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Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO
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Justice and Agency Graduation Studio Research Portfolio _ Nicholas HO

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This is the portfolio dictating my research work for the Justice and Agency Graduation Studio 2013 in UNSW Masters of Architecture Design Studio Course.

This is the portfolio dictating my research work for the Justice and Agency Graduation Studio 2013 in UNSW Masters of Architecture Design Studio Course.

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  • 1. Agency + City MACQUARIE STREET JUSTICE PRECINCT 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. Table of contents Design stance 4-6 Design Brief 7-15 Site Analysis 16-18 Readings 19-28 Justice settings 29-64 Precedents 65-76 Diagrams and Sketches 77-97 3
  • 4. Design Stance SUSTAINABILITY CULTURAL SOCIAL HISTORICAL 4
  • 5. Heritage buildings are not built without a logic, it embodies the cultural, historical and social political ideas and forces of the time that it is built, becoming a tool that tells a tale of its time. The Sydney 2030 calls for the Police museum to be kept as it is a part of the cultural ribbon, therefore it is wise to celebrate its presence within our site and at the same time take advantage of this to enhance our building with its existence. Justice and law are meant to protect people, however, people distanced themselves from justice due to fear. This fear is not unreasonable as it is in human nature to fear the unknown, therefore there is a need to bring the people closer, to learn, to get to know about law, and to lead law into their daily lives. 5
  • 6. The buildings take a part of the land away as its own from nature and the people, therefore it is important to find ways that the building could offer what it has taken back to nature and the people living in the city that is sitting in. The buildings take a part of the land away as its own from nature and the people, therefore it is important to find ways that the building could offer what it has taken back to nature and the people living in the city that is sitting in. 6
  • 7. Design Brief THERAPY + PREVENTION + INQUISITION + EDUCATION +PRESERVATION 7
  • 8. Coroner’s Court + Forensics Labs Although there is currently a Coroner’s court in Glebe, it does not have a dedicated Criminal Forensics Pathology lab, it relies on outsourcing from expertise from other labs such as the Medical Forensics Lab Adjacent to the building and other forensics lab located else where. Although the Parramatta Police Station has a Crime Scene Operations Branch, but the 23 facilities that facilitates these investigations are scattered across the state. A common source of anguish for family members of the deceased concerns the considerable time that can elapse between when a death is first discovered and when coroner’s findings are made. Delays can begin with forensic medical examinations and then continue at the police investigation stage. A Law Reform Commission of Western Australia study showed that between 2004 and 2010, the average time for a death in prison to reach inquest actually increased by 10 months, to 31 months. 8
  • 9. The preventative aspect of investigations and inquests is also consistent with their therapeutic jurisprudence approach, in which the aim is to help with the healing process for the family and others involved in the inquest, together with the broader community and society. The linked goals of prevention and healing are also associated with other issues in the public interest, such as truth, accountability and fairness. Therefore opportunity to create a precinct that that can hold all these facilities in one rose. This will not only make increase the speed of investigation of criminal cases, but also decrease administration time, and paper between different parties. 9
  • 10. Integrating the Justice and Police Museum of The Justice and Police Museum has always been a cultural icon of Justice in Sydney since it is established as the water police station. It is now listed as cultural heritage and is included in the Cultural ribbon in the Sydney 2030 Vision. Even now Museum evoke and represents the dark past of the Iron Hammer of Justice in Sydney, showing all the harsh side of Justice within when corporal and capital punishment is still implemented. However ,one of the other major displays within the police and justice museum were records of past criminal cases. The display shows different historical records of criminal cases in the bushranging past, the murder weapons that are related to these cases, the portraits of the people involved, personal possessions death masks and images. It also shows many more display that are more recent in the history captured by 20th century cameras, images and photographs in the from crime scene, portraits and mush shots, records of crash, fire, robbery, murder and all kinds of murder investigations. 10
  • 11. These aspects of the museum not only support the existence of the coroner’s court, it also created a possibility to expand the museum beyond what is available now. Educating the Public Since the most important aspect of coroner inquisition is to discover and identify any cause of danger to the health and safety to the public, the museum can be expanded to display these findings to educate and warn the public of these issues. Bringing the Public closer to the Law Justice and law are meant to protect people, however, people distanced themselves from justice due to fear. This fear is not unreasonable as it is in human nature to fear the unknown, therefore there is a need to bring the people closer, to learn, to get to know about law, and to lead law into their daily lives. 11
  • 12. Integrating the museum with the precinct provided an opportunity to arrange tours to the court and forensics labs attached. This not only solves the problem of the lack of audience in the public gallery in hearings; it also allows the public to learn about Justice, shortening the distance between Justice and the Public. 12
  • 13. Coroner + Therapeutic The main role of coroners are not to investigate suspicious deaths that may be related to criminal cases (although they do get them), the main role of coroners and forensic pathologists are to investigate and determine the case of unexplained natural deaths, and thereby provide countermeasure to these type of cause of deaths to enhance and "preserve" the well being of the public community by "preventing" other similar cases from happening. These findings also bear important relevance to the next of kin of the deceased one, helping them in their grief - therefore there is a Therapeutic side of this institute and it may be wise to include a Therapeutic section in the building. At the same time, forensics pathologists that are new to their job may be susceptible to emotional attachments to their subjects and therefore be emotionally stressed in on their job and would also benefit from the Therapeutic counselling services too. 13
  • 14. Conclusion + Program The aim of the Justice building is to enhance the quality and speed of Coronial Investigations in New South Wales. Therefore there is a need for the Coroner’s court to be attached to Forensics Facilities to shorten the time of processing documents and communications between the coroner and the Forensics Pathologists. The Museum could act as an important catalyst and medium between the Public and the awareness on public health and safety and Justice itself. This can be achieved by making the Museum a part of the building program. To help the loved ones of the deceased grieve, and to help some of the forensic pathologists in their work, therapeutic facilities can be helpful. At the same time the facilities could also be opened to public use. 14
  • 15. Therefore the program that should be included in the building are: ◦ 1. Coroner’s Court ◦ 2. Forensics Facilities ◦ 3. Therapeutic Facilities ◦ 4. Integrated Justice and Police Museum 15
  • 16. Site Analysis 16
  • 17. Site analysis Site Constraints Street frontage height should be approximately 1:1 with a minimum of 20m and maximum of 45 meters Maximum building height should be 55meters according to the LEP to avoid overshadowing Macquarie Street is listed within the Heritage Street Front list, therefore it is important to preserve the façade value of Macquarie Street front. 17
  • 18. 18 According to the DCP our site is within a special character area as show, the setbacks are 10 meters from Macquarie Street and 8meters from Albert Street above the building frontage height.
  • 19. Readings IM A GE S O F JU STIC E | D E N N I S E . C U R T I S A N D J U D I T H R E S N I K M E M O RY A N D PLA C E | A S S I , E HE R ITA GE A S A PE D A GO GIC AL R E SO U R CE A N D PLA TF O R M F O R E X PLO R ATIO N IN A R C HITE C TUR AL D E SIGN E D U C ATIO N | M A R I ´ A I N E ´ S L A P A D U L A , C A R O L I N A Q U I R O G A LE GA L A R C HITE CTU RE: JU STIC E , D U E PR O C E SS A N D THE PLA C E O F LA W B Y LIN D A M U LC AHY R E PR E SE NTIN G JU STIC E : IVE N TIO N , C O N TR VERSY A N D R IGHTS IN C ITY - STA TE S A N D D E M O CR ATIC C O U R TRO OMS | J U D I T H R E S N I K A N D D E N N I S C U R T I S R E IN TE RPR ETIN G SU STA IN A B LE A R C HITE CTU RE: THE PLA C E O F TE C HN O LO G Y| S I M O N G U Y , G R A H A M F A R M E R A F U TU R E U N D R E AMED: THE F O R E NSIC PHO TO B E YO N D THE D A R K R OO M, C A SE FILE A N D C O U R TR OO M: M E M ORY, M E D IA TIO N , M U SE O LO GY | C A L E B W I L L I A M S THE R O LE O F THE C O R O N ER | V I C T O R I A N I N S T I T U T E O F F O R E N S I C M E D I C I N E A D A Y IN THE LIF E O F A F O R EN SIC PA THO LO GIST| V I C T O R I A N I N S T I T U T E O F F O R E N S I C M E D I C I N E 19
  • 20. Images of Justice | Dennis E.Curtisand JudithResnik The article illustrated how the image of Justice, mainly – the image of Justicia has been used as a symbol of justice over time since its emergence in the ancient times to the recent modern times. The article illustrated the evolution of the figure of Justicia through history in different culture and age by referencing several paintings, sculpture and scriptures made throughout the ages. This article helped me understand the origins for those symbolism, and provided me a framework of what the sense of Justice should be like by referencing the symbology that were evident and used throughout the ages. However, this article is hard to read and is easy to lose focus after several pages of reading as it touches on many aspects of the evolution and mutation of the images of Justice. Therefore, I will use this part of this article as a framework of my notion of justice. 20
  • 21. Memory and Place| ASSI, E A place holds a memory, a memory of what I was, what it had been, its standpoint in the cultural importance for the community. However, when a buildings replaces the place it often creates a new importance of its own, temporarily removing its importance, simply saying, a new building often takes the place from the people, claiming to be its own. Therefore a building should take a more sensitive approach when occupying a site, it should not fully remove all space from the public. 21
  • 22. Heritage as a pedagogical resource and platform for exploration in architectural design education| Marı´a Ine´s Lapadula,Carolina Quiroga Heritage buildings are not built without a logic, it embodies the cultural, historical and social political ideas and forces of the time that it is built, becoming a story box that tells a tale of its time. The Sydney 2030 calls for the Police museum to be kept as it is a part of the cultural ribbon, therefore it is wise to celebrate its presence within our site and at the same time take advantage of this to enhance our building with its existence. 22
  • 23. LEGAL ARCHITECTURE: JUSTICE, DUE PROCESS AND THE PLACE OF LAW by Linda Mulcahy REPRESENTING JUSTICE: IVENTION, CONTRVERSY AND RIGHTS IN CITY-STATES AND DEMOCRATIC COURTROOMS |Judith Resnik and Dennis Curtis Justice and law are meant to protect people, however, people distanced themselves from justice due to fear. This fear is not unreasonable as it is in human nature to fear the unknown, therefore there is a need to bring the people closer, to learn, to get to know about law, and to lead law into their daily lives. 23
  • 24. Reinterpreting Sustainable Architecture: The Place of Technology| Simon Guy, Graham Farmer Out of the 6 ecologic theories, I have chosen 3 to be the base of my sustainability stance. Eco-Technic: to use sustainable passive and active climate control technologies to control the internal environment to achieve maximum natural daylight and thermal comfort to save energy. Eco-Social: by creating a public space for public use, the design aims to return a part of the land to the public community for social interaction and other activities. Eco-Cultural: the design aims to preserve and enhance the culture and heritage value of the site and its surrounding buildings. The design aims to preserve, integrate and enhance some of the existing buildings fabric assimilating the old and the new and celebrating this marriage at the same time. 24
  • 25. A Future Undreamed: The Forensic Photo Beyond the Darkroom, Case- File and Courtroom: Memory, Mediation, Museology | Caleb Williams The Justice and Police Museum enabled the public to come close in contact with historic crime scenes and information on important inquests in a pictorial form in several exhibitions. This “re-representation” of historic crime scenes and inquests encourages critical discussions, creative speculation, and historic learning. This kind of exhibitions also educates the public on some of the coroners findings such as the Asbestos incidents or other preventable cause of deaths, further enhancing the implementation of ideas on public health and safety to the community. 25
  • 26. The Role of the Coroner | Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine "Many people think that the Coroner is largely involved in the investigation of suspicious deaths that may have a criminal background such as suspected murders. This is NOT the case. Homicide investigations form a very small part of the work of Coroners perhaps only around 1% of the deaths they investigate. The other 99% of cases reported to a Coroner involve unexplained natural deaths and deaths suspected to be from direct or indirect trauma." "the results that we find are very relevant to the next of kin, and in helping them in their grief" "sometimes our findings are directly related in a clinical sense to their next of kin" "When I first started my role, it take some time to get used to..... I sometimes think about things when I get home" - the Forensics Pathologists might need therapeutic assistance too 26
  • 27. A day in the Life of a Forensic Pathologist| VictorianInstituteof Forensic Medicine forensics pathologist: ".....my job is to find out the cause of death of a person, and what that death mean to the community....." " ...identify the patterns and hazards in the community that can be prevented in the future, this result wold then be recommended to the coroner, and then the coroner would then compare it to other deaths so the coroner can come up with a recommendation that might be put in place to prevent such deaths in the future." "......It can be said that, part of the role of a forensic pathologist is to be a public health specialist...." ".... we get to work with families to help them understand what happened when their loved one died...." 27
  • 28. Bibliography Willaim. Caleb, A Future Undreamed: The Forensic Photo Beyond the Darkroom, Case-File and Courtroom: Memory, Mediation, Museology, Law Text Culture Vol 13 20090, page 164-186 María Inés Lapadula & Carolina Quiroga (2012): Heritage as a pedagogical resource and platform for exploration in architectural design education, The Journal of Architecture, 17:4, 591-607 Dennis E. Curtis and Judith Resnik, Images of Justice, The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 96, No. 8 (Jul., 1987), pp. 1727-1772 Linda Mulcahy, LEGAL ARCHITECTURE: JUSTICE, DUE PROCESS AND THE PLACE OF LAW, Oxford and New York: Routledge, 2011 Judith Resnik and Dennis Curtis, REPRESENTING JUSTICE: IVENTION, CONTRVERSY AND RIGHTS IN CITY-STATES AND DEMOCRATIC COURTROOMS, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2011 Simon Guy, Graham Farmer, Reinterpreting Sustainable Architecture: The Place of Technology, Journal of Architectural Education: Fubuary 2001, pp. 140–148 28
  • 29. Justice Settings HORNSBY LOCAL COURT PARRAMATTA LOCAL COURT PARRAMATTA JUSTICE PRECINCT LAND AND ENVIRONMENT COURT LAW COURTS UNSW CORONERS COURT 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Hornsby Local Court My first ever visit to a justice environment was a trip to Downing centre to file a dispute over a Motor vehicle accident (not my fault) 2 years ago, after a brief security check at the entrance, and such, I moved quickly to do what I was supposed to do here and leave as soon as possible, the only thing I noticed about the building is that, it is much like an office building. The Court that I went to last on the 22 and 23 of April was the Hornsby local court. The building is a storey building built into a slope, with a sublevels. Located just next to the Police station, it at first glance it is fairly intimidating. Due to the fact that this is my first time to this place, a sense of nervousness overcame me as I walked into the vicinity of the building distracting 31
  • 32. me from the general surrounding scenery as I try to work out what procedures is necessary of me before I sit in a hearing. Joining me in the gallery was a wide range of people, at first I was amused by the amount of public listening to the hearings besides me. However as the court proceeds, it was then revealed to me that I am probably the only public listener in the hearing as one by one, the people on the seats stood up and became defendants of different cases one after another. The flows of the court hearings are seamless from case to case, aside from the part when the Magistrate entered the room at the start of the hearing, and everyone stood and bowed to the Magistrate. 32
  • 33. After a case has been dealt with, the lawyers and their clients stood, bowed and left the room, then, the court proceeds to the next case, and the next lawyer and his/her defendant stood up from the gallery and took the place of the last one. There are no docks, no police officers handling defendants, no wigs, no hammers, no jury, just like another day in the office. In fact each hearing was so swift that one could barely tell the start of a case from the end of another. The cases heard are fairly mild, about 4 cases concerning drink driving, 2 cases about individuals fighting, one juvenile case also on fighting, and another is a preliminary hearing on property matters. 33
  • 34. People are also free to come in and leave as they will, in fact, in the whole 2 hours I am in the court, the court has dealt with about 8 cases, I am unable to come up with an exact number, and there are about more than 20 people entering and leaving the courtroom within that period of time. And at a point, a father and son came in and sat beside me, and the father was teaching the son about the what the Magistrate, the lawyers are doing while briefly explaining about the court, the son seems to be less than 10 years old ( this is probably his school assignment or something). 34
  • 35. In general, this court visit gave me a peculiar mix of public and formal feeling, on one side, it is a setting where it is focus on dealing with matters of the law, which just by the wording gives a sense of formality, respect and absolute, on the other hand, it is as it said, it is open to the public. It is in a way, just like an office that deals with the law, and its client are the general public. 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. Parramatta Local court After my first visit to the local court of Hornsby, my second visit to the Parramatta Courthouse feels much less intimidating; the only difference is that Hornsby local court does not have a security check point, whereas the Parramatta Court house has a X-ray scanner located on the podium level. The thing that indicates the entry of the building is the large font located on the top of the entrance doorway, followed after that is like an airport level security check where bags are scanned with an x-ray and I am asked to pass through a metal detector doorway. Maybe it is because I frequently travel (up to 2 times every year) I am used to these kinds of security protocol, I don’t feel intimidated at all, the staffs are also doing their job in a matter of fact thing, it is as if they could care less of what your purpose is in this building, they are just doing their job there, and they are probably happy that there 37
  • 38. are people coming through the scanner, as from my observation, the traffic there is not high at all, on other times the security are just either talking or on their phones playing candy crush. After an inquiry from the registry, it was revealed to me that Parramatta Court takes their break from 1 till 2 pm, leaving me, who each there at half past 12 with only 30 minutes of court time before lunch time, so I hurried to the courtrooms to pick up what left of the hearings. The Parramatta Court rooms are significantly different from the Local Hornsby court; the difference is already evident from the waiting area. The waiting area in the Hornsby local court is a small 4 by 5 meter room serving 2 court, whereas the Parramatta court waiting area is a hallway 6~7 meter wide and runs almost as long as the width of the building 38
  • 39. serving up to 7 court at once, it has about 8 seats for each court room. In conclusion, it feels like the waiting area for an airport. Unlike the cheap and bare walls like the local Hornsby court, the walls of the Parramatta court are lined with stained wooden acoustic panels; the carpet is also a luxurious warm earth color, creating a “executive” or “institutional” look. The moment I open the door to the courtroom, my first thought is that, this is what a court should look like. The colors of the court are just like the lobby, a palette of earth tone brown. There is a dock that is fully enclosed in a glass wall on the side of the courtroom, the the tables are all black wooden tables to make the white documents stand out on the table, and the Justice is sitting on the highest point of the court with a tapestry hanging behind the Justice. 39
  • 40. However, the way the court handle the cases are not too much different from the local courts, the same seamless flow between cases. The only exception to this is the occasional appearance of police officers handling a defendant appearing from the door behind the dock from the opposite room leading the defendant into the dock onto the cold steel chair (one observation I made is that there are more than one seat for the chair in the dock, indicating that there could be more defendants being trialled at once in some cases), and then leading them back to the opposite room once their case had been adjourned. 40
  • 41. After this hearing session finished and we all bowed to the Justice and left the room, I realised that there is another hearing still going on in the court room next door, so I joined it, and the first thing I noticed is that the room is mirrored to the room next to it, the most notable change is the position of the dock which is mirrored to the room next to it. From this it occurred to me that there are multiple layers of circulation to the court house typology. From what I see, there are up to 3 types of entrances: • one for the judge/justice/ magistrate, • one for the general public, lawyers, and some defendants • one that directly enters the dock from a separate circulation, allowing the police to handle the defendants that were in custody that are summoned to court. So I took picture of the fire escape plan 41
  • 42. 42 Level 2 Fire Escape Plan Level 1 Fire Escape Plan
  • 43. 43 Ground Floor Fire Escape Plan
  • 44. So I took picture of the fire escape plan. What I notice from the plans are that the building basically separated into 2 halves, one side are mainly courtrooms, the other half are the circulation and other administrative and interview rooms. The courtrooms are surrounded by a separate circulation for the Justice and also for the defendants that are in police custody. 44
  • 45. Parramatta Justice Precinct The entrance to the trials court is grand and could be prestigious. But it does not done any ornamental features to make it grand, the entrance laid in white stone, a path of white, a sense of justice. The façade is a collage of textures, all its lines in rectilinear motion, conveying a sense of order through various disciplines. Its revolving door not only controls the exit and entrance speed of the people, it also conveys a sense of total control over the situation. Once inside the building, the lobby is a spacious double height space with leather seat chairs scattered on one side, its walls seems to be marble, conveying a sense of professional luxury. Going through, the security, which reminds me of airport security, I am immediately invited to a flight of escalator, as it is the only other element that stands out from the space after the security check point. Resisting the temptation of going straight up, I walked around, and found that the registry is on the right hand side, in a spot that is blinded by the presence of the escalator (which in my opinion is not a good design idea). 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. Aside from this, I found a small kitchenette, equipped with microwave, tap and sink a fridge and microwave over, all of these seem unused and forgotten. There are also a few interview rooms around the escalator, but at this point, I decided to finally take the escalator. To my surprise, the escalator circulation stopped at the second floor, abruptly, into another small space, this is not another lobby, but a waiting space servicing the 2 courts on level 1. According to the explanation from the security guard standing next to the lift, the rest of the floors seem to be only available via elevator access (the elevator does go from ground floor all the way to the 5th floor). Due to the fact that this is the first time I had no choice but to take a lift up to court rooms, a sense of nervousness overcame me as I stepped into the lift. The second level of the courthouse consists of 4 courtrooms, an interview room for each courtroom, a waiting area, and offices and other administrative facilities that are hidden from the public’s view 47
  • 48. (there is a large patch of blacked out area on the fire escape plan that seems to be accessible via electronic security coded door). Natural lighting is available from the long end of each side of the elongated waiting area, it is only a small area, but it is still available. The arrangement of chairs looks like a meeting/ discussion area with chairs facing each other with sometimes a table as a set. The third and fourth floor on the other hand, not only have access to natural light from the ends of the elongated waiting space, since there are only 2 courts on each of these 2 level, these 2 level also get a wall of glass where natural light floods the waiting area. In comparison to the waiting area on the first and second level, the waiting area on third and fourth floor feels much more inviting, instead of a place where you sit to await your fate, it feels like a place where you sit to wait casually waiting for the next case to happen. At 12.55pm I decided to enter the courtroom before the case starts. The entrance to the courtroom consists of a double door, after passing through the threshold of the first door, that instantly after the 48
  • 49. first door closes all noise and sound from the waiting area disappeared, opening the door that leads to the courtroom itself, the door opened with a click and I caught a glimpse of two lawyers equipped with wigs and robe talking before freaking out and closed the door. I thought to myself – this is the real deal. After mustering enough courage, I opened the door entered the courtroom and sat down. To my surprise, the courtroom environment is much more pleasant than I thought it would be, the seats are all cushion padded, the color tone of the materials within the court are all light earth toned, and the public gallery has natural light from a large window on the side (about 2~3 meter in width, full height) providing a food view of the trees canopies of Parramatta, giving an illusion of the building being in the midst of a forest. However, when the court adjourned, the whole situation changed, it is a robbery case. 49
  • 50. The session starts with the “fully equipped” judge entering the room and everyone bowed, followed by a brief introduction of the case concerned by one of the lawyers before the defendant and jury panel was brought in. from the side, 2 large security guards brought the defendant to the dock, which is just a chair with waist height wooden walls surrounding it. The jury panel consist of 10 people from a variety of racial background and age groups, all seated behind a computer screen. After all this setup, the one of the lawyers finally started to carefully explain and illustrate the case, with evidence obtained from the defendants, victims, prosecutor and police. Although I am unable to sit through the case, but unlike the other local court cases where each case are dealt with within a matter of minutes, court cases in the trials court lasts for several hours per-day for several sittings that could last for weeks or even months. 50
  • 51. Land and Environment court The land and environment court offered grouped tours aimed at educating individuals from institutes that are related to Land and environment for example, law students and of course architecture students that are involved in the built environment. As students we formed a group and arranged for a tour of the court. The Land And Environment Court is located on Macquarie St, instead of taking up a whole building it shares its address with several other law firms and an café on the ground floor, due to this it became very hard for us to tell where the court is. There are no security checkpoints, out of 12 floors, the Land and Environment Court occupies 6 floors it is as if it is just another office building. The lobby is located on the 4th floor, with 2 floors of court below it and another 3 above the lobby, the lobby’s design is small unwelcoming and institutional, it does not feel like a lobby for a court at all, as if this is just the reception for an office. There are no real waiting space, anywhere you stand would be in the way of someone trying to do stuff. 51
  • 52. After meeting up with guide, we set out to 2 floor above us, cramming in to the small lift just 4 meters away from the reception desk. Then we arrived in front of one of the court rooms. What separates the courtroom and the lift is just the corridor (1.5 meters wide), the waiting area are just simply 4 seats for the 2 courtrooms on each level and 2 small interview room to serve each courtroom. The courtroom are fairly small compared to the Trials Court and the Local Courtrooms. The courtroom only has 2 rows of seats on each side, with the total seating capacity of about 15 to 20 for different court variations. The court room is about 12 meters in width and about 10 meters in depth with 2.3 meter ceilings. Basically it is the size of an executive officer’s room. There aren’t any docks or jury seating within the court room, just like the local courts, just a simple table for the solicitors, a place for the scribe and a table for the judge and witness. The Judge entered a short while later from the door located at the back of the room, and just like the other court proceeding, everyone 52
  • 53. stood and bowed. The solicitors are robed, but not wigged. The case is a criminal case regarding the violation of council rules, apparently there is a builder who removed a tree that was not supposed to be removed based on council laws, however, the hearing only went for about 10 minutes as there are a request for certain documents to be presented that was not prepared, so a break was called. We took this opportunity to join other court cases. The one that I joined was on a Cole mining project and how the noise and dust affect the nearby residents. A commissioner is in charge of the hearing, therefore he is not robed and wore a suit. Due to the amount of information and documentation involved, the solicitors have a trolley filled to the brim with documents and folders behind their seats. A portable projector was used to present evidence for he court case, projecting from the computer screen to a white wall on the side. This shows that there is a need for an integration of court rooms with advance media technology to present evidence more effectively, as the current hearing is compromising for this with crude methods. 53
  • 54. After listening to different hearings for a while, a Q&A session was held, from the questions, we asked we were revealed that there are actually not enough courtrooms for the Judges and commissioners, as there are in total 9 Judge and commissioners but only 6 court rooms with the top one not being used at the moment due to building renovations. There are also not enough archive space, as they are required to keep 3 years worth of documents in paper, and their shelves can only accommodate 2 years worth, each year they have to box documents from 2 years ago to make way for the current year after cataloguing everything. The office space is insufficient and lacking in natural light and ventilation, creating a poor office environment. Aside from 2 lifts with a capacity of 14 people each, the other only vertical circulation was the fire escape stairs. The courtrooms also need to be bigger, as there were some hearings when it involved development dispute between current home owners and the developers, thus, up to 50 or more people came to the hearings, overcrowding the hallways. 54
  • 55. In conclusion, the current Land and Environment Court does not fit the current demands of the patrons and society needs, there are not enough courts for cased and for the Judges and commissioners, the office and archive space is not sufficient as well, not to mention the courtrooms are also quite small and outdated to fit certain type of needs. There is a need to upgrade the current situation and give the Land And Environment Court a better establishment. 55
  • 56. 56
  • 57. Law Court of NSW, St James The visit to the Law Court happened right after the visit the Land and environment court as these two court houses are on the same block. The Law Courts of NSW take up the whole building in St James, this is where the Supreme Court of NSW was relocated from the old King’s Street Court house. The building seem to be recently refurbished, integrating the latest media technology and furnishing styles. The lobby is encased within a series of glass curtain walls, it is bright and inviting, the security of the court is standard airport like, just like any other courthouse that hears criminal cases. The signage was clear and helpful, however, there are no indications on the lift to tell which lift is express and which isn’t, so one could waste time looking for the right lift to take to certain court rooms. 57
  • 58. There are 6 lifts in total, with 3 of them being express lifts. From the lifts to the first few levels there are several administration office and registry, it is apparent that many cases are being dealt with each day as not only the registry had to be managed with a ticker roll calling system, the waiting area for the registry is flooded with people. The waiting area for the court room floors are well furnish with carpet and timber, the lighting is ambient, creating an ambient environment for the waiting area. The corridor is about 3 meters wide it is spacious and generous to a point that it is lavish. The meeting / interview rooms and other services such as bathrooms, electrical and digital panels are all integrated into the wall, creating s flushed and consistent wall finish, any change in the wall would be the entrance to the court room which was the only doorway that is sunken from the wall, creating a focal point, directing people into it. 58
  • 59. The court rooms here are well lit and well furnished, unfortunately many of the court cases are closed hearings, so we don’t dare to enter them so we did not experience any of the hearings that day. The top level was where the supreme court was at. The supreme court had at least 80 seats, a dock and seats for Jury. There is a strip of window that allows the people to view into the court from the hallway, this could be a way to increase the amount of audience that can attend certain hearings. In a way the supreme court seem to take an exclusive stand in the court setting, as the supreme court and its supporting services take up most of the top floor, and it is the only court on the floor. 59
  • 60. 60
  • 61. Coroners Court The coroner’s court is located near the University of Sydney on Parramatta Road. There is a medical and health research centre adjacent to the Coroner’s Court that serves a part of the forensics facilities. the only parts of the Coroner’s Court that are accessible to the public was the hallway after the foyer, 2 court room and 2 meeting rooms. When I was waiting for the court to begin, a few people who seem to be the relatives of the deceased ones were sitting on the dark hallway/waiting area that is only about 2 meters wide with chairs on both sides, comforting each other. The dark and somewhat damp environment does not help with their grieving at all, the environment is just cold harsh and insensitive, it is as if the building was something else before they fit it out to be a coroner’s court so some space are just simply rooms or a space without any architectural elements to support the service. 61
  • 62. 62 Fire escape plan for the Coroner’s Court
  • 63. The courtroom is rather with a dimension of about 15 by 20 meters with the judge’s table raised, with a dock and seats for the Jury panel, however the hearing today was an inquisition, they are questioning a witness therefore there are no jury or defendants in the dock. The Coroner is robed but not wigged, it is the same as the solicitors. There are a lot of folders (up to 200 of them) stacked on the side of the court in a crude manner, in the process of the hearing, those folders were often being used as well, it shows that not only that better storage facilities within the court (mobile or integrated) are required, but it also shows that the inquisition can be held continuously over a long period of days occupying the same court. 63
  • 64. The whole hearing of 2 hours before a break was ordered, only involved 2 witnesses. The witnesses recounts many issues in a very detailed manner, urged and reminded by the solicitor and the coroner to describe the incident as detailed as possible in every aspect to the point where written scribe proved to be insufficient and recording was prioritized (the mic was carefully adjusted and positioned before the witnesses every time the witnesses change) it suggest that there is a strong need for good acoustic design. 64
  • 65. Precedent Studies PRECEDENT 1: SKY VILLAGE IN RØDOVRE / MVRDV PRECEDENT 2: IT BUILDING PROPOSAL IN NEW DELHI NICOLAS LAISNÉ PRECEDENT 3: PALAIS DE JUSTICE DE PONTOISE /HENRI CIRIANI ARCHITECT PRECEDENT 4: HEARST TOWER / FOSTER AND PARTNERS 65
  • 66. 66
  • 67. Sky Village in Rødovre / MVRDV A traditional courthouse as seen in ancient Rome or any other civilization have always been a low level building, depending on the scale of the court it may either be a group of buildings or single monolithic building that sprawls across a large site with a large number of rooms . This precedent is chosen due to its programmatic logic that took a monolithic single bock cube of programs broke it down to create a tower typology with mixed-used programs within a form that can be customized to meet a wide range of urban requirements. The form of the building at the same time creates an urban courtyard form that increases the social interaction and promotes sustainability. 67
  • 68. 68
  • 69. IT Building Proposal in New Delhi Nicolas Laisné Nicholas Laisné’s building proposed a type of urban courtyard in a form of a mixed use commercial building that not only relies on passive environmental systems to condition the building, it also increases social interaction between the tenants form different sectors of the building. 69
  • 70. 70
  • 71. 71
  • 72. 72
  • 73. PALAIS DE JUSTICE DE PONTOISE /HENRI CIRIANI ARCHITECT The elements within this building that intrigues are the ceremonial main entrance and the light design of the court room. The courthouse is entered from a grand flight of stairs after the visitors pass through an overhanging threshold that defines the boundary of the court, giving them a sense of place. Followed by that is the natural lit lobby,, using a range of bright colored panels to decorate its walls not only the lobby is light and inviting it does not aim to provoke a sense of distant and fear to the visitors. The floor however is highly reflective, it is as if one could see their own soul while walking across the lobby, this design calls for behavior and self control amongst the visitors. The courtrooms are bright and spacious in a sensory side. It is well lit with natural light pouring from the high level windows situated on the top part of the walls within the court. 73
  • 74. 74
  • 75. Precedent 2: Hearst Tower / Foster and Partners At first the reason for taking Hearst tower as a precedent is for its structural Dia-grid system. However, it became more apparent that the way the building deal with the heritage item on the ground floor level is more relevant to the Justice + Agency Project. The building sits on top of a heritage building that has a heritage streetscape value. The building deals with it by taking away its floors and turning it into a large open space, and atrium. This creates an amazing waiting space on the podium level as an entrance for the building that is flooded with healthy natural light. This not only creates a space that is good for social interaction between the staffs, it also makes gives the company that occupies the building a much more prestigious feel . 75
  • 76. 76
  • 77. Diagrams and Sketches 77
  • 78. 78 Vehicular circulation Secluded room for bodies Placing the core
  • 79. 79 Working out the core The most important element of in the structural system of a high rise building would be the core of the building as it not only determines the position of all the vertical services, it is also the main structural element that runs through the building. In deciding the core, the major problem that had to be dealt with would be the basement parking lot circulation especially when there is a sensitive program where bodies needs to be transported in a separate circulation, secluded from the rest of the circulation. The 3 diagrams from the right shows how the core is conceived in an anti clockwise motion
  • 80. 80
  • 81. 81 Porous Design A design that is porous as shown on the left not only allows view penetration from a multitude of levels, it also allows natural sunlight to penetrate the building, creating a healthier and livelier environment. It also increase the sense of transparency of the building, allowing more social interaction between the patrons
  • 82. 82
  • 83. 83 Circulation Types In this diagram I have identified several Circulation types that would penetrate the building from a variety of ways 1. Patrons From carpark to Lobby to Office 2. Services/ Bodies from carpark to Lobby throughout the Building to the Forensics Lab and Mortuary 3. Public to the Museum then to court visits Integrating the Justice and Police Museum • Enhanced accessibility • Creating a second entrance to replace the uninviting entrance from Philip Street • Extending and Enlarging exhibition space
  • 84. 84
  • 85. 85 Courtyard space Creating courtyard spaces with the setbacks by sinking in the floor plate Program Stacking the diagram shows how the programs within the building are stacked in response to the setback
  • 86. 86
  • 87. 87 Enhanced Facade This type of facade not only allow for more courtyard space, it also allow for more courtyard space and at the same time, it breaks the wind Urban Courtyard Courtyard space perforates building form allowing cross circulation, cross ventilation and natural light.
  • 88. 88
  • 89. 89 Overall Massing Program Blocks Office Therapeutic Courtrooms Forensics Museum Core
  • 90. 90
  • 91. 91 Forensics Lab The forensics labs and mortuary are placed on the top of the building, this is mainly to give the forensic pathologists the best view of all, as after a long day in the forensics labs doing examinations, it would be good for the forensics pathologists to be rewarded with a good view of the city that they are working hard to protect. Courtrooms the courtrooms are inspired by the courtrooms in PALAIS DE JUSTICE DE PONTOISE and the courtrooms in CAMPUS Justicia. These in contrary to most of the courtrooms in Sydney that I have seen which usually lack in natural lighting, the courtrooms in the precedents are rich with good quality natural light.
  • 92. 92
  • 93. 93 Voids These voids within the building are inspired by IT building in Delhi by Nicolas Laisné. The voids within the building not only created a half continuous light well to provide natural light and fresh air and ventilation to the interior of the building, it also creates multiple internal urban courtyard spaces that provide social interaction. Administrative offices The administrative offices are located parallel to the courtroom levels. it sits on top of the public open space within the old health building facade. An urban courtyard was planned to provide a place for the people working in the office to rest and have lunch. IT Building Proposal in New Delhi urban courtyard space as precedent
  • 94. 94
  • 95. 95 Therapeutic Facilities The therapeutic facilities are situated on close to the courtroom and bottom floors not only to provide counselling services to the family members of the deceased. But to also to provide counselling services to some of the forensics pathologists that had just started not too long ago that haven't got used to their positions yet. Building Core The building has 2 main cores. One core would have lifts and stairs serving areas that the public can freely gain access to, which is the courtrooms and to the offices. The other core would be servicing the forensics labs and mortuary, providing an express service from the car park and lobby level to the forensics section of the building. This is to mainly separate the public accessible and non-accessible functions. Inspired by the Structural system of the Sky village in Rødovre, the core became the main structural element for the forensics lab.
  • 96. 96 Police and Justice Museum Extension An extension was planned to provide entrance from Macquarie Street to the Police and Justice Museum. This can not only allow more exhibits to be shown, it also connects the building to the cultural ribbon and provide a more accessible entry for the disabled.
  • 97. Image Credits Page 2. Nicholas Ho, rendering with Sketchup Page 17. Hengameh Seradji Page 18. LEP Map Figure 5.15 Special Character Area G Setbacks Page 30. https://ssl.panoramio.com/photo/71912160 Page 36. http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/newslocal/north-shore/robert- douglas-pentecost-59-claims-gambling-addiction-led-to-ripping-off-seniors- on-the-north-shore/story-fngr8h9d-1226649181229 Page 41, 43. Nicholas Ho, Photo taken at Parramatta Local Court Page 46. http://www.genkin.org/cgi- bin/photo.pl/australia/sydney/parramatta/au-sydney-parramatta-0006 Page 56. Nicholas Ho, Photo taken at St James Law Courts Page 60. http://year12-legalstudies.wikispaces.com/The+Court+Structure Page 62. Ethan Kang, Photo taken at Coroners Court Page 66,68. Archdaily,http://www.archdaily.com/8649/sky-village-in- rodovre-mvrdv/ Page 69-71. Archdaily,http://www.archdaily.com/115739/it-building- proposal-in-new-delhi-nicolas-laisne/ Page 72. Powerpoint Slide, HENRI CIRIANI ARCHITECT, JUSTICE ENVIRONMENTS, LAW COURTS AND ARCHITECTURE, PALAIS DE JUSTICE DE PONTOISE, A CASE STUDY, April 2006 Page 74,76. Archdaily, http://www.archdaily.com/204701/flashback-hearst- tower-foster-and-partners/ Page 78-94. Nicholas Ho, rendering with Sketchup 97

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