THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS: “THERECONQUEST” María Jesús Campos learningfromhistory.wikispaces.com
The Reconquest: Evolution 8th-9th centuries: Muslim Invasion; Christian Resistance; Foundation of the first Christian States. 10th century: The Christian Kingdom’s reacherd as far as River Duero. 12th century: The Christian Kingdom’s reached as far as River Tajo 13th century: 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Reconquest is almost finished. 15th century: 1492 Conquest of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada. The Reconquest is over.
8TH AND 9TH CENTURIES: MUSLIM INVASION,CHRISTIAN RESISTANCE, THE FOUNDING OF THECHRISTIAN KINGDOMS In the year 711, the Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula and defeated the Visigoth Kingdom of Toledo. The Muslims conquered almost the entire Iberia Peninsula, except the northern ranges, and called it Al- Andalus. Only the mountains in Cantabria, Asturias and the Pyrenees remained free of Muslims. Many Visigoth nobles took refuge there while the rest of the population remained in Al-Andalus.
Between the 8th and 9th centuries, the Visigoth refugees founded different Christian states and attempted a Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The first Christian states were: The Kingdom of Asturias and Leon The County of Castile The Kingdom of Navarre The Aragonese Counties The Catalan Counties
THE KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS AND LEON Founded in the mountain ranges of Cantabria when Don Pelayo, a visigoth nobleman, was chosen king after defeating the Muslims at the Battle of Covadonga (722). The court was established in Oviedo. They expanded by conquering lands in Galicia and Alava and moving south until reaching River Duero. Its most important king was Alfonso III that conquered a lot of territories, moved the capital to Leon and changed the name of the kingdom to the Kingdom of Leon.
THE COUNTY OF CASTILE This territory belonged to the Kingdom of Leon until the first half of the 10th century when Muslims attacked the Kingodm and Count Fernan Gonzaled declared the County of Castile independent. It expanded and at the beginning of the 11th century it became the Kingdom of Castile.
THE KINGDOM OF NAVARRE When the Carolingian Empire disappeared, the Spanish March dissolved. As a result, the Western part of the Pyrenees was transformed into the Kingdom of Navarre by the Jimena dynasty. Navarre also comprised La Rioja and Alava. King Sancho III, expanded the kingdom by conquering the Aragonese Counties, Castile and part of the kingodm of Leon. But after his death, most of these territories were lost.
THE ARAGONESE COUNTIES They were also a part of the Carolingian’s Spanish March. They belonged to the Kingdom of Navarre until the death of King Sancho III, the Great, when Count Aznar Galindo declared its independence.
THE CATALAN COUNTIES Were also a part of the Carolingian’s Spanish March. After the March dissolved, they became independent under Wilfred, the Hairy.
10TH CENTURY: THE RECONQUEST REACHES ASFAR AS RIVER DUERO At the beginning of the 10th century, the Christian Kingdoms had gained control over one-third of the Iberian Peninsula conquering territories of Al- Andalus. Willing to obtain support from the European Kingdoms, these Christian Kingdoms presented their conquering of territories as a reconquest of the Visigoth’s territories that had been invaded by the Muslims.
The Reconquest involved the occupation of territories advancing south. In the 10th century, Christians Kingdoms reached as far as River Duero. It was easy because the land was desserted. Groups of peasants colonized those lands forming small villages in a process called repopulation.
12TH CENTURY: THE RECONQUEST REACHES ASFAR SOUTH AS RIVER TAJO During the 12th century, Christian Kingdoms reached as far as River Tajo taking advantage of the dissolution of the Caliphate of Cordoba and the taifas’ period. To avoid attacks, the Taifas’ kings paid parias to the Christian Kings, thereby strengthening them.
The Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Leon jointly set up the Crown of Castile and Leon which soon became the most powerful kingdom. The County of Portugal, which was part of the Crown of Castile, became independent as the Kingdom of Portugal.
The Kingdom of Aragon and the Catalan Counties, jointly set up the Crown of Aragon. Its first king, Alfonso I, the battler, set up the border in the Ebro valley. The Kingdom of Navarre could not expand itself because it was trapped between the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon.
Conquered territories were divided into areas dominated by a city. The Kings gave these cities privileges through fueros to encourage repopulation. However, most of the land remained underpopulated so the kings gave them to military order which created large fiefs.
13TH CENTURY: THE RECONQUEST ALMOSTFINISHES During the 13th century, after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212) the Reconquest continued to progress in the South. The Christian Kingdoms conquered almost all Al- Andalus. Only the Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada remained in existence until the year 1492.
THE CROWN OF CASTILE Former Crown of Castile and Leon. It was a unified state with the same institutions and laws governing the whole territory. They conquered Andalucía and Murcia. Its economy was based on agriculture and stockbreeding. The high quality of merino sheep was exported and used in textile industry strenghthening Castile’s economy.
THE CROWN OF ARAGON It conquered Valencia and the Balearic Islands. With no more territories to conquer in the Iberian Peninsula they expanded through the Mediterranean Sea conquering Sicily, Sardinia and Naples. Although the Crown of Aragon was a unified state, each territory (Aragon, Valencia and Cataluña) kept its own institutions, customs and laws. The king of Aragon could not establish new laws or taxes without the approval of the Cortes (representatives of the population) of each territory. Its economy was based on agriculture and trade throughtout the Mediterranean Sea.
THE KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL THE KINGDOM OF NAVARRE It conquered the It could not expand as it was Algarve, in the south, trapped between the Crown of remaining Castile and the Crown of independent. Aragon.
15TH CENTURY: THE RECONQUEST IS OVER(1492) During the 15th century, Isabel I, queen of Castile, and Ferdinand, king of Aragon, were married. They were known as the Catholic Monarchs. Although the Crowns of Castile and Aragon would be ruled by them, each crown remained independent and kept its own laws, institutions and customs. In the year 1492, the Catholic Monarchs conquered the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, thereby finishing the