVATION – that is, that physical properties remain the same even if the object’s appearance is changed.
    • Children can not mentally reverse the operation, they focus on the most visible change – they cannot conserve the property of liquid by mentally reversing the pouring.
  •  
  • Li et al. (1999)
    • Tested 486 Chinese primary children on the classic liquid conservation task
    • Resercher found that children from schools with a good academic reputation generally achieved better results than those less privileged schools
    • Diffrences in cognitive development
    • are not only related to brain maturation,
    • but also to quality of education
    • Piaget didn’t include this in his theory
  •  
    • Look critically at Piaget’s three mountain task. Can you imagine countries where such a task would be difficult to deal with? Why?
    • To what extent does a study like Li et al. (1999), using Chinese children in primary school, contradict the claim of cultural bias?
  • THE CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (AGE 7-12 YEARS)
    • Children begin school education
    • They start to use some rules of logic in problem solving – but only on concrete task
    • Task: „House A is more expensive than House B. Hause C is more expensive than House A. Which is the most expensive?” – to solve this problem, children need some images
    • Understanding of CONSERVATION
  • THE FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (FROM AGE 12)
    • Ability to use abstract reasoning and logic
    • People can mentally manipulate ideas, concepts and numbers
    • Hypothetical thinking
  • EVALUATION of PIAGET’S THEORY
    • Very comprehensive
    • Very influential (expecially in primary schools)
    • Child-centered learning – children learn best when the teacher sets up situations where the child can discover ideas for themselves
    • Children are active in searching out knowledge
    • Piaget suggested research methods to investigate the way children think
  • EVALUATION of PIAGET’S THEORY
    • Piaget’s sample was small – his own children
    • Cultural bias
    • Piaget’s underestimated children’s cognitive capabilities
    • Baillargeon and DeVos (1991) argue that object permanence appears in three month babies – children are aware that objects they cannot see continue to exist
    • Infants look longer at the „impossible event”
    • Piaget underestimated the role of social learning, he didn’t pay to much attention to the social and cultural context of cognitive development
  • Baillargeon and DeVos (1991) argue that object permanence appears in three-month babies
  • Лев Семёнович Выготский, 17 November 1896 - 10 June 1934
  • VYGOTSKY SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
    • It`s not possible to describe the process by which children acquire knowledge without taking into account the child`s social enviroment or culture.
    • Culture teaches WHAT and HOW to think .
  • Child`s cognitive development is based on:
    • INTERACTION WITH OTHER PEOPLE
    • CULTURAL TOOLS
    • Knowledge is transfered via imitation, instruction or collaborative learning
    • Language is the primary form of interaction that adults use to transmit the knowledge that exist in the culture,
    • and as the child grows older, language is the most importa nt tool of learning
  •  
  • VYGOTSKY SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
    • An important elemnt in sociocultural theory is ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT , which refres to differences between what a child can do on his/her own and what he/she can accomplish with help.
    • SCAFFOLDING - a child can increase in competence if he/she receive assitance to perform task that is just slightly beyond her/his current ability
  • ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT WHAT I CAN NOT DO WHAT I CAN DO WITH HELP WHAT I CAN DO ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Vygotski versus Piaget
    • They both agreed that children actively construct knowledge and children learn best if new knowlegde is related to existing knowledge and abilities.
    • Wygotski claimed that most of what children learn comes from the culture in which they live, so it is wrong to focus on the child in isolation – he suggested COOPERATIVE LEARNING instead of child – centered learning.
  • SKILL DEVELOPMENT OFTEN OCCURES BEST WHEN CHILDREN COLLABORATE WITH MORE SKILLED OTHERS
  • Consider following:
    • How could a culture influence what a child should learn?
    • Give some exemples from your own culture of „tools” you need to learn to use. Why is that and what does this say about your culture?
    • Do people need to go to school to learn what is necessery in their culture? Why or why not?