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T h e r e l a t io n s h ip b etw een r e a d in g and w r it in g T h e r e l a t io n s h ip b etw een r e a d in g and w r it in g Document Transcript

  • INFORMATION TO USERS This reproduction was made from a copy of a document sent to us for microfilming. While the most advanced technology has been used to photograph and reproduce this document, the quality of the reproduction is heavily dependent upon the quality of the material submitted. The following explanation of techniques is provided to help clarify markings or notations which may appear on this reproduction. 1.The sign or “target” for pages apparently lacking from the document photographed is “Missing Page(s)”. If it was possible to obtain the missing page(s) or section, they are spliced into the film along with adjacent pages. This may have necessitated cutting through an image and duplicating adjacent pages to assure complete continuity. 2. When an image on the film is obliterated with a round black mark, it is an indication of either blurred copy because of movement during exposure, duplicate copy, or copyrighted materials that should not have been filmed. For biurred pages, a good image of the page can be found in the adjacent frame. If copyrighted materials were deleted, a target note will appear listing the pages in the adjacent frame. 3. When a map, drawing or chart, etc., is part of the material being photographed, a definite method of “sectioning” the material has been followed. It is customary to begin filming at the upper left hand comer of a large sheet and to continue from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. If necessary, sectioning is continued again—beginning below the first row and continuing on until complete. 4. For illustrations that cannot be satisfactorily reproduced by xerographic means, photographic prints can be purchased at additional cost and inserted into your xerographic copy. These prints are available upon request from the Dissertations Customer Services Department. 5. Some pages in any document may have indistinct print. In all cases the best available copy has been filmed. University Mooriims International 300 N. Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Order Number 1333989 The relationship between reading and writing in English as a second language Kwah, Poh Foong, M.A. The University of Texas at Arlington, 1988 U-M-I300N. ZeebRd. Ann Arbor, MI 48106 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • TH E R E L A T IO N S H IP BETW EEN R E A D IN G AND W R IT IN G IN E N G L IS H AS A SECOND LANGUAGE The members of the committee approve the masters thesis of Poh Foong Kwah Irwin Feigenbaum Supervising Professor Donald A. Burquest Virgil L. Poulter Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • THE R E L A T IO N S H IP BETW EEN R E A D IN G AND W R IT IN G IN E N G L IS H AS A SECOND LANGUAGE by POH FOONG KWAH Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Arlington in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN LINGUISTICS THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON May 1988 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to those who have helped in making this project possible. A special indebtedness is owed to my supervising professor, Dr. Irwin Feigenbaum, for his invaluable guidance and support, during the accomplishment of this project. Special thanks is extended to the other members of my committee, Dr. Donald A. Burquest and Dr. Virgil L. Poulter, for their encouragement and support. Appreciation is also extended to Jude Donaldson, Kurk Gayle, Steve Lewis, and the instructors of the Intensive English Program at The University of Texas at Arlington, for their help in the process of data collection. My sincere thanks goes to the students from the freshman composition classes and the Intensive English Program for their partici­ pation and cooperation in this project. Finally, a major thank-you to my husband for his help in statistics and patient support throughout this project. April 13, 1988 iii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • ABSTRACT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READING AND WRITING IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE Publication No._______ Poh Foong Kwah/ M.A. The University of Texas at Arlington, 1988 Supervising Professor: Irwin Feigenbaum The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between reading and writing in English as a second language. The study focused on whether ESL students' L2 writing ability correlates with their L2 reading ability and with the amount of pleasure reading done in their LI and L2. Results from correlation analysis indicated a strong positive relationship between L2 writing ability and L2 reading ability. The relationship between L2 writing ability and the amount of pleasure reading in L2 was generally non-significant. However,' it was found that less competent writers tend to read more in their native language; they spend more time and read more iv Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • books. Results also indicated that the reading of magazines seems to play a significant role in L2 writing, for competent writers generally read more variety of magazines in LI and L2 than less competent writers. This study provided some empi­ rical evidence to support the assumption that there is a rela­ tionship between reading and writing in a second language. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • T A B L E OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................ iii ABSTRACT ................................................. iv LIST OF TABLES .......................................... vii Chapter I. THE P R O B L E M .................................... 1 Introduction ................................ 1 Statement of the Problem ................... 5 Theoretical Background ..................... 5 Review of Empirical Literature ............ 9 Pleasure Reading and Writing ............ 9 Reading and Writing ...................... 11 Statement of Hypotheses .................... 17 Summary ...................................... 18 II. THE DESIGN AND RESULTS OF THE S T U D Y ....... . 19 Research Design ............................. 19 Sampling Plan ............................... 19 Instruments .................................. 20 Data Collection ............................. 23 Results ...................................... 25 Hypothesis 1 ............................. 26 Hypothesis 2 ........................... 26 Hypothesis 3 .............................. 30 Hypothesis 4 ............................. 32 Summary ...................................... 35 III. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............... 37 Summary ...................................... 37 Conclusions ................................. 38 Summary of Findings ......................... 40 Pedagogical Implications ................ 40 Recommendations ............. 41 APPENDIX ................................................. 43 REFERENCES ............................................... 57 vi Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • L IS T OF TA B LES 1. Classification of 115 Subjects into Writing Ability Levels ......................... 24 2. Number of Data C o l l e c t e d ......................... 25 3. One-Way Analysis of Variance on Reading Scores for Three Levels of Writing Ability ........... 27 4. Correlations between L2 Writing and the Amount of Time Spent on LI and L2 Reading ............ 28 5. Two-Way ANOVA on the Amount of Time Spent on Reading in LI plus L2 for Three Levels of Levels of Writing Ability ........ 29 6. Data for ANOVA - Time Spent on Reading in Ll plus L2 .......................................... 30 7. Correlations between L2 Writing Ability and the Number of Books Read in Ll and L2 ............. 31 8. Correlations between L2 Writing Ability and Kinds of Materials (Books and Newspapers) Read in Ll and L2 ...... 33 9. Correlations between L2 Writing Ability and the Kinds of Magazines Read in Ll and L2 ...... 34 10. ANOVA Data - Kinds of Magazines Read in Ll plus L2 (High School) ........................... 35 vii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction Most teachers of English as a second language (ESL) would agree that developing a student's writing ability at college level is a difficult task. Writing a good essay at this level requires the student's ability to organize main ideas, to support the ideas with specific relevant details, and to express them with clarity using a variety of sentence struc­ tures, correct grammar, spelling, and mechanical devices. Very often, students may have problems in some or all of these areas, and teachers may have to set priorities as to which areas to focus on in their teaching. A common practice is to teach the rhetorical structure accompanied by formal teaching of grammar. The rationale for such an approach is based on the notion that there are differences in the rhetorical systems of different cultures (Kaplan 1972) and that students always have grammatical errors in their writing. Recently, the trend in teaching writing has integrated and used reading to help ESL students to develop their writing ability. For example, Cortese (1985) introduced a reading project to improve her post-intermediate students speaking and written communication skills. Similarly, in Shih's content- 1 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • based approach to academic writing (1986), students read about a topic before writing about it. Spack (1985) also tried using literature in a composition course. The rationale for such programs and teaching practices is based on the assumption that there is a strong relationship between reading and writing; thus reading can help improve writing ability. According to Krashen (1984:73), the "development of good writing style occurs via reading for meaning and writing to convey meaning." Taylor (1976:12), who views writing as a composing process in which revision is an essential skill, also supports this assumption by saying that . . . extensive daily reading to help students acquire the critical reading skills needed for revision is valuable. The value stems not just from content but also from the exposure it gives students to a variety of culturally appropriate rhetorical and stylistic writing options, organizational patterns, and patterns of logic and support. Extensive reading also fosters vocabulary growth and the acquisition of syntax, in context. Developing personal intuitions about what good writing looks like through reading, and then practicing and applying those intuitions in writing, is probably the best way for a student to become a self-sufficient reliant writer. With the existence of different approaches to teaching ESL writing, language program coordinators and teachers are often faced with the problem of deciding which approach would be more effective in helping their students acquire the writing skill, for the rationales put foward to support each approach appear to be reasonable and sound. Nevertheless, the decision of whether to adopt an integrative or nonr-integrative approach should be evaluated based on empirical evidence. Selinker (1986:233) has pointed out that "pedagogical decision about Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • how to integrate or separate certain skills . . . was made without any apparent recourse to empirical observation." He concludes that . . . the development of an ELT [English language teaching] theory within a serious professional discipline must require an increased effort to create a genuine discipline. This, we feel, requires that we take an increasingly data-oriented, empirical point of view on crucial pedagogical decisions (234). While a number of studies on native speakers of English have presented considerable evidence to support the hypothesis of a strong relationship between reading and writing, there is little empirical evidence, as Krashen (1984) points out, to support such an assumption in a second language. However, research in language acquisition has presented evidence to support the hypothesis that second language acquisition is similar to first language acquisition (Ravem 1974, Dulay and Burt 1974). Furthermore, recent research in writing as a composing process of ESL students (Zamel 1981, Raimes 1985) also found clear similarities between first language and second language writing processes. Therefore, given the findings in the acquisition of Ll and L2 and the relationship between reading and writing in L l , one might expect a similar relation­ ship to exist between reading and writing in a second language. Nonetheless, there is still a need for empirical evidence to support such an assumption. Another aspect that needs to be taken into consideration in exploring the relationship between reading and writing in a second language is the relationship between ESL students' Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • reading in their native language and their writing ability in English. There are two views on the issue of the relation between the first language and the second language. One view predicts that some problems in- acquiring the second language are due to interference from L l . Therefore, by comparing the two languages and finding out the differences, we can predict the kinds of problems a student may have in a second language (James 1981). Kaplan's study seems to support this hypothesis. Research in L2 reading process has indicated that there is a interlingual transfer of skills in which "success in L2 reading is viewed as dependent on the same conditions as in Ll (Sarig 1987:107). In her research on this issue, she concluded that "reading processess from the first language do appear to transfer to the foreign language" (118). This finding can be applied to writing, as Krashen and Terrell (1983) note that students who are good readers in their first language may transfer their inferencing skill necessary in both reading and writing to the second language (Krashen and Terrell 1983). In addition, Raimes (1978:12) has claimed that "students who have not mastered the basic skills of reading and writing in their first language will certainly have more difficulty with reading and writing in English," but there is no empirical evidence to support this claim. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study is to determine whether a relationship exists between reading and writing in acquiring English as a second language. Specifically, the relationship in question is concerned with: (1) whether a correlation exists between ESL students' writing ability in English and their reading ability in English; and (2) whether a correlation exists between students' writing ability in English and the amount of pleasure reading they have done in their native language and in English. Theoretical Background The assumption that reading contributes to the develop- ment of writing ---- second language acquisition established by Krashen (1982). The claim of this theory centers on these three hypotheses: (1) the acquisition-learning distinction, (2) the input hypothesis, and (3) the affective filter hypothesis. The first hypothesis makes a distinction between "language acquisition" and "language learning." Language acquisition is similar to a child's first language acquisition. It is a subconscious process whereby a language acquirer "picks up" a language without being aware of the fact that he is acquiring the language which enables him to communicate what he wants to say. He is not aware of the rules of the language that he is acquiring. This is acquired competence or implicit knowledge Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • that formal teaching could not help to acquire. On the other hand, language learning is "knowing about" the language, that is, knowing the rules and the correct forms. It is a conscious process whereby the acquirer is aware of the rules and is able to talk about them. Such explicit formal knowledge is learned through formal teaching. The input hypothesis forms the basic principle of the overall theory of second language acquisition because it provides the answer to the important question of how we acquire language. The hypothesis (Krashen 1985:2) claims that . . . humans acquire language only in one way - by understanding messages, or by receiving 'comprehensible input'. We progress along the natural order (hypothesis 2)1 by understanding input that contains structures that are a bit beyond our current level of competence. (We move from i, our current level, to i + 1, the next level along the natural order, by understanding input containing i + 1). In short, language acquisition only occurs when we under­ stand input which is "a bit beyond" the level where we are. This is done with the help of "context or extra-linguistic nformation" (21). This hypothesis also claims that the ability to speak fluently "emerges" on its own. Krashen further concludes that spoken fluency is not "taught" directly; rather it "emerges" after the student has acquired the competence through comprehending input. •^Hypothesis 2 is the natural order hypothesis, which states we acquire the rules of grammar in a 'predictable order', for it is observed that certain structures are acquired earlier than some other structures. Research on children acquiring English as their first language found that the '-ing' progressive marker and the plural markers are among the first morphemes acquired by children, while the third person singular morphemes are acquired later (Krashen 1982). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • The affective filter hypothesis states how affective factors relate to second language acquisition. Comprehensible input is necessary for second language acquisition, but it is not sufficient. In some cases, acquisition does not take place even though input is provided and understood. The "affective filter", which Krashen (1985:3) defines it as "a mental block that prevents acquirers from utilizing the comprehensible input they receive for language acquisition," has to be low for successful acquisition to take place. Hence, the acquisition environment should be relaxed so that acquirers will have better self-confidence, motivation, and less anxiety to obtain more input, which would result in better acquisition of the target language. In summary, the fundamental principle in second language acquisition is the claim that "people acquire a second language only if they obtain comprehensible input and if their affective filters are low enough to allow input 'in'. When the filter is 'down' and appropriate comprehensible input is presented (and understood), acquisition is inevitable" (4). Research has provided strong evidence to support this claim (see Krashen 1985 for review of literature). The input hypothesis may also apply to the acquisition of writing competence as Krashen and Terrell (1983:131) point out that "Reading can serve as an important source of comprehen­ sible input and may make a significant contribution to the development of overall proficiency." Krashen (1985:18) calls Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 8 it the "reading hypothesis," which hypothesizes that "writing competence or the abstract knowledge the proficient writer has about writing comes only from large amounts of self­ motivated reading for interest and/or pleasure" (1984:20). The implication is that writing competence is acquired subcon­ sciously without readers being aware that they have acquired the writing competence while they are reading. With large amounts of reading, the writer will be automatically exposed to the grammatical and rhetorical structures, which will be acquired if the reader is "open" to the comprehensible input, and if the reader's affective filter is low. Hence, writing competence is not learned but is acquired via comprehensible input from reading. This suggests that the development of writing competence could be similar to the development of competence in a second language. Based on the assumptions of the reading hypothesis, one could predict that there will be clear differences between good writers and poor writers with regard to the amount of pleasure reading they do; that is, good writers would have done more reading for pleasure and/or interest as compared to poor writers; hence more comprehensible input. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Review of Literature Research in English as a First Language Since the 1930s, research had been conducted to examine the relationship between reading and writing. This research has presented considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that reading contributes to the development of writing skill. The research had focused on the relationship of writing ability with voluntary pleasure reading and with reading comprehension ability. Results from these studies appear to support the reading hypothesis, whereby exposure to comprehensible input via reading may facilitate the development of writing profi­ ciency. Pleasure Reading and Writing The studies which surveyed the voluntary reading habits of both good and poor writers have indicated that voluntary pleasure reading contributes to the development of writing ability. In a pilot study conducted by Kimberling et al. (Krashen 1978), 66 freshmen at the University of Southern California were given a questionnaire and asked to write an essay at home; it was later evaluated by two raters. Only those essays assessed as "highly competent" and "of low compe­ tence" were used for further analysis. The questionnaire asked students to indicate the amount of pleasure reading they had done at different times of their lives. The study found that good writers reported more pleasure reading at all ages, especially at high school, while none of the poor writers Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 10 reported "a lot" of pleasure reading at high school. In establishing "a profile of a poor writer," Woodward and Phillips (1967) surveyed 919 freshmen at the University of Miami by means of a questionnaire. Good writers were those who received A or B grades, while poor writers received D or E. This study found that more poor writers reported no books in the home; however, equal numbers of good and poor writers had reported many books in the home. Good writers also reported reading the newspaper more than poor writers. With regard to the amount of assigned reading done in school, there were no outstanding differences between them. Questionnaire results from a study by Donelson (1967:40), who compared "effective" and "ineffective" writers in the tenth grade, also reported that "effective" writers "read more widely and frequently" as well as had more books and magazines in the home. Similarly, Ryan (1977) compared two groups of students in his study in which a 45 item questionnaire was administered to these two groups of freshman university students. The "regular" group included students in two regular freshman composition courses, while the "intensive" group included students who had more intense instruction in both composition and reading. The study found that "there were significantly more and greater variety of books in the homes of the regular group" (161) than the intensive group. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 11 Applebee's survey (1978:348) of 481 good high school writers, winners of the 1967 NCTE achievement awards in writing, further indicated that these successful writers tend to be "dedicated readers, reading widely on their own, both during vacation and during the regular school year." More evidence in support of voluntary pleasure reading is provided by McNeil (in Fader 1976) who evaluated the results of a pleasure reading program ("Hooked on Books") on boys aged 12 to 17 in a correctional school in Michigan over a period of two years. He reported that the "readers" showed significantly better writing skill in terms of fluency and greater complexity than the control group. One study did not find a positive relationship between pleasure reading and writing. Illo (1976:134) reported that the correlation between self-reported pleasure reading and freshman composition grades at Shippensburg State College seemed "weak and uncertain." Reading and Writing Several studies on the relationship of writing ability and reading ability have reported a statistically significant relationship. The assumption was that persons with good writing ability do more reading than persons with poor writing ability. Using standardized tests, Grobe and Grobe (1977) examined the correlation between the writing ability and reading ability among college students enrolled either in a Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 12 freshman composition course or freshman remedial writing course at Rutgers University. Students were classified into three levels based on their performance on the English Placement Test, in which students' answers to a series of essay questions were rated by two independent readers. A third reader was consulted in cases where consensus opinion was not obtained. The McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (1970) was selected as the measure of reading comprehension ability. A correlation analysis of the writing ability and reading ability yielded a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.50, which was found to be statistically significant at 0.01 confidence level. Zeman (1969), studying second and third graders, found a significant correlation between the level of reading compre­ hension and the basic sentence types and sentence structural patterns in students' compositions. As the reading level increased, the frequency of simple sentences decreased, whereas the frequency of compound and complex sentences increased. Similar results were reported from the study of Evanechko, Ollil, and Armstrong (1974), who found that the reading ability of 118 Grade Six children from four classrooms in one school in Victoria, British Columbia, correlated with the high degree of syntactic complexity of their written work. The procedure for indexing the syntactic complexity in this study was based on transformational-grammar theory. Three studies on the effect of reading have found that increased reading has produced more gains in writing than Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 13 increased writing frequency. In each case, a group of students who wrote frequently was compared to a group that wrote less or not at all and spent more time reading. Heys (1962) conducted research on eleventh grade classes. "Writing" classes wrote one theme a week, while "reading" classes wrote a theme every third week and spent one period each week reading in class. At the end of the year the results indicated that both groups improved in their writing ability, but the "reading" classes had performed better than the "writing" classes on the STEP writing test and scored better ratings on content and organization, mechanics, diction, and rhetoric. DeVries (1970) did a similar study with 24 fifth grade students. The students were divided into a reading and a writing group. The writing group wrote two themes a week, while the reading group were excused from all written work and spent more time reading in and out of class. Again, both groups improved in writing, with the reading group clearly performing better than the writing group on the post-test essay in all categories (content, mechanics, organization, grammar, wording and phrasing). In addition, replacing grammar study with increased reading had also been found to be beneficial. Clark (1935) did a four-year study of freshmen at North Carolina State College during the fall terms of 1930, 1931, 1932, and 1933. Students were divided into three sections: A, B, and C. The division Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • ■was based on the Iowa Placement Examinations. Students in the three sections had their customary weekly theme assignments; however, students in A and B had informal reading once a week, while students in section C were assigned to a course in grammar for the first two years. In 1932 and 1933, the teaching of grammar in section C was replaced by reading, while reading in sections A and B was increased to twice a week. Test results in 1932 and 1933 showed that C sections had demonstrated far greater gains on their written assignments as compared to the gains for the years of 1930 and 193i. Simi­ larly, the A and B sections showed greater gains in the last two years than 1930 and 1931. The results of the study indi­ cated that students showed a greater advance in writing through informal reading than they did through direct teaching of formal grammar. Even though studies have shown that reading has a positive effect on the development of writing skill, studies have also shown non-significant differences. Christiansen (1965) compared two groups of college freshmen. One group wrote 24 themes during the semester and did no reading, while the other group wrote 8 themes and read prose selections from the freshman reader. Likewise; both groups showed improvement, but no significant differences were found. Other studies which had also shown a non-significant effect of reading on writing ability were by O'Donnell (1974), Marden (1980), and Campbell (1977). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 15 Research in English as a Second Language Very little research has been conducted on the relation­ ship between reading and writing. Only three studies have been found, two published and one unpublished, which attempted to demonstrate a relationship between these two language skills. Two studies surveyed the amount of pleasure reading done by ESL students in their native language and English. Birss (Krashen 1984), in an unpublished research project, did a survey of second language writers similar to that done by Kimberling et al. for first language writers. International students enrolled in writing classes at the University of Southern California were surveyed as to their reading habits in both first and second language. He reported that better writers in English as a second language reported more pleasure reading in their first language as well their second language, with the first language in earlier years and second language occurring later. Janopoulos (1986) did a similar survey in which 79 foreign graduate students wrote on one of three open-ended composition topics given. Writing samples were evaluated holistically on a 4-point scale by a pair of trained raters. Compositions upon which agreement could not be made were submitted to a third rater for evalution. Students' writing proficiency was divided into two levels. A questionnaire was given in which students were asked to estimate the amount of time they spent each week reading for pleasure in their native Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 16 language and English. This study concluded that "those subjects who reported being 'heavy' pleasure readers in English tended to be more proficient writers in English, while subjects who reported being 'heavy' pleasure readers in their native language showed no such tendency" (767). However, the corre­ lation between total pleasure reading (LI plus L2) and L2 writing proficiency was found to be insignificant. A recent study on the effect of a reading program has shown a positive influence of pleasure reading in the develop­ ment of overall language proficiency in English. Elley and Mangubhai (1983) implemented a reading program to 380 elemen­ tary pupils in 8 rural Fijian schools. Each class in the experimental groups was provided with 250 high-interest story books in English. Two different methods of encouraging the pupils to read the books were used: Shared Book Experience, in which books of interest were discussed and read to the class, and Sustained Silent Reading, in which students read for pleasure each day, with no reports or written exercise required. The control group followed the normal structured English language program, which put little emphasis on reading. Pretest and post-test were given to all pupils. Post-test results after eight months showed that pupils exposed to the reading program made far greater gains as compared to students taught by the normal structured English program in reading and listening comprehension. After 20 months, the reading classes performed better in all tests of English proficiency, including Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 17 reading comprehension, grammar, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and writing. The surveys and the reading program have indicated a relationship between the quantity of L2 pleasure reading and the quality of L2 writing, but the relationship between LI reading and L2 writing is inconclusive. On the other hand, there is no published study that correlates reading ability and writing ability. Statement of Hypotheses Based on the aforementioned research on reading and writing in English as the first and second language, the following hypotheses for this study were formulated : 1. The ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with their reading comprehension ability in English. 2. The ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with the amount of time they spent on voluntary pleasure reading in their native language and/or English. 3. The ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with the number of books they read for pleasure in their native language and /or English. 4. The ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with the variety of reading materials they read for plea­ sure in their native language and/or English. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 18 Summary The purpose of this study was to determine if a relation­ ship exists between reading and writing. The relationship was concerned with the correlation between ESL students' writing ability in English and their reading ability in English. Another aspect of the relationship was concerned with the correlation of students' writing ability in English and the amount of pleasure reading they have done in their native language and English. This chapter also examined the theore­ tical foundations, which were based on Krashen's theory of second language acquisition. The review of empirical litera­ ture has presented considerable evidence to support the assumption that a relationship exists between writing ability and reading ability and between writing and the amount of pleasure reading done. Even though evidence from English as a second language is limited, the results appear to support this assumption. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • CHA PTER I I THE DESIGN AND RESULTS OF THE STUDY Research Design The present study was undertaken to investigate whether a relationship exists between reading and writing in English as a second language. The variables in this study were the students' writing ability in English, which was correlated with the following variables: (1) the students' reading comprehen­ sion scores in English, (2) the amount of time they spent on reading in their native language and/or English, (3) the number of books they read for pleasure in their native lan­ guage and/or English, and (4) the variety of reading materials they read for pleasure in their native language and/or English. Sampling Plan The subjects used for this study were ESL/EFL students in the EFL freshman composition classes, EFL 1341 and EFL 1342, and students from the intensive program at The University of Texas at Arlington. The sample selected included a total of 115 students: 48 students from EFL 1341, 22 students from EFL 1341, and 45 students from the intensive program. All the subjects had at least completed their high school education. Students in the EFL freshman composition 19 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 20 classes were undergraduates and graduates. Students in the intensive program were potential students for undergraduate or graduate studies. The age of the students ranged from 17 to 42, and their length of stay in the United States of America varied from 3 months to 12 years. They were native speakers of Arabic, Chinese, Portuguese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, Thai, Spanish, and Greek. Instruments Three research instruments were used for this study: (1) an essay, (2) a reading comprehension test, and (3) a qxxestion- naire. A 50 minute in-class essay was used to measure the students' ability to write an expository essay, the writing style for college work. The topics chosen for this task were appropriate for expository writing. In constructing the topics, cultural and racial bias and content appropriateness were taken into consideration. The topics were "Choose a person whom you admire. Explain why you admire this person." and "What is the most interesting course you have taken. Explain why this course is interesting." In writing on one of these topics, the students had to demonstrate their ability to organize the main ideas, support those ideas with specific details, and express the ideas using standard written English. The evaluation of the essay was based on the scoring guidelines devised by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) for Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 21 the Test of Written English in TOEFL. A holistic method of evaluation based on a 6-point criterion-referenced scoring guide was used. A 6-point essay would indicate "competence in writing on both the rhetorical and syntactic levels," while a 1-point essay would indicate "incompetence in writing" (see Appendix). A reading comprehension test was used to assess the • students' reading ability in English. The test used was a standardized test, one of the reading comprehension subtests of TOEFL published as study materials by ETS (see Appendix). The chosen test was actually used in one of the previous TOEFL exams. This test assessed the students' ability to read for main ideas and secondary ideas that were stated or implied in each of the six passages. Each passage was followed by several multiple-choice items, which totalled 30 for the entire test. Thirty minutes were allocated for the test. A questionnaire designed by the investigator was used to elicit the amount of pleasure reading students had done in their native language and in English at different times of their lives (see Appendix). Pleasure reading was defined as "reading done solely done for enjoyment and does not include reading done in conjunction with school or work" (Janopoulos 1986:764). The questionnaire had three sections. The first section had four open-ended questions which asked for some general information about the student. The close-ended- questions in Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 22 the next section enquired regarding the amount of pleasure reading the students had done in their native language in high school and during the last six months. The amount of pleasure reading was measured in terms of time spent, the number of books read, and the kinds of reading materials read. In the last section, similar questions were asked with regard to the amount of pleasure reading done in English in high school and during the last six months. To ensure some degree of reliability and validity, the questionnaire was pre-tested before it was used on the actual participants. The first pre-test was conducted informally among some peers, while the second pre-test was conducted on a class of 25 EFL students to ensure the reliability and validity of the questionnaire and the clarity of the questions. After answering the questionnaire, students were asked on an eva­ luation sheet whether all the questions and words were compre­ hensible to them; if not, they were asked to identify which question or word was unclear. The feedback was positive, so no changes were made with regard to the wording of questions. However, some revision was required; one question which enquired regarding the kinds of materials read was deleted because students who did not check one of the kinds of mate­ rials in this question would answer a following question per­ taining to that particular kind of material checked in the previous question. Therefore, deletion of the former question would help to avoid any inconsistency in the responses which Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 2 3 would present some problem in the analysis of the data. In addition, for each of the kinds of materials, students were asked if they read them for enjoyment; if yes, they were asked to check what kinds; for example, "Do you read magazines for enjoyment? If yes, what kinds of magazines did you read? (A) In high school? and (B) During the last six months?" (see Appendix). Data Collection The instruments were administered on three separate days in the following order. The essay was first collected. Students were given 50 minutes to write on a given topic. The investigator conducted the writing session for all the students. A total of 115 essays were collected. The essays were read independently by two raters, the investigator and another rater, in order to obtain some degree of reliability in the scoring of the essays. Both raters were experienced teachers of ESL. The scoring of the essays was based on the ETS scoring guidelines (see Appendix). The correlation between the raters' scoring was highly significant (r = 0.55, p = 0.001). Upon evaluation, students were classified into three levels based on the average score of the two raters. Students scoring an average of 4.5 to 6 points were classified as good writers (Level A), those scoring 2.5 to 4 points as average writers (Level B ) , and those scoring an average of 1 to 2 points as poor writers (Level C). See Table 1 for the number of students in each level. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 2 4 T A B LE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF 115 SUBJECTS INTO WRITING ABILITY LEVELS Number Percent Level A 19 17 Level B 68 59 Level C 28 24 The reading comprehension test used to measure students' reading ability was also administered by the writer the following week. The total of number of students who took this test was 93. The questionnaire was administered by the individual class teacher of the particular class: two of the classes were the investigator's own classes. About 10 minutes of class time were used for filling out the questionnaire. The number of respondents who answered the questionnaire was 91. In order to make the process of matching the data for correlational analysis, students were asked to use their names on the three instruments. However, after the matching, the data were numbered to maintain the anonymity of the students' identity. To increase the size of data, more data were collected from students in EFL 1342 due to insufficient number of students needed for Level A. A sample size of 20 for each group would Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 25 be needed to obtain a more valid statistical result. As a result of this, the group size of Level A was increased from 8 to 19. Table 2 shows the total number of data collected for each instrument according to the levels. TABLE 2 NUMBER OF DATA COLLECTED Level Essay Reading Test Questionnaire A 19 17 19 B 68 56 51 C 28 20 21 Total 115 93 91 Results Analysis of the collected data was done by computer. The results were coded and transferred for computer processing using SAS package. Two statistical tests were used: (1) the Pearson product-moment correlation or r test, which tests for correlation between two variables, and (2) analysis of variance (ANOVA), which tests for significant differences between the means of variables. To compute the correlation coefficient and ANOVA, the mid-points of the interval scale were used for the amount of time spent on pleasure reading and Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • the number of books read. Statistical analysis for each hypothesis will be discussed in the order which they were stated in chaper I. Hypothesis 1 This hypothesis states that ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with their reading ability in English. Result of the correlation analysis showed a highly significant positive correlation between the two variables where the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.56, which was statistically significant beyond the 0.001 level. A one-way analysis of variance was used to further test if the three levels performed differently in the reading comprehension test. The mean scores of each level were significantly different at the 0.001 level of confidence (see Table 3). The results indicated that students in the three levels of writing differed in their performance on the reading comprehension test. Hypothesis 2 This hypothesis states that ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with the amount of time they spend on voluntary pleasure reading in their native language and/or English. The correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between L2 writing ability and the amount of time spent on pleasure reading in LI during the Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 2 7 TA B LE 3 ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON READING SCORES FOR THREE LEVELS OF WRITING ABILITY Source of Variation DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Between Groups 2 769.37 384.69 13.72* Within Groups 90 2523.08 28.03 *Significant at 0.001 last 6 months, but it was not significant in high school. The correlation was significant the at 0.05 level of confidence. On the other hand, the correlations between L2 writing ability and the amount of time spent on reading in L2 in high., school and currently were negative but not significant (see Table 4). There was negative correlation between L2 writing ability and the amount of time spent on total pleasure reading (LI plus L2). The correlation was significant at 0.1 confidence level during the last 6 months and non-significant in high school as shown in Table 4. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 2 8 TA B LE 4 C O R R E LA TIO N S BETW EEN L 2 W R IT IN G A B IL IT Y AND TH E AMOUNT OF T IM E SPEN T ON L I AND L 2 R E A D IN G Correlation Coefficient Level of Significance Native Language High school -0.0613 0.57 Last 6 months -0.2178 0.04* English High school -0.1658 0.12 Last 6 months -0.1046 0.33 Native Language plus English High school -0.1663 0.12 Last 6 months -0.1866 * _ _ ** 0.08 ^Significant at 0.05 Significant at 0.1 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 2 9 Further analysis using two-way ANOVA showed a significant difference between the three levels of writing ability based on the number of hours spent reading in LI plus L2 during the last 6 months. The difference was significant at 0.05 confidence level (see Table 5). A comparison of the means of the three levels revealed that Level C had the highest mean, followed by Level B and then Level A (see Table 6). From this result, we can infer that Level C spent significantly more hours on reading in LI plus L2 during the last 6 months; hence the negative correlation. TABLE 5 TWO-WAY ANOVA ON THE AMOUNT OF TIME SPENT ON LI PLUS L2 READING FOR THREE LEVELS OF WRITING ABILITY Source of Variation DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Levels 2 3.405 1.702 27.02* Reading Hours 1 0.003 0.003 Significant at 0.05 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3 0 T A B LE 6 DATA FOR ANOVA - TIME SPENT ON READING IN LI PLUS L2 Level LI Reading L2 Reading X A 3.33 3.28 3.30 B 4.10 4.41 4.25 C 5.35 4.95 5.15 Hypothesis 3 This hypothesis states that ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with the number of books they read for pleasure in their native language and/or English. The correlation between L2 writing ability and the number of books read in LI or L2 in high school was positive but non-significant. The number of books read in L2 during the last 6 months had a non-significant negative relationship. However, the correlation was significant for the number of books currently read in LI (see Table 7). Result from ANOVA also indicated significant differences for the three levels of writing ability at 0.05 level of confidence for the number of books currently read in L I . Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 31 T A B LE 7 C O R R E LA TIO N S BETW EEN L 2 W R IT IN G A B IL IT Y AND THE NUMBER OF BOOKS READ I N L I a n d L 2 Correlation Coefficient Level of Significance Native Language High school 0.0846 0.43 Last 6 months -0.2551 0.01* English High school 0.0282 0.79 Last 6 months -0.0575 0.59 Native Language plus English High school 0.0516 0.63 Last 6 months -0.2064 0.05* *Significant at 0.05 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3 2 From Table 7, we can see that the correlation was negative and significant at 0.05 level of confidence for the number of books read currently in LI plus L2, while it was positive and non-significant for books read in high school. Hypothesis 4 This hypothesis states that ESL students' writing ability in English correlates with the variety of materials they read for pleasure in their native language and/or English. Three kinds of materials were examined in this study: books, magazines, and newspapers. For each kind of reading material, students were asked to indicate what kinds of books or magazines and which sections of the newspapers they read. Correlation analysis did not find any significant relationship between the kinds of books read and L2 writing ability. Simi­ larly, the reading of newspapers had no significant correlation (see Table 8). Significant positive correlations were found in the reading of magazines in LI and L2. For LI, the correlation was significant in high school at 0.1 level, but it was not significant during the last 6 months. Magazine reading in L2 was significant in high school and currently. There was also significant positive correlation between L2 writing ability and total magazine reading ( LI plus L2) done in high school and now and then. Table 9 shows a summary of the correlation analysis. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3 3 T A B L E 8 C O R R E L A T IO N S BETW EEN L 2 W R IT IN G A B IL IT Y AND THE K IN D S OF M A T E R IA L S (BOOKS AND N EW SPAPERS) READ IN L I AND L 2 Correlation Coefficient Level of Significance Books: Native Language -0.0029 0.99 English 0.1271 0.23 Native Language plus English 0.0784 0.46 Newspaper: Native Language High school 0.0650 0.54 Last 6 months 0.0436 0.68 English High school 0.1210 0.26 Last 6 months 0.1070 0.32 Native Language plus English High school 0.1292 0.23 Last 6 months 0.0825 0.44 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3 4 T A B LE 9 C O R R E LA TIO N S BETW EEN L 2 W R IT IN G A B IL IT Y AND THE K IN D S OF M A G A Z IN E S READ IN L I AND L 2 Correlation Coefficient Level of Significance Native Language High school 0.1851 0.08 Last 6 months 0.1253 0.24 English High school 0.2126 0.05* Last 6 months 0.2351 0.03* Native Language plus English High school 0.2246 0.04* Last 6 months 0.2295 0.03* ^Significant at 0.05 Significant at 0.1 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Further analysis using ANOVA showed a significant diffe­ rence between Levels A and C in the variety of magazines read in high school in L2 at 0.1 level of confidence (F = 2.43, p = 0.09) as well as in LI plus L2, significant at 0.5 level (F = 20.78, p = 0.05). The means of the three levels indicated that Level A students read more kinds of magazines than the other two levels; hence the positive correlation (see Table 10). TABLE 10 ANOVA DATA - KINDS OF MAGAZINES READ IN LI PLUS L2 (High School) Level LI L2 X A 2.78 2.11 2.44 B 2.31 1.43 1.87 C 2.00 1.45 1.72 Summary This study focused on determining the relationship between reading and writing. An essay, a reading comprehension test, and a questionnaire were utilized in this study. The format and the method of administering the three instruments were described in this chapter. The collected data were analyzed by computer, using two statistical tests to test for the degree of association and significant differences between the means of the variables. Statistical analysis of each Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3 6 hypothesis was discussed in detail giving the significant and non-significant correlations and differences between the three levels based on the mean scores of the variables tested. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • CHAPTER III SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary In Chapter I , the problem was stated and the rationale was provided for the study. The aim of the present study was to determine if reading is related to writing in a second language. Results of this study could provide empirical evidence to support the assumption that a relationship exists between reading and writing. Krashen's theory of second language acquisition provided the theoretical foundations for this study as the reading and writing assumption appears to be related to the input hypothesis of this theory, which may be applied to the acquisition of writing skill. Therefore, it is hypothesized that writing skill can be acquired through reading, which can be a source of comprehensible input. Empi­ rical evidence from research on English as a first and as a second language was reviewed. Most of the studies reviewed had presented considerable evidence to support the assumption that a strong relationship exists between reading and writing. Finally, based on the findings of previous research, four hypotheses were formulated for this study. Chapter II has two main sections. The first section described the research design, in which the population, the 37 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • instruments used in the study, and the procedures for data collection were described in detail. The next section gave the statistical analysis for each of the hypotheses. Both signifi­ cant and non-significant relationships were found. The discussion of the results will be presented in the following section. Conclusions Correlation analysis of the writing scores and the reading comprehension test scores gathered by this investi­ gation supported the hypothesis that ESL students' writing ability is related to their L2 reading comprehension ability. The correlation was significantly positive. One-way ANOVA further showed that the TOEFL reading comprehension test clearly discriminated among levels of writing ability. The results indicate that students who are more competent in their writing skill also read better than students who are less competent. This seems to support the reading hypothesis, for students who read and understood what was read had comprehen­ sible input, could facilitate the unconscious development of writing skill. The results of this analysis are similar to that of Grobe and Grobe, who diu their study on English as a first language. For the second hypothesis, the results showed a signi­ ficant negative correlation between students' L2 writing ability and the amount of time spent on pleasure reading in LI Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3 9 currently. This tends to suggest that less competent writers currently read more than competent writers in their LI. This seems to indicate that LI reading does not play a significant role in L2 writing. Perhaps the less competent writers who spent more hours on reading in LI might have problems in their L2 writing as a result of interference from their LI. This could be due to differences in the rhetorical systems, which according to Kaplan's study, varies from culture to culture. This finding is also consistent with Janopoulos' study, which reported that writers who read heavily in L2 did not show that they were proficient writers. With regard to the total current pleasure reading (LI plus L2), there was also a significant negative correlation with L2 writing ability. Besides, the ANOVA test did show that there were significant differences between the three levels on •the time spent on reading. The mean scores and negative correlation indicated that Level C spent more time on reading in LI plus L2 than the other two levels. One possible expla­ nation for the negative relationship for L2 reading and L2 writing could be that comprehensible input did not take place in spite of more exposure. There were studies that found no relationship between the amount of exposure and language proficiency (Krashen 1982). This finding does not agree with most of the studies in LI and the three studies in L2. Both Birss and Janopoulos found significant positive correlation between L2 writing ability and the amount of time spent on 1 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 40 pleasure reading in L2 during the last 6 months. However, one study in LI did not show positive relationship between reading and writing (Illo 1976) as well as three other studies which found no significant effect of reading on writing proficiency. •Results from the third hypothesis revealed findings similar to the second hypothesis. Less competent writers tend to read more books in their native language in their current reading habits than competent writers do. Significant negative relationship was also found in total number of books currently read in LI plus L 2 . This is consistent with the findings of the second hypothesis. On the other hand, correlation analysis found a signifi­ cant positive relationship between L2 writing ability and the number of kinds of magazines read in LI and L2 in high school. For current reading, the relationship was significant for L2, but not LI. Significant correlation was also found in LI plus L2 for both time periods. With regard to kinds of books and sections of newspaper read, there was no significant relation­ ship with L2 writing ability. The results seem to suggest that magazine reading appeals more to ESL students' reading interest; as such, it may play a significant role in the L2 writing process as competent writers tend to read signifi­ cantly more kinds of magazines than poor writers. Perhaps teachers could use magazines to motivate students' interest in reading to provide an interesting source of comprehensible input for the development of writing skill. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 41 Summary of Findings The findings of this study are: 1. Students' L2 writing ability correlates positively with their L2 reading comprehension ability. 2. Students' L2 writing correlates negatively with the amount of time they spent on pleasure reading in LI and LI plus L2 during the last 6 months. 3. Students' L2 writing ability correlates negatively with the number of books currently read in LI and LI plus L2. 4. Students' L2 writing ability correlates positively with the variety of magazines read in LI and/or L2 in high school. Correlation is also significant for magazines currently read in L2 and in LI plus L2. Pedagogical Implications This study has supported the hypothesis that there is a relationship between L2 reading ability and L2 writing ability. It appears to support the assumption that improving students' reading ability may indirectly help develop their writing ability. Therefore, this study seems to have provided some empirical evidence to support the rationale of integrating reading into the teaching of writing. It is suggested that extensive reading should be implemented rather than intensive reading in view of the assumptions of the reading hypothesis of Krashen and the value of extensive reading, which is clearly stated by Taylor (see Chapter I). The reading interest of the Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 42 students' should be taken into consideration when providing materials for reading. Magazine reading appears to be the main source of input for the students studied in this investigation, for it was found that magazine reading in LI and L2 correlates positively with their L2 writing ability. This might suggest that tea­ chers could make use of articles from magazines to motivate students to read by providing interesting comprehensible input to students. The negative relationship of LI reading and L2 writing might suggest rhetorical interference from LI. Therefore, the teaching of rhetorical structures could be helpful to incom­ petent writers. However, it would probably be more effective to integrate extensive reading with the teaching of rhetorical - structure as reading would provide a context in which they could see how a text is organized. Recommendations The study did not generally show a positive correlation between L2 writing and the amount of L2 reading as most of the studies in LI and L2 did. In fact, this study showed negative correlations in the amount of time spent on reading and the number of books in L2 even though they were not significant as a main effect, but they were significant in interaction with LI. Findings of this study do not agree with Birss and Janopoulos' studies as they found significant positive correlation. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 4 3 Therefore, further study needs to be conducted with regard to this issue. Similarly, the relationship between L2 writing and LI reading needs to be investigated further. Birss1 study showed a positive correlation between LI reading and L2 writing, especially reading done in high school, while Janopoulos' study and the present study did not find positive correlation in this area. Another related area of study is to determine whether LI reading and writing abilities are related to L2 writing. The study needs to be replicated to gather more data' on unresolved issues using a revised survey instrument. Besides, a questionnaire is always subject to individual interpretation of the questions asked; therefore, the validity of the ques­ tionnaire data depends on the ability and willingness of the respondent to provide the information requested. Finally,experimental research should be conducted to further validate the correlation findings. Experimental research design could find out whether reading has an effect on writing ability, while correlational research only identifies the degree of association between two or more variables; it does not identify a cause-and-effect relationship. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • A P P E N D IX THE INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE STUDY 44 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • ETS SCORING GUIDELINES Readers will assign scores based on the following scoring guide. Students should be rewarded for what they do well. Scores 6 A 6 essay clearly demonstrates competence in writing on both the rhetorical and syntactic level, though it may have occasional errors. A paper in this category - is well organized and well developed - effectively addresses the writing task - uses appropriate details to support a thesis or illustrate ideas - shows unity, coherence, and progression - displays consistent facility in the use of language - demonstrates syntactic variety and appropriate word choice 5 A 5 essay demonstrates competence in writing on both the rhetorical and syntactic levels, though it will have occasional error. A paper in this category - is generally well organized and well developed though it may have fewer details than does a 6 paper - may address same parts of the task more effectively than others - shows unity, coherence, and progression - demonstrates some syntactic variety and range of vocabulary - displays facility in language, though it may have more errors than does a 6 paper 4 An examinee who earns a 4 is minimally competent in writing on both the rhetorical and syntactic levels. A paper in this category - is adequately organized - addresses the writing topic adequately but may slight parts of the task - uses some details to support a thesis or illustrate ideas - demonstrates adequate but undistinguished or inconsistent facility with syntax and usage - may contain some serious errors which occasionally obscure meaning Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 46 Scores 3 A 3 essay clearly demonstrates some developing competence in ■writing, but it remains flawed on either rhetorical or syntactic level, or both A paper in this category may reveal one or more of the following weaknesses: - inadequate organization or development - failure to support or illustrate generalizations with appropriate or sufficient detail - an accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/or usage. - a noticeably inappropriate choice of words or word form 2 A 2 essay suggests incompetence in writing A paper in this category is seriously flawed by one or more of the following weaknesses: - failure to organize or develop - little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics - serious and frequent errors in usage or sentence structure - serious problems with focus 1 A 1 essay demonstrate incompetence in writing A paper in this category will contain serious and persistent writing errors, may be illogical or incoherent, or may reveal the writer's inability to comprehend the question. A paper that is underdeveloped, or one that exhibits no response at all, also falls into this category. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 47 READING COMPREHENSION Time:30 minutes Directions: In this test you will read several passages. Each passage is followed by several questions about it. For questions 1-30, you are to choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), to each question. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Passage 1 The tap dancer, like the flamenco performer, is basically an improviser. Thus looking at tap one wants to savor the personality and inventiveness of the individual. When Bill Robinson danced in the movies, his technical skill and sophisticated rhythms could be heard as well as seen. The Nicholas Brothers ran up walls or the proscenium arch of the theater or jumped off platforms and landed in splits on the floor. Peg Leg Bates, who had lost a leg, made a specialty out of dancing with his wooden leg. Sandman Sims scattered sand on the floor (as Fred Astaire did in one of his films) and tapped ever so softly, slid and turned in dances as soothing as lullabies. 1. According to the passage, in what way is the flamenco dancer similar to a tap dancer? (A) Both perform the same kinds of steps. (B) Both rely on individual inventiveness. (C) Both are trained in classical techniques. (D) Both make very little noise. 2. An acrobatic style of dancing was most closely associated with which of the following performers? (A) Peg Leg Bates (B) Bill Robinson (C) The Nicholas Brothers (D) Fred Astaire 3. Which two dancers used sand in their routines? (A) Robinson and Sims (B) The Nicholas brothers (C) Bates and Robinson (D) Sims and Astaire 4. The author implies which of the following about tap dancing (A) It is more complex than flamenco dancing. (B) It is meant to be heard as well as seen. (C) It became popular primarily because of the movies. (D) It should be performed by at least by two people. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 48 Passage 2 Even stranger than the lianas are the epiphytes, or the air plants. This large group includes orchids, cacti, aroids, bromeliads. They flower high in the trees without benefit of soil. There are also non-flowering lichens and mosses. The air plants attach themselves to crannies in the branches of trees and lianas. Usually they put forth a fine meshwork of roots. These collect dust and plant debris, and in time create a soil of their own. Often the roots also harbor ants, which help build up the soil by their waste and dead bodies. Water is scarce for the air plants, so they are adapted, like desert plants, to last through dry periods. When they do get water, they absorb it very quickly and conserve it carefully. Seme send dangling roots down through canopy until they can take nourishment from the earth itself. Then they may grow into large and burdensome trees on top of the trees on which they started life. A few strangle their supporting tree by building their own trunks around it. Others develop rosettes of overlapping leaves which catch and hold water; incidentally, these also serve as breeding places for mosquitoes, frogs, and swarms of tiny invertebrates. •5. The paragraph preceding the passage most probably discussed (A) lichens (B) lianas (C) desert plants (D) tiny invertebrates 6. Which of the following is a type of epiphyte? (A) Aroid (B) Ant (C) Mosquito (D) Liana 7. Where does a young air plant often develop? (A) Under the ground (B) In an ant hill (C) In the upper part of a tree (D) In the upper layers of the atmosphere 8. According to the passage, how are air plants and desert plants similar? (A) Both serve as breeding places for insects. (B) Both grow in the same environment. (C) Both have a fine meshwork of roots. (D) Both have ways of saving water. 9. According to the passage, an air plant can be damaging to which of the following forms of life? (A) An ant (B) A mosquito (C) An orchid (D) A tree Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 10. Rosettes of leaves help some air plants by (A) conserving -water (B) taking nourishment from the earth (C) creating soil (D) repelling harmful insects 11. Which of the following statements is true of all the epiphytes mentioned in the passage? (A) They are small. (B) They can grow without soil. (C) They have few roots. (D) They have rosettes. Passage 3 Sometimes certain eras or events from our past receive little or no attention. This might be because there is little information available on these subjects, or because the subjects are controversial or shameful, and we are reluctant to face them. But when we ignore or deny a part of our past, we fail to learn the lessons that history can teach us, and we neglect people who are part of that history. These people-and their history-can become "invisible," and in time we can forgot that they ought to be part of what we think of as history. 12. What is the author's main point? (A) History tends to repeat itself. (B) Historians should not write about disputed matters. (C) More people should study history. (D) No part of history should be ignored. 13. It can be inferred from the passage that the best motivation for studying history is to (A) learn from its past lessons (B) appreciate the perspectives of writers of historical texts (C) become more well-rounded students (D) compare the life-styles of major historical characters 14. The author implies that the work of historians would be more valuable if they (A) asked current world leaders to write down their views of history (B) included accounts of unpleasant events in their texts (C) wrote psychological discussions about incidents in history (D) emphasized a biographical viewpoint in history books Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Passage 4 The science of meteorology is concerned with the study of the structure, state and behavior of t-he atmosphere. The subject may be approached from several directions, but the scene cannot be fully appreciated from any one vantage point. Different views must be inte­ grated to give perspective to the whole picture. One may consider the condition of the atmosphere at a given moment and attempt to predict changes from that condition over a period of a few hours to a few days ahead. This approach is covered by the branch of the science called synoptic meteorology. Synoptic meteorology is the scientific basis of the technique of weather forecasting by means of a the preparation and analysis of weather maps and aerological diagrams. The practical importance of the numerous applications of weather forecasting cannot be overestimated. In serving the needs of shipping, aviation, agriculture, industry, and many other interests and fields of human activity with accurate weather warnings and professional forecast advice, great benefits are reaped in the form of the saving of human life and property and in economic advantages of various kinds. One important purpose of the science of meteorology is constantly to strive, through advancedstudy and research, to increase our knowledge of the atmospherewith the aim of improving the accuracy of weather forecasts. The tools needed to advance our knowledge in this wayare the disciplines of mathematics and physics to solve meteorological problems. The use of these tools forms that branch of the science called dynamic meteorology. 15. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? (A) The Limitations of Meteorological Forecasting (B) New Advances in Synoptic Meteorology (C) Approaches to the Science of Meteorology (D) The Basics of Dynamic Meteorology 16. The predictions of synoptic meteorologists are directly based on the (A) application of the physical sciences (B) preparation and study of weather maps (C) anticipated needs of industry (D) observations of commercial airline pilots 17. Which of the following is NOT referred to by the author as a field whose needs are served by weather forecasting? (A) Transportation (B) Manufacturing (C) Fanning (D) Sports 18. The author implies that increased accuracy in weather forecasting will lead to (A) more funds allocated to meteorological research (B) greater protection of human life (C) a higher number of professional forecasters (D) less-specialized forms of synoptic meteorology Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 51 19. Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the third paragraph of the passage? (A) A procedure is explained and its importance is emphasized. (B) Two contrasting views of a problem are presented. (C) Recent scientific advancements are outlined in order of importance. (D) A problem is examined and possible solutions are given. 20. In the last sentence of the passage, the phrase "these tools" refers to (A) weather forecasts (B) meteorological problems (C) mathematics and physics (D) economic advantages Passage 5 Lew Archer, the detective hero created by Ross MacDonald in The Moving Target (1949), is more literary in his tastes than Mike Hammer, and so more apt to muse on fate and the past than to create a political philosophy out of the individualist fantasies of the present. In part, Archer owes his special sensitivity to the fact that his creator placed him in the hastily thrown up world of California and the West Coast rather than in the grimy eastern cities of Spillane and Hammer. Attuned to history as much as to action, Archer is more fascinated by the past patterns of relationships that erupt into the present than by the immediacies of violence and personal confrontation. Like other American naturalists, both Archer and Hammer pride themselves on their ability to know all the parts of town and country. But MacDonald explores what Spillane essentially disregards: the intricacies of family and the gradation of social class. Thus Spillanes's hero seems to spring from Hammett and Hemingway, while MacDonald's Archer owes his lineage to Chandler and Faulkner. 21. What is the author's main purpose in the passage? (A) To explain the plot of The Moving Target (B) To show the importance of setting in the detective novel (C) To prove that Archer and Hammer are literary heroes (D) To compare two characters in detective fiction 22. In the second sentence of the passage, the word "creator" refers to a (A) fantasist (B) naturalist (C) writer (D) philosopher 23. Which of the following is LEAST -likely to be characteristic of an Archer story? (A) A violent argument (B) A California setting (C) A concern with social class (D) A study of family relationships Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 24. Which of the following best describes MacDonald's relationship to Chandler and Faulkner? (A) MacDonald portrayed the lives of Chandler and Faulkner in one of his novels. (B) MacDonald followed in the tradition of Chandler and Faulkner. (C) MacDonald influenced the work of Chandler and Faulkner. (D) MacDonald disregarded the intricacies of Chandler and Faulkner. 25. The paragraph preceding the passage probably discussed the writing of which of the following individuals? (A) Hemingway (B) Chandler (C) Spillane (D) Faulkner Passage 6 There are various ways in which individual economic units can interact with one another. Three basic ways may be described as the market system, the administered system, and the traditional system. In a market system individual economic units are free to interact among each other in the marketplace. It is possible to buy commodities from other economic units or sell cammodi-ties to them. In a market, transactions may take place via barter or money exchange. In a barter economy, real goods such as automobiles, shoes, and pizzas are traded against each other. Obviously, finding somebody who wants to trade my old car in exchange for a sailboat may not always be an easy task. Hence, the introduction of money as a medium of exchange eases transactions considerably. In the modem market economy, goods and services are bought or sold for money. An alternative to the market system is administrative control by some agency over all transactions. This agency will issue edicts or commands -as to how much of each good andservice should be produced, exchanged, and consumed by each economic unit. Central planning maybe one way of administering such an economy. The central plan, drawn up by the government, shows the amounts of each commodity produced by the various firms and allocated to different households for consumption. This is an example of complete planning of production, consumption, and exchange for the whole economy. In a traditional society, production and consumption patterns are governed by tradition: every person's place within the economic system is fixed by parentage, religion, and custom. Transactions take place on the basis of tradition, too. People belonging to a certain group or caste may have an obligation to care for other persons, provide them with food and shelter, care for their health, and provide for their education. Clearly, in a system where every decision is made on the basis of tradition alone, progress may be difficult to achieve. A stagnant society may result. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 16. What is the main purpose of the passage? (A) To outline contrasting types of economic systems (B) To explain the science of economics (C) To argue for the superiority of one economic system (D) To compare barter and money-exchange markets 27. In the second paragraph, the word "real" in "realgoods" could be best replaced by which of the following? (A) high quality (B) concrete (C) utter (D) authentic 28. According to the passage, a barter economy can lead to (A) rapid speed of transactions (B) misunderstandings (C) inflation (D) difficulties for the traders 29. According to the passage, who has the greatest degree of control in an administered system? (A) Individual households (B) Small businesses (C) Major corporations (D) The government 30. Which of the following is NOT mentioned by the author as a criterion for determining a person's place in a traditional society? (A) Family background (B) Age (C) Religious beliefs (D) Custom Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 54 QUESTIONNAIRE The data collected in this questionnaire will be used for my thesis research. Please answer all the following questions as accurately as possible. Your participation and cooperation is highly appreciated. 1. Name:______ ;__________ Age:_ 2. How long have you been in the U.S.A.?__________ 3. How long have you studied English? (a) in your own country _______________________ (b) in the U.S._________________ 4. What is your native language?_________________ READING IN YOUR NATIVE LANGUAGE Please check ( X ) the response which best describes the amount of pleasure reading you have done in your native language. Pleasure reading is reading done for enjoyment and does not include reading done for school work. 5. On an average, how many hours per week did you spend on reading for enjoyment or pleasure? (A) in high school: a. 0 - 2 hours d.____9 - 1 1 hours b. ___ 3 - 5 hours e.____more than 11 hours c. ___ 6 - 8 hours (B) during the last 6 months: a. 0 - 2 hours b. ___3 - 5 hours c. ___ 6 - 8 hours 6. Do you read books for enjoyment or If yes, (A) On an average, how many books enjoyment in high school? a. ___ 0 - 4 books b. ___ 5 - 9 books c. ___ 10 - 14 books (B) On an average, how many books have you read during the last 6 months? a. none d.____7 - 9 books b. ___1 - 3 books e.____more than 9 books. c. ___ 4 - 6 books d. ___9 - 1 1 hours e. more than 11 hours pleasure? Yes/ No. per year did you read for d. ___15 - 19 books e. more than 19 books Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 55 (C) what kind(s) of books do you read? (You may check more than one response). . a. story books & novels d.___non-fiction books b. comic books (biographies, histories) c. science fiction bookse. other(s) (please specify) 7. Dp you read popular magazines for enjoyment? Yes/ No. If yes, what kind(s) of magazines did you regularly read? (You may check more than one response). (A) in high school: a. sports e. entertainment (eg. movies; T.V.) b. science f. news magazines (eg.Time; Newsweek) c. business g. ___ _ other(s) (please specify): d. women's magazines (B) during the last 6 months: a. business e. b. science f. c. sports g. d. women's magazines 8. Do you read the daily newspaper for enjoyment? Yes/ No. If yes, which section(s) of the daily newspaper did you usually read? (You may check more than one response.) (A) in high school: a. _ _ national & local news e._____entertainment b. world newsf. advertisements c. sports g._____other(s) (please d. business specify): __________ (B) during the last 6 months: a. world news e. sports b. national & localnews f. business c. advertisements g. other(s) (please d. entertainment specify):_____________ READING IN ENGLISH Please check ( X ) the response which best describes the amount of pleasure reading you have done in English. Pleasure reading is reading done for enjoyment and does not include reading done for school. 9. On an average, how many hours enjoyment or pleasure? (A) in high school: a. ___0 - 2 hours b. ___3 - 5 hours c. 6 - 8 hours Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. per week did you spend on reading for d. ___9 - 1 1 hours e. more than 11 hours news magazines (eg.Time; Newsweek) entertainment (eg. movies; T.V.) other(s) (please specify):
  • 56 (B) during the last 6 months: a. ___0 - 2 hours d. ___9 - 1 1 hours b. ___3 - 5 hours e. ___more than 11 hours c. ___6 - 8 hours 10 Do you read books for enjoyment or pleasure? Yes/ No. If yes, (A) On an average, how many books per year did you read for enjoyment in high school? a. none d. ___9 - 1 2 books b. __1 - 4 books e.____more than 12 books c. ___5 - 8 books (B) How many books have you read for enjoyment during the last 6 months? a. none d. ___5 - 6 books b. ___1 - 2 books e.____more than 6 books c. ___3 - 4 books (C) VJhat kind(s) of books do you read for enjoyment? (You may check more than one response.) a. story books & novelsd. non-fiction books b. science fiction books (biographies,histories) c. comic bookse. other(s) (please specify):_________________ 11. Do you read popular magazines for enjoyment? Yes/ No. If yes, what kind(s) of magazines did you regularly read? (You may check more than one response.) (A) in high school: a. sports e. ____entertainment (eg. movies; T.V.) b. science f._____news magazines (eg. Time; Newsweek) c. business g. ____other(s) (please specify): d. women's ____________________ _________ magazines (B) during the last 6 months: a. business e._____entertainment (eg. movies & T.V.) b. sports f._____news magazines (eg. Time; Newsweek) c. science g. ____other(s) (please specify): d. women's___________ _______________ ______________ magazines 12. Do you read the daily newspaper of enjoyment? Yes/ No If yes, which section(s) of the daily newspaper did you usually read? (You may check more than one response). (A) in high school: a. national & local news e._____entertainment b. world news f._____advertisements c. sports g._____other(s) (please d. business specify):___________ Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • (B) during the last 6 months: a. national & local news b. world news c. sports d. advertisements e. entertainment f. business g. other(s) (please specify):___________ Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • REFERENCES Applebee, Arthur N. 1978. Teaching high-achievement students: A survey of the winners of the 1977 NCTE achievement awards in writing. Research in the Teaching of English 12.338-48. Campbell, D. B. 1977. A study of two methods of teaching English in a community college setting. Dissertation Abstracts International 37.4808A. Christiansen, Mark A. 1965. Tripling writing and omitting readings in freshman English: An experiment. College Composition and Communication 16.122-4. Clark, J. D. 1935. A four-year study of freshman English. English Journal 24.403-10. Cortese, Guiseppina. 1985. From receptive to productive in post-intermediate EFL classes: A pedagogical experiment. TESOL Quarterly 19.7-25. DeVries, Ted. 1970. Reading, writing and expository writing. Reading Improvement 7.14-9. Donelson, Kenneth L. 1967. Variables distinguishing between effective and ineffective writers in the tenth grade. Journal of Experimental Education 35.37-41. Dulay, Heidi C., and Marina K. Burt. 1974. You can't learn without goofing. Error analysis: Perspectives on second language acquisition, ed. by Jack C. Richards, 95-123. London: Longman. 58 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Elley, Warwick, and Francis Mangubhai. 1983. The impact of reading on second language learning. Reading Research Quarterly 19.53-67. Evanechko, Peter; Lloyd Ollila; and Robert Armstrong. 1974. An investigation of the relationship between children's performance in written language and their reading ability. Research in the teaching of English 8.315-26. Educational Testing Service. 1987. TOEFL test and score manual. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. Fader, D. 1976. Hooked on Books. New York: Berkeley Books. Grobe, Shelley F., and Cary H. Grobe. 1977. Reading skills as a correlate of writing ability in college freshmen. Reading World Oct.50-4. Heys, Frank, Jr. 1962. The theme-a-week assumption: A report of an experiment. English Journal 51.320-2. Illo, John. 1976. From senior to freshman: A study of perfor­ mance in English composition in high school and college. Research in the Teaching of English 10.127-36. James, Carl. 1980. Contrastive analysis. London: Longman. Janopoulcus, Michael. 1986. The relationship of pleasure reading and second language writing proficiency. TESOL Quarterly 20.763-8. Kaplan, R. 1972. The anatomy of rhetoric. Philadelphia: Center of Curriculum Development. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 60 Krashen, Stephen D. 1978. On the acquisition of planned discourse: Written English as a second dialect. Clare­ mont Reading Conference: 42nd Yearbook, ed. by M. Douglas, 173-85. Claremont: Claremont Graduate School. _________. 1982. Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press. _________. 1984. Writing: Research, theory and applications. Oxford: Pergamon Press. _________. 1985. The input hypothesis. New York: Longman Inc. Krashen, Stephen D . , and Tracy D. Terrell. 1983. The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. San Francisco: Alemany Press. Marden, P. 1980. A study of the effects of a literary models appraoch to composition on writing and reading achieve­ ment. Dissertation Abstracts International 40.6137A. Mathews, Ernest G.; Robert P. Larsen; and Gibbon Butler. 1945. Experimental investigation of the relation between reading training and achievement in college composition classes. Journal of Educational Research 38.499-505. O'Donnell, J. F. 1974. An experimental study of the effects of the supplemental use of a psycholinguistic remedial tutorial program on the reading and writing behaviors of black high risk college freshmen and on their attitudes toward reading, writing, and other college-related stimuli. Dissertation Abstracts International 35.1552-3A. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Raimes, Ann. 1978. Problems and teaching strategies in ESL composition. Center for Applied Linguistics. ________ _. 1985. What unskilled ESL students do as they write: A classroom study of composing. TESOL Quarterly 19.229-58. Ravem, Roar. 1974. The development of Wh-questions in first and second language. Error analysis: Perspectives on second language Acquisition, ed. by Jack C. Richards, 124-55. London: Longman. Ryan, John. 1977. Family patterns of reading problems: The family that reads together. Claremont Reading Conference: 41st Yearbook, ed. by M. Douglas, 159-63. Claremont: Claremont Graduate School. Sarig, Gissi. 1987. High-level reading in the first and in the foreign language: Some comparative process data. Research in reading in English as a second language, ed. by Joanne Devine, Patricia L. Carrell, and David E. Eskey, 107-23. Washington, D. C.: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. 1 Selinker, Larry, and Russel Tomlin. 1986. An empirical look at the integration and separation of skills in ELT. ELT Journal. 40.227-35. Shih, May. 1986. Content-based approaches to teaching academic writing. TESOL Quarterly 20.617-48. Spack, Ruth. 1985. Literature, reading, writing, and ESL: Bridging the gaps. TESOL Quarterly 19.703-25. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Taylor, Barry P. 1981. Content and written form: A two-way street. TESOL Quarterly 16.5-13. Woodward, John C., and Arthur G. Phillips. 1967. Profile of the poor writer. Research in the Teaching of English 1.41-53. Zamel, Vivian. 1983. The process of advanced ESL students: Six case histories. TESOL Quarterly 17.165-87. Zeman, Samuel S. 1969. Reading comprehension and writing of second and third graders. The Reading Teacher 23.144-50. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.