«Integration» - a necessary evilSistemi Informativi Aziendali – A.A. 2011/2012
Definition       System (or Systems) Integration           In information technology, systems integration is the        ...
The problem                            Wilhelm Hasselbring et al. (2000), "Information system                            i...
The problem               Defines the organizational structure and                 the workflows for business rules and   ...
The problem                Defines the actual implementation of the                business concepts in terms of enterpris...
The problem              Defines the information and communication                              infrastructure.           ...
No Silos!       Organizational units need to cooperate       Cooperation at all levels is needed       Cooperation is n...
Integration levels8                    Sistemi Informativi Aziendali   A.A. 2011/2012
Integration levels                Enabling different tools to               exchange data, information,                  c...
Integration levels               Creating meaningful         application workflows with the          integrated data and s...
Integration levels                      EAI                   EDI      SOA                    Creating meaningful         ...
Integration levels           Support business processes         involving different units, thanks            to the integr...
Complexity Boosters13               Sistemi Informativi Aziendali   A.A. 2011/2012
Complexity Boosters                      • Different servers                           • Same company / data center       ...
• Technical level:     • different hardware platforms, Complexity Boosters     • different operating systems,     • differ...
The “cutting game”16               Sistemi Informativi Aziendali   A.A. 2011/2012
Integration styles    File Transfer        Have each application produce files of shared data for others         to cons...
Available Tecnical solutions    Messaging oriented middleware; messaging patterns    Interface based middleware; distrib...
Legacy systems can’t be killed19                Sistemi Informativi Aziendali   A.A. 2011/2012
Legacy systems integration                http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/webservices/library/ws-tip-leg/index.html20   ...
Data-level integration    Access of legacy databases or files by either session beans     or entity beans    Access to n...
Application-interface integration    leverage the application programming interfaces (APIs)     exposed by your applicati...
Method-level integration    Business logic is shared as a collection of shared methods,     or operations that your softw...
User interface-level integration    accessing existing applications through their user     interfaces        screen scra...
Licenza d’uso    Queste diapositive sono distribuite con licenza Creative Commons     “Attribuzione - Non commerciale - C...
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«Integration» - a necessary evil

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Introduction to the issues arising in Information Systems integration.
Materiale realizzato per il corso di Sistemi Informativi Aziendali del Politecnico di Torino - http://bit.ly/sistinfo

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«Integration» - a necessary evil

  1. 1. «Integration» - a necessary evilSistemi Informativi Aziendali – A.A. 2011/2012
  2. 2. Definition System (or Systems) Integration  In information technology, systems integration is the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_integration 2 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  3. 3. The problem Wilhelm Hasselbring et al. (2000), "Information system integration", Communications of the ACM, Volume 43, Issue 6 (June 2000), Pages: 32-383 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  4. 4. The problem Defines the organizational structure and the workflows for business rules and processes. It is a conceptual level expressed in terms meaningful to actual users of application systems Wilhelm Hasselbring et al. (2000), "Information system integration", Communications of the ACM, Volume 43, Issue 6 (June 2000), Pages: 32-384 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  5. 5. The problem Defines the actual implementation of the business concepts in terms of enterprise applications. The central goal is to provide the “glue” between the application domain described in the business architecture and the technical solutions described in the technology architecture. Wilhelm Hasselbring et al. (2000), "Information system integration", Communications of the ACM, Volume 43, Issue 6 (June 2000), Pages: 32-385 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  6. 6. The problem Defines the information and communication infrastructure. At this layer, IT is challenged to achieve the business requirements Wilhelm Hasselbring et al. (2000), "Information system integration", Communications of the ACM, Volume 43, Issue 6 (June 2000), Pages: 32-386 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  7. 7. No Silos! Organizational units need to cooperate Cooperation at all levels is needed Cooperation is not “automatic” whenever different approaches/standard/methods/information is used 7 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  8. 8. Integration levels8 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  9. 9. Integration levels Enabling different tools to exchange data, information, commands and status.9 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  10. 10. Integration levels Creating meaningful application workflows with the integrated data and services10 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  11. 11. Integration levels EAI EDI SOA Creating meaningful application workflows with the integrated data and services ERP WS XML interoperation11 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  12. 12. Integration levels Support business processes involving different units, thanks to the integration of their enterprise systems12 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  13. 13. Complexity Boosters13 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  14. 14. Complexity Boosters • Different servers • Same company / data center • Different company • Different applications • Calling “remote” procedures • Stub+marshal+execute • Time-changing distributed architecture14 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  15. 15. • Technical level: • different hardware platforms, Complexity Boosters • different operating systems, • different database management systems • different programming languages.• Conceptual level • different programming and data models • different understanding and modeling of the same real-world concepts, • the same name to denote different concepts (homonyms) • different names for the same concept (synonyms) 15 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  16. 16. The “cutting game”16 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  17. 17. Integration styles File Transfer  Have each application produce files of shared data for others to consume, and consume files that others have produced Shared database  Have the applications store the data they wish to share in a common database Remote Procedure Invocation  Have each application expose some of its procedures so that they can be invoked remotely, and have applications invoke those to run behavior and exchange data Messaging  Have each application connect to a common messaging system, and exchange data and invoke behavior using messages http://www.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.com/IntegrationStylesIntro.html 17 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  18. 18. Available Tecnical solutions Messaging oriented middleware; messaging patterns Interface based middleware; distributed objects Database-Oriented Middleware XML; XML based languages and standards Service Oriented Architecture; Web Services Web 2.0: Web APIs, REST, Mashup REST; RESTful Web Services; REST vs. Web Services Data/information integration and EII Presentation integration and portal Process (oriented) integration Identity integration; Single Sign-On CIS 8020: Systems Integration, Georgia State University http://www2.cis.gsu.edu/cis/program/syllabus/graduate/cis8020.asp 18 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  19. 19. Legacy systems can’t be killed19 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  20. 20. Legacy systems integration http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/webservices/library/ws-tip-leg/index.html20 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  21. 21. Data-level integration Access of legacy databases or files by either session beans or entity beans Access to newly developed data feeds, produced by the legacy system, for the specific purpose of data access XML is often used Straightforward and quick to implement But:  increased data coupling between applications => increasing maintenance burden  inability to access important behavior (data validation, critical business rules…)  need to write significant data cleansing/formatting code for poorly designed data-increased data coupling between applications 21 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  22. 22. Application-interface integration leverage the application programming interfaces (APIs) exposed by your applications to access both the data and the functionality encapsulated by legacy systems  Ex: C-APIs that you can access via Java Native Interface (JNI) code (SAP, PeopleSoft) But:  In-house software rarely has a defined API  APIs may be limited in scope / may not offer the behavior that you need (or in a manner that you need it)  APIs are often function-oriented in nature and not object- oriented 22 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  23. 23. Method-level integration Business logic is shared as a collection of shared methods, or operations that your software can invoke  Ex.: update customer data, validate a credit card transaction, deposit money into a bank account Provides fine-grained access to common business functions Easy to invoke by many programming languages But:  Fine-grained implies difficult to support transactions  Difficult to support common services (ex: security) 23 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  24. 24. User interface-level integration accessing existing applications through their user interfaces  screen scraping: user keystrokes are simulated Common approach for legacy integration But:  Slow  Changes to the legacy user interface require changes to your code 24 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
  25. 25. Licenza d’uso Queste diapositive sono distribuite con licenza Creative Commons “Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Condividi allo stesso modo 2.5 Italia (CC BY-NC-SA 2.5)” Sei libero:  di riprodurre, distribuire, comunicare al pubblico, esporre in pubblico, rappresentare, eseguire e recitare questopera  di modificare questopera Alle seguenti condizioni:  Attribuzione — Devi attribuire la paternità dellopera agli autori originali e in modo tale da non suggerire che essi avallino te o il modo in cui tu usi lopera.  Non commerciale — Non puoi usare questopera per fini commerciali.  Condividi allo stesso modo — Se alteri o trasformi questopera, o se la usi per crearne unaltra, puoi distribuire lopera risultante solo con una licenza identica o equivalente a questa. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/it/ 25 Sistemi Informativi Aziendali A.A. 2011/2012
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