Plugging Into the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure

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Presentation by Serdar Uckun, Manager, Embedded Reasoning Area, Palo Alto Research Center. This presentation was part of a panel that was moderated by Mike Liebhold of Institute for the Future, at our 4th Annual Fujitsu Laboratories of America Technology Symposium held in Sunnyvale on June 9th, 2010. The theme of the event was:

Smart Grid: When Energy Meets the "Internet of Things"

And the panel was titled:

"Plugging Into the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure"

Photos of the event can be found here, along with links to more details:

http://www.flickr.com/photos/kevinkrejci/sets/72157624268841056/

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Plugging Into the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure

  1. 1. Plugging into the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Serdar Uckun, MD, PhD Palo Alto Research Center Seeding Innovation
  2. 2. About PARC <ul><li>Advanced research company known for commercial innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with clients to develop and deliver new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>170 scientists, 2100 patents and patents pending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four decades of business results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~30 new businesses from PARC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation in nearly every Xerox product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing and co-development agreements with companies around the globe </li></ul></ul>“ one of the most innovative commercial research labs in the world” Kiplingers.com
  3. 3. Adaptive Energy <ul><li>New initiative started in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Manage energy consumption by reducing or shifting demand </li></ul><ul><li>Leverages our multi-disciplinary expertise in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, optimization, and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware systems (sensing and actuation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis and mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications, networking, and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnography, user modeling, and UI design </li></ul></ul>Adaptive Energy Battery Health Vehicle Power Data Centers Grid Health Demand Response
  4. 4. Brief History of EVs Figure from Wikimedia Commons reproduced under a Creative Commons license EV1 Launched EV1 Fleet Destroyed Are we finally on the plateau of productivity, or are we back on the peak of inflated expectations? ? ?
  5. 5. Surmountable Problems* <ul><li>(*Surmountable using current technology) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital investment, industry alliances, or public policy required </li></ul><ul><li>Charging infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, availability, adapters (new SAE standard rolling out), billing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aging power distribution infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Home / garage retrofits for high current EV chargers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Really Difficult Problems <ul><li>Significant battery technology gaps </li></ul><ul><li>R&D funding, public education, and self-restraint required </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Energy (KWh/kg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 0.25 KWh/kg for Li-ion today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost ($/KWh) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$450-1000/KWh for Li-ion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustained Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As an example, Tesla Roadster would only run for ~12 minutes at peak power and cover merely 25 miles (and substantially age the battery while doing that) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cycle Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~1000 full charge/discharge cycles to 80% initial capacity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Red Herrings <ul><li>Not likely to work </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, you will probably void the warranty on the car battery </li></ul>Assume a 1 KWh Li-ion battery Battery cost: $500 Battery life: 1000 full cycles Depreciation cost: 50 cents per cycle Assume a 1 KWh Li-ion battery Buy power at $0.08/KWh Sell power at $0.10/KWh Profit: 2 cents per cycle
  8. 8. What is Needed <ul><li>Battery technology with 10x energy capacity of today’s Li-ion cells … </li></ul><ul><li>… that can operate continuously under high current conditions without excessive aging. </li></ul>We need the equivalent of Moore’s law for batteries. Figure and picture from Wikimedia Commons reproduced under a Creative Commons license

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