Buildingtheories<br />Prepared by: Paula Pilarska<br />Based on: Psychology Course Companion; John Crane, Jette Hannibal<br />
THEORY<br />Theory– isanexplanataion for a psychologicalphenomenon. <br />It is a statmentused to summarize, organize, and explainobservations. <br />Theorycanalso be used to makepredictionsaboutobservedevents.<br />Theoriesarebuilt on cencepts – whicharehypothetical, sotheymust be defined and afterthattheymust be tested.<br />
THEORY<br />Theories in psychologyae not likelaws in natural science. <br />ThetheoreticalexplenationsarePROBABLEratherthancertain, and thereforetheyarealways open to somedegree of doubt. <br />Thatiswhytheoriesmust be evaluate, and psychologistsmustexaminetheoriesstrangths and limitations. <br />
Self-efficacy<br />Self-efficacy– issomeone’sbeliefthatshe / he willsucceed in something, and itisbased on previousexperiences.<br />Albert Bandura theorypredictsthatself-efficacywilldetermineifand how hard someonewilltry to do a certainthing.<br />Albert Bandura<br />born 4.12.1925<br />
CarolDweck’stheory<br />showsimportance of people’smindsetin explainingsuccess<br />peopletend to thinkthatintelligenceor talent arefixedorchangeable<br />CarolDweck<br />born 17.10.1946)<br />
CarolDweck’stheory<br />People with fixedmindsetbelievedthatinteligenceisstatic (avoidchallanges, giveup, effordis a waste of time, ignoreusefulnegativefeedback, threatened by the success of others)<br />People with growthmindsetbelievedthatinteligencecan be developed (aren’tafraid of challenges, effortis a part of process of mastering, learn from criticism, findinspiration in the success of others)<br />
Doesthistheorycorrespond to real life? Try to evaluate the theoryusingsome of yourownexperiences.<br />To whatextentdoesthistheoryofferinsightintopossibledifferences in terms of whatpeopleachieve in education, sport or the arts?<br />
CarolDweckand Lisa Blackwell’sexperiment (2007)<br />2 groups – lowachievingstudentsaged 12-13<br />Both groupshad a lecture: introducing to the brain and studyskills<br />First group – neutralsession on memory<br />Secendgroup – howintelligencecan be developed by exercise<br />Whichgroupimprove in maths?<br />
How canyouuseresearch to improve real-life situations?<br />
CRITICAL THINKING<br />Thisisskillwhichyoucanlearn<br />Critical – doesn’tmean to be negative<br />Whenscientistsreadanarticleaboutnewexperimenttheyhave to assessifconlclusions (interpretations) weresupported by data <br />
CRITICAL THINKER profile:<br />Evaluates available evidence and relates it to a theory oropinion.<br />Considers alternative interpretations.<br />Avoids emotional reasoning.<br />Does not jump to oversimplified conclusions.<br />Knows that plausible conclusions are based on evidence.<br />Is willing to reassess conclusions if new information appears.<br />Is able to tolerate some uncertainty.<br />
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