Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis MuscleActivity Ratios for Selected Exercises in PersonsWith and Without Patellofe...
Table 1, Subject Anthmpometric Data                                                                                       ...
pubis. The locations of the VL and AM           corded during rest and during maxi-         Exercises for Subjects Without...
Table 2. Exercise Abbreviations and DejinitionsAbbreviation                                                               ...
ported on the forward, tested limb.              exercises with and without patellar           correlation coefficients (I...
Table 3. Integrated Electromyograpbic Activity (Percentage ofMaximum) During Quadriceps Femoris Musclea Set of Exercisesfo...
-Table 6. Integrated Electromyographic Activfty (Percentage of Mammum) During Zsometrlc Exercise for Subjects WithoutPatel...
Table 6. Integrated Electromyographic Activity (Percentage ofMaximum) During Walk-Stanceand Step-Down Exercbes forSubjects...
increase in the VL activity from                            Discussion                                        effectively ...
trodes, a method of expressing the          known, as both muscles may be in-           cally compare their data and their...
increase in magnitude, the greater will      flexed or moving for at least 3 seconds         Conclusionsbe the medial pull...
8 Kettlekamp DB. Management of patellar              compression syndrome. Am J Phys Med. 1992;              data. Journal...
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Vastus medialis oblique vastus lateralis muscle activity ratios


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Vastus medialis oblique vastus lateralis muscle activity ratios

  1. 1. Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis MuscleActivity Ratios for Selected Exercises in PersonsWith and Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome --Background and Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine which Kay Cemyof selected exercises with and without the feet free to move would enhancevastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO) activity over that of the vastus lateralismuscle ( W ) and whether the use of taping would increase VMO activity.Subjects. Twenty-one subjects without patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome and10 subjects with PFP syndrome, aged 19 to 43 years @=26, SD= 71, partici-pated. Metbods. Subjects were studied for the normalized, integrated electro-myographic (IEMG) activity of their M O , W , and adductor magnus muscle(subjects without PFP syndrome) and the V M O m ratio using wire electrodes.Results. One exercise demonstrated greater activation of the VMO over the Wwhen compared with similar exercises in subjects without PFP syndrome. Themean VMOhT activity ratio for terminal knee extension was 1.2 (SD= 0.5) withthe hip medially rotated and 1.0 (SD= 0.4) with the hip laterally rotated. Al-though subjects reported that patellar taping decreased pain 94% during thestep-down exercise, the V M O m ratio was not changed. Conclusion andDiscussforr The results suggest that neither exercises purported to selectivelyactivate VMO activity nor patellar taping improve the V M O m ratio over simi-lar exercises. lCerny K. Vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis muscle activityratios for selected exercises in persons with and without patellofemoral painsyndrome. Phys Ther. 1995; 75672- 683.1Key Words: Adductor magnus, Electromyography, Patellc$moral, Vastus lateralis,Vastus medialis oblique.Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is com- common site of knee pain in sports PFP syndrome.4-6-8As a result, bothmon in the general population, occur- medicine clinics.-5 Lateral malalign- surgical and conservative treatments toring more often in women and in ment of the patella has been sug- correct this rnalalignrnent have beenathletes, with the joint being the most gested as one of the major causes of suggested.1~4-10 Many exercise treatments emphasize the importance of the vastus medialisK Cerny, PhD, PT,is Professor, Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health and Human oblique muscle (VM0)6,8,10 because ofServices, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, C 90840-5603 (USA) A its medial pull on the patella.11-15(KCERNY@CSULB.EDU). Some researcherslb-19 suggest thatThe study protocol was approved by the Human Subjects Committee, California State University, contraction of the hip adductor andLong Beach. quadriceps femoris muscles simulta-Results of this research were previously presented at the 1991 and 1992 Annual Conferences of neously would preferentially activatethe California Chapter of the American Physical Therapy Association and at the 1991 and 1922 the VMO. Other researchersl7.19 reportAnnual Conferences of the Long Beach Veterans Administration Hospital-California State Univer- that the vastus medialis muscle (VM) issity, Long Beach-Memorial Medical Center of Long Beach. activated preferentially in response tom k article was submitted August 24, 1994, and was accepted April 3, 1995.26 / 672 Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 / August 1995
  2. 2. Table 1, Subject Anthmpometric Data Body Weight (Ibb) NO. of - Age 0 - Subjects X SD Range X SD RangeSubjects without PFPB syndrome Women 10 Men 11Subjects with PFP syndrome Women Men"PFP=patellofemoral pain.b l lb=0.4536 kg.valgus stress at the knee caused by The primary purpose of this study was fore beginning the study. The subjectship lateral rotation during knee exten- to determine whether any of the exer- rated their pain after stepdown exer-sion exercises and that hip medial cises purported to increase the activity cise on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 beingrotation, therefore, decreases the activ- of the VMO over the VL, the VMO/VL minimal pain and 10 being the worstity of the VM. Still others920921 have activity ratio, did so when compared pain that they could imagine, and theyreported greater VMO activity during with similar exercises in subjects with reported the percentage of change inknee extension with the knee rela- and without PlT. A secondary pur- pain with step down after taping. Thetively flex.ed than in terminal knee pose of this investigation was to deter- subjects with PlT were required toextension. Knee extension exercise mine whether therapeutic medial-glide have at least a 50% reduction in painwith tibial medial rotation has been taping altered the activity of the VMO with patellar taping to participate inproposed because the VMO is pur- or the V or the VMO/VL activity ratio. L the study. All subjects provided in-ported to prevent lateral rotation of Another purpose was to determine formed consent consistent with univer-the tibial8.19 and therefore to decrease which of similar exercises increased sity policy.the quadriceps femoris muscle angle the activity of the VMO, VL, and ad-(Q angle) and lateral patellar track- ductor magnus muscle (AM). Finally, Iing.22 Pronation of the subtalar joint wanted to determine whether genderand medial rotation of the tibia, how- influenced the muscle activity studied. Myoelectric activity was measured byever, have also been claimed to in- use of indwelling wire electrodes ofcrease lateral tracki11g.~,~3 Method 50-pm nickel alloy. The electrodes, insulated except for 2 rnrn at the ends,McConnel16J6trains patients with PFP Subjects were inserted into the muscle with asyndrome in unilateral and bilateral 25-gauge needle. The needle waslimb flexion exercises in weight bear- Twenty-one subjects who had no withdrawn, leaving the barbed ends ofing (walk stance and wall slide) and known lower-limb musculoskeletal the wire electrodes in place. The wirestepdown exercises because these impairments and who exhibited no electrodes were inserted into the VMOpatients have increased pain with signs of neurological impairment and and V of all subjects. In addition, a Lthese activities. Although soft bracing 10 subjects with PlT participated in wire electrode was placed in the A Mhas previously been suggested to this study. The subjects average age, of the subjects without PlT syndromenegate the valgus force of the quadri- average body weight, and gender are to ensure that they were contractingceps femoris muscles on the patella,l,5 shown in Table 1. Subjects with syrnp- the muscle during exercises. The wireMcConnel16J6suggests improving toms had a physicians diagnosis of for the VMO was placed in the middlepatellar tracking, decreasing pain, and PFP within 6 years of the testing date of the muscle belly. The wire for theincreasing the vastus medialis oblique/ and reported retropatellar pain during V was placed in the muscle approxi- Lvastus lateralis muscle (VMO/VL) at least two of the following activities: mately one t i d of the distance from hractivity ratio in persons with PlT by (1) squatting, (2) ascending and de- the patella to the anterior superior iliactaping the patella or tensor fascia lata scending stairs, and (3) prolonged spine. The wire for the A was in- Mmuscle medially. Little evidence exists All sitting.1-3s4 subjects with PlT per- serted into the muscle just anterior toto support the use of the exercises formed a step-down exercise from a the gracilis muscle, approximately oneand procedures reviewed. 22.9-cm (9-in) stool with and without t i d of the distance from the medial hr medial-glide taping of the patella be- femoral epicondyle to the syrnphysisPhysical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 / August 1995 673 / 27
  3. 3. pubis. The locations of the VL and AM corded during rest and during maxi- Exercises for Subjects Withoutinseltions were chosen because they mal manual resistance tests. All PFP Syndrome: Open Chainproved to be the most distal locations, recordings during the resistance testsconsistently affording a full electro- were obtained with the subjects posi- Three groups of open-chain activitiesmyographic (EMG) interference pat- tioned supine and supported on their were used for interexercise compari-tern upon muscle activation during elbows. For the VMO and VL tests, the son: quadriceps femoris muscle settingpilot testing. The distal VL insertion subjects knee extension was resisted ("quad sets"), knee extension, andwas used to sample the oblique por- while the hip and knee were flexed isometric holds. All exercises weretion of the VL, which is purported to approximately 30 degrees. For the AM performed against the resistance of anbest oppose the action of the VM0.12 test, the subjects were resisted for hip ankle cuff weight equal to 5% of eachThe distal AM insertion was used to adduction with the knee extended. subjects body weight to the nearestsample its activity near the origin of pound.the VMO.3 The leg each subject said Exercise Pmcedureswas the dominant leg was tested in all Quad sets (QS). Quad sets wereexcept one of the subjects without Exercises included what Lehmkuhl isometric exercises performed in fullPFP syndrome. The nondorninant limb and Smith24 and Soderberg25 have knee extension with the subjects posi-was tested in one subject without PFP described as "open-chain and tioned long sitting and supported onsyndrome because he had a previous "closed-chain" activities of the lower their hands with their heels lifted off ofknee surgery on the dominant side. limb, performed in random order for 5 the table to decrease the possibility ofThe most severely involved leg of the seconds each. Lower-limb open-chain substitution by hip extensor activity.subjects with PFP was tested. exercises were performed with the The six quad set exercises were done sole of the foot free to move, whereas with (1) the hip and ankle positionedIn order to decrease the chance of closed-chain exercises had the sole of in neutral (QS), (2) the hip maximallywire electrode migration during test- the foot planted on the floor. The medially rotated and the ankle posi-ing, subjects contracted the inserted terms "open chain and "closed chain" tioned in neutral (QSMR), (3) the hipmuscle maximally several times after are used here to denote whether the maximally laterally rotated and theneedle insertion to pull the wire into distal limb segment was free to move ankle positioned in neutral (QSLR), (4)the muscle. In addition, the investiga- when the quadriceps femoris muscles the hip maximally adducted against ator moved the limb into full knee contracted. Open-chain exercises were pillow bolster with the ankle posi-flexion and extension and full hip randomly chosen to be performed tioned in neutral (QSA), (5) the hipabduction and adduction to allow the prior to or after closed-chain exercises. positioned in neutral and the anklewire to slip further into the tissues Subjects practiced dynamic exercises maximally dorsiflexed (QSDF), and (6)before taping the external wire to the until the investigators were satisfied the hip positioned in neutral and thelimb with a stress-relief loop. that movements were smoothly timed ankle maximally plantar flexed with a metronome at 1 beat per sec- (QSPF).Surface ground plates and the teleme- ond. Starting positions of the kneetry system were attached to the sub- were monitored with a standard goni- Knee extension (KE). The kneeject, and the electrode wires were ometer. Subjects moved and their extension exercises were performedconnected to attachment posts on the EMG activity was recorded during with the subjects in a sitting positionground plates. Myoelectric signals exercises, beginning on the beat of a with the knee flexed from 30 to 0were differentially amplified, band- metronome. Movement began with a degrees and the ankle positioned inpass filtered (50-850 Hz), and trans- "go" command from the investigator neutral. The movement was timedmitted by FM-FM telemetry to a re- immediately following a "ready" com- with a metronome for 3 seconds,ceiver interfaced to a B&L computer mand at the previous metronome followed by a 2-second hold at full(model 286): Placement of electrodes beat. Electromyographic recording extension. The three exercises werein the vastus muscles rather than rec- during isometric exercises began after performed with (1) the hip positionedtus femoris muscle was confirmed by the raw EMG level stabilized in a full in neutral (ICE), (2) the hip maximallynoting activity during isometric knee interference pattern. In consideration laterally rotated (KELR), and (3) theextension and silence during com- of the tolerance of the subjects with hip maximally medially rotatedbined isometric hip and knee flexion. PFP syndrome, fewer exercises were (KEMR).Placement in the AM rather than the performed by the subjects with PFPVM was confirmed by noting activity syndrome than by the subjects without Isometric holds in flexion (IS). Iso-during isometric hip adduction and PFP syndrome. Abbreviations and metric hold exercises were isometricsilence during isometric knee exten- definitions of the exercises used in this knee extension exercises performedsion. The EMG activity was then re- study are presented in Table 2. with the subjects in a sitting position with their hip and ankle positioned in neutral. The five exercises were done with (1) the knee flexed 15 degreesB&L Engineering, 12309 E Florence Ave, Santa Fe Springs, C 90670 A and the tibia in neutral rotation (IS15), Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 / August 1995
  4. 4. Table 2. Exercise Abbreviations and DejinitionsAbbreviation DefinitionExercises for subjects without patellofemoral joint pain syndrome Open chain Quadriceps femoris muscle set (QS) lsornetric at full knee extension QS Hip and ankle neutral QSML Hip maximally medially rotated, ankle neutral QSLR Hip maximally laterally rotated, ankle neutral QSA Hip adducting against a bolster, ankle neutral QSDF Hip neutral, ankle maximalty dorsiflexed QSPF Hip neutral, ankle maximally plantar flexed Knee extension (KE) 30" to 0" extension, ankle neutral KE Hip neutral KEMR Hip maximally medially rotated KELH Hip maximally laterally rotated Isometric hold (IS) Hip and ankle neutral IS15 Knee at 15" flexion, tibia in neutral rotation IS45 Knee at 45" flexion, tibia in neutral rotation IS60 Knee at 60" flexion, tibia in neutral rotation IS45MR Knee at 45" flexion, tibia maximally medially rotated IS45LR Knee at 45" flexion, tibia maximally laterally rotated Closed chain Walk stance-stepdown (WS-SD) Unilateral knee flexion to 45", hip in neutral rotation and subtalar joint unconstrained WSS WS with subtalar joint in maximal supination WSP WS with subtalar joint in maximal pronation WSPT WS after patellar medial-glide taping WSTT WS after medial-glidetaping of the tensor fascia lata muscle Step down from a 22.9-cm (9-in)stool leading with contralateral SD limb, hip in neutral rotation and subtalar joint unconstrained Wall slide (WSI) WSI Bilateral knee flexion to 45", hip in neutral rotation WSIA WSI while hip adducting against bolsterExercises for subjects with patellofemoral joint pain syndrome Open chain QS, 1515, IS601, KE As described above Closed chain WS, WSI, WSIA, SD As described above Isometric knee extension and hip adduction against a bolster sitting with sole of foot on floor(2) the knee flexed 60 degrees and the Exercises for Subjects Without seconds, followed by a 2-second holdtibia in neutral rotation (IS60), (3) the PFP Syndmme: Closed Chain at the end position.knee flexed 45 degrees and the tibiain neutral rotation (IS45), (4) the knee Two groups of closed-chain exercises Walk stance-step down (WS-SO).flexed 45 degrees and the tibia maxi- were used for interexercise compari- Walk-stance exercises were unilateralrnally laterally rotated (IS45LR), and son: (1) walk-stance and step-down exercises performed to 45 degrees of(5) the knee flexed 45 degrees and the exercises and (2) wall-slide exercises. knee flexion with the hip in neutraltibia maximally medially rotated Movements were performed for 3 rotation and the subjects weight sup-(IS45MR)Physical Therapy /Volume 75, Number 8 /August 1995
  5. 5. ported on the forward, tested limb. exercises with and without patellar correlation coefficients (ICC[3,1D forThe opposite toe was permitted to taping. two repeated measures of QS, QSA,remain on the floor for balance only. IS60, IS15, WS, WSl, WSlA, SD, andBalance was also provided by touch- Open-chain exercises were QS, IS15, knee extension from 30 to 0 degreesing the hands of an investigator. The IS60, and KE. Closed-chain exercises of flexion using the same EMG pro-five exercises were performed with (1) were done both before and after the cessing as in this study. Two insertionthe subtalar joint unconstrained (WS); patella was taped medially with a sites in locations bordering within 1.27(2) the subtalar joint maximally supi- medial frontal-plane tilt and rotation to cm (0.5 in) of those used in thls studynated (WSS); (3) subtalar joint maxi- position the inferior pole of the patella were sampled for each muscle. Eightymally pronated (WSP); (4) the subtalar inferiorly. The closed-chain exercises percent of all ICCs were above .30.joint unconstrained after the patella were WS, WSl, WSlA, SD, and isomet- Reliability averaged .81 for the VMO,was taped medially with a media ric knee extension and hip adduction ranging from .37 to .98, and averagedfrontal-plane tilt and rotation to posi- in a sitting position with hips and .91 for the VL, ranging from .77 to .98.tion the inferior pole of the patella knees flexed to 90 degrees (ISQA). The VMO/VL ratio averaged .93, rang-inferiorly (WSPT); and (5) the subtalar This exercise was considered closed ing from .88 to .%, with the exceptionjoint unconstrained after tensor fascia chain because subjects were instructed of .55 for walk stance using the lowerlata muscle medial-glide taping to contract the vastus muscles by insertion sites. The walk-stance ratio(WSrr3. pushing the foot against the floor and for the upper insertion sites was .97. to squeeze the bolster maximally.The final exercise was a step down The average EMG value was calcu-from a 22.9-cm stool, with the subject At the end of testing, wire electrodes lated for each muscle of each subjectleading with the contralateral limb were slipped out of the muscle, and for each exercise, and a VMO/VL ratiowhile the tested limb was in neutral the skin was cleaned with alcohol. was calculated from these values.hip rotation. The hold was with the Total testing time was 1 2 to 2 hours Y Mean values for VMO, VL, and AMcontralateral foot just off of the floor per subject. myoelectric activity and the VMO/VL(SD). ratio were calculated for each exercise. Data Anahsis Exercises in each of the five groups ofWall slide (WSO. The wall-slide exer- exercises for subjects without PFPcises were bilateral exercises that the The EMG activity was digitized at syndrome (QS, KE, IS, WS-SD, WSl)subjects performed from an upright 2,000 samples per second through an were compared across exercises forstanding position to 45 degrees of AID convertert run by the B&L soft- muscle activity and VMO/VL ratio by aknee flexion while the trunk main- ware (version 4.19).*The software two-way repeated-measures multivari-tained contact with the wall. This was then rectified the signals and set noise ate analysis of variance (MANOVA),done to prevent decreasing the quad- thresholds from the first 2 seconds of with gender as the grouping factor.riceps femoris muscle demand by activity of the resting EMG record. The Exercises for openchain activities forshlftig the center of gravity of the threshold was the lowest level of patients with PFP syndrome weretrunk anteriorly. The subjects feet activity recorded below which 95% of compared across exercises for musclewere parallel, shoulder width apart, the resting EMG signal was found. activity and VMOm ratio by a one-and just far enough from the wall to Only EMG activity greater than thresh- way repeated-measures MANOVA.allow knee flexion to 45 degrees. The old was then quantified by integration. Exercises for closed-chain activities forhips were in neutral rotation. The two Signals were integrated each 1/50 sec- subjects with PFP were comparedwall-slide exercises were performed as ond for each 5-second exercise. The across exercises for muscle activity(1) a straight wall slide (WSl) and (2) a EMG values for each exercise were and VMONL ratio by a two-waywall slide while squeezing a pillow normalized by the software by division repeated-measures MANOVA, withbolster between the knees (WSlA). by the EMG value from the maximal taping as the grouping factor. When exercise tests. All EMG values reported MANOVA results were sigdicant, aExercises for Subjects With PFP are therefore expressed as a percent- subsequent univariate analysis of vari-Syndmme age of maximal activity. ance (ANOVA) was done for each muscle tested. A level of significanceProcedures were identical to those for Within-day reliability of the integrated, of .05 was accepted, and a Bonferronisubjects without PFP syndrome, unless normalized EMG values for the VMO, adjustment was used for post hocotherwise noted. Groups of exercises the VL, and the VMOnZ ratio was t tests. The BMDP statisticalfor interexercise comparison were previously established in 12 subjects was used for all exercises and closed-chain without PFP syndrome by intraclass AU reported significant results refer totModel DT2801-A, Data Translation, 100 Locke Dr, Marlborough, MA 01752-1192. post hoc sigmlicance. For these results,QMDP Statistical Software Inc, Los Angeles, CA 9008630 / 676 Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 / August 1995
  6. 6. Table 3. Integrated Electromyograpbic Activity (Percentage ofMaximum) During Quadriceps Femoris Musclea Set of Exercisesfor Subjects Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (N=20) VMO VL AM VMONL X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum x SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum MaximumNeutral 53 26 13 97 50 23 6 80 12 22b 0 68 1.2 0.5 0.6 3.0Hip medial rotation 53 28 10 111 46 22 7 79 16 25 0 78 1.2 0.5 0.4 2.9Hip latetal rotation 48 27 9 91 48 24 3 87 7 10 0 31 1.1 0.6 0.2 3.5Hip adduction 56 23 2 94 52 19 20 86 32 206 1 75 1.1 0.4 0.0 2.1Ankle dorsiflexion 58 24 7 92 52 21 10 92 14 25 0 78 1.2 0.4 0.2 2.0Ankle plantar flexion 52 24 7 84 50 27 5 105 5 11 0 45 1.2 0.5 0.6 2.8"Muscle ahbreviations: vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL),adductor magnus (AM)b~ignificant post hoc difference for two-way analysis of variance (F= 11.7; df= 1,8; P=.0031).the MANOVA and ANOVA results position for the VMO, VL, or V M O M (34%+ 18% and 35%+ 15%, respec-were also significant. ratio (Tab. 3). The EMG activity tively) than in either rotated position ranged from 48% to 58% of maximum of the hlp. The VMO activity wasSubjects Without PFP Syndrome for the VMO and from 46% to 52% of 28%+6% for KEMR and 22%+12% for maximum for the VL. The VMO/VL KELR, whereas VL activity wasDue to rc:cording difficulties, one male ratio ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. Although 28%2 13% for KEMR and 26%+ 12%subjects data were lost for the quad AM activity was higher for QSA for KELR (Tab. 4). No difference, how-set and closed-chain exercises. (32%2200/0) than for QS (12%222%), ever, was seen in the VMO/VL ratio the increased AM activity did not affect between KE and either KEMR orOpen-chain exemises. Means and the VMO, VL, or VMO/VL ratio activity KELR. Comparison between KEMRstandard deviations of data and com- (Tab. 3). and KELR showed higher VMO activ-parisons that yielded statistically signif- ity and VMO/VL activity ratio in KEMRicant results are reported in Tables 3 Knee extension exercises were com- than in KELR (Tab. 4). The VMO/VL-through 5. No differences in myoelec- pared post hoc between KE and both ratio was 1.220.5 for KEMR andtric activity due to gender were seen. KEMR and KELR and between KEMR 1.020.4 for KELR.Comparison of the quad set exercise and KELR. Comparisons of KE withwith all its variants showed no differ- KEMR and KELR showed higher VMO Isometric hold exercises were com-ences due to ankle or hip rotation and VL activity in the KE exercise pared post hoc between IS60 and bothTable 4. Integrated Electromyograpbic Activity (Percentage of Maximum) During Knee Extension Exercises From 30 to 0 Degreesfor Subjects Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (N= 21)" VMO VL AM VMONL 2 SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum - -HIP neutral 34 18b.c 3 81 35 15d,e 14 64 4 8 0 36 1.1 0.4 0.6 2.0HIP medial rotation 28 16b 8 84 28 13d 7 54 3 8 0 37 1.2 0.5 0.5 2.4Hip lateral rotat~on 22 12 4 64 26 12e 10 51 8 26 0 116 1.O 0.4 0.3 2.2-- --"Muscle abbreviations: vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL),adductor magnus (AM).b~ignificanr post hoc difference for two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F= 10.2; df= 1,19; P=.0049.)Significanl. post hoc difference for two-way ANOVA (F=21.1; df= 1,19; F . 0 0 0 2 ) .d~ignilicant post hoc difference for two-way ANOVA ( F 1 7 . 3 ; df= 1,19; F ,0005).eSignilicanf post hoc difference for two-way ANOVA (F=13.4; d p 1 , 1 9 ; P=.0017).Significant past hoc daerence for two-way ANOVA (F=10.0; df=1,19; F . 0 0 4 9 ) .Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 /August 1995
  7. 7. -Table 6. Integrated Electromyographic Activfty (Percentage of Mammum) During Zsometrlc Exercise for Subjects WithoutPatellofemoral Pain Syndrome (N=21,P VMO 2 SD Minimum Maximum VL X SD Minimum Maximum AM X SD Minimum Maximum VMONL x SD Minimum MaximumKnee flexion posture 60" 5 3b 1 14 5 3C 1 12 1 2 0 6 1.3 1.2 0.1 5.0 45" 5 4 0 17 7 6 0 18 1 3 0 12 1.3 1.3 0.2 4.4 Tibial medial rotation 6 4 0 15 8 5 2 17 1 2 0 10 1.2 1.4 0.2 4.8 Tibial lateral rotation 5 4 0 17 8 6 1 20 1 2 0 10 1.0 1.0 0.1 3.6 15" 18 1 2 ~0 61 22 10C 8 42 3 4 0 15 1.0 0.5 0.3 2.5"Muscle abbreviations:vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor magnus (AM).*significantpost hoc difference for two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F=34.9; df--1,19; P=.0000).Significant post hoc di5erence for two-way ANOVA (F=84.7; dp1,19; P=.0000)IS15 and IS45 and between IS45 and Separate analysis by gender for the cally sigmlicant results for open- andboth IS45MR and IS45LR. Less myo- VMO and V comparing WS with L closed-chain exercises are given inelectric activity of the VMO and V L WSS, WSP, WSFT, WSIT, and SD Tables 8 and 9, respectively. Thewas seen in IS60 (5%+3% for both) tended to show greater activity for VMOM. ratio did not d&er in com-than in IS15 (18%+12% and both the VMO and V during the SD L parisons of QS with IS60, IS15, and KE22%+ I@?,respectively) without a exercise than during the WS exercise and of IS60 with IS15 (Tab. 8). Higherchange in the VMO/VL ratio (Tab. 5). (Tab. 6). Both muscle values for VMO and V activity, however, oc- LTibial rotation did not affect the VMO women but only VL values for men curred during the QS activity than inor V activity or the VMO/VL ratio for L were different between SD and WS. any other open-chain activity. The QSthe 45-degree position. When data from men and women activity was 101%+30% for the VMO were combined, the difference in and 90?!+36% for the VL. The highestClosed-chain exemises. Data were VMO activity between SD and W wasS activity in other open-chain exerciseslost while recording the activity during sigmlicant (P=.0000). No influence of was 49/02 17% for the VMO andthe WSFT in 1 male subject. Analysis gender or exercise was seen for either 48%+ 17% for the V during KE. In Lwas therefore performed on 19 sub- AM activity or VMO/VL ratio for the addition, IS15 demanded more vastusjects for all six exercises in the WS-SD WS-SD exercise comparisons, although muscle activity than did IS60 (Tab. 8).group and also for al 20 subjects for l a trend toward increased AM activity The VMO activity increased fromthe remaining five exercises. No differ- from W to SD was found. S 6%+ 5% for IS60 to 40%+ 25% for IS15,ences resulted between these analyses. whereas V activity increased from L No differences in EMG activity due to 7%+6% to 37%+21%, respectively.Means and standard deviations of data gender were seen in WSl exercises.and comparisons that yielded statisti- Likewise, no difference in VMO/VL Patellar taping did not affect closed-cally significant results are reported in ratio was seen between WSl and chain muscle activity, even though theTables 6 and 7. Gender/exercise inter- WSh, but greater activity was seen in decrease in pain after patellar tapingactions were seen for the VMO and the AM, VMO, and V during WSlA L for the SD exercise averaged 94%.VL for the WS-SD exercise group. than in WS1 (Tab. 7). The AM activity Analyses comparing W with WSl, SD, SAthough muscle activity was similar increased from 2%+ 3% to 30%+ 53% and ISQA and WSl with WSlA werebetween men and women for all WS when adduction was added to the WS1 not sigdicant for the VMOM ratioexercises, ranging from 11% to 15% exercise. The VMO increased from (Tab. 9). Both the VMO and VL werefor women and from 11% to 16% for 9 ? + 6 %to 17%+7%, whereas the V L less active in the W (31%+ 23 for Smen, women required approximately increased from 9?+5% to 17%+8% VMO and 38%+36% for VL.) than intwice the activity as men for SD (Tab. with the addition of adduction to WSl. the SD (65%?22% for VMO and6). Average VMO activity was 77%+36% for VL) or ISQA (63%+31%24%211% for men and 45%+60/0 for Subjects With PFP Syndrome for VMO and 69/0+36% for VL). Thewomen, whereas VL activity averaged VMO increased its activity when ad-19??7% for men and 41%+3% for Means and standard deviations of data duction was added to the wall slidewomen. and comparisons that yielded statisti- from 13%+7% to 30%+ 18%. The32 / 678 Physical Therapy /Volume 75, Number 8 /August 1995
  8. 8. Table 6. Integrated Electromyographic Activity (Percentage ofMaximum) During Walk-Stanceand Step-Down Exercbes forSubjects Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (N= 2 0 7 VMO VL AM VMOM - X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum SD Minimum Maximum XWalk-stance neutral 11 24b 0 105 1.3 0.2 0.4 4.9 Women 12 8 2 27 11 5d 2 20 Men 13 6e 5 22 13 9 3 30Walk-stance supinated 9 10 0 55 1.1 0.4 0.5 2.6 Women 15 9 6 29 14 6 7 23 Men 14 6 5 28 15 7 5 32Walk-stance pronated 5 7 0 26 1.0 0.4 0.4 2.1 Women 14 9 3 37 15 8 4 32 Men 15 6 8 26 16 6 5 23Walk-stance TFLg tape 7 13 0 56 1.1 0.5 0.5 2.3 Women 14 7 8 26 13 4 7 20 Men 13 6 3 23 13 8 4 28Walk-stance patellar tape (n= 19) 9 15 0 59 1.3 0.9 0.5 4.1 Women(n=lO) 12 6 2 21 11 6 3 22 Men (n=9) 13 6 4 25 11 8 5 31Step down 21 2d) 0 71 1.2 0.6 0.5 3.4 Women 45 6 35 54 41 13d 23 69 Men 2411 7 40e 19 7 10 32aMuscle abbreviations: vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor rnagnus (AM). rend for past hoc difference for two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) not significant ( P 3 . 9 ; df-1,18; P=.0630)."Significantpost hoc difference for one-way ANOVA (F=154.4; df-1,9; P=.0000).d~ignificantpost hoc dierence for one-way ANOVA (F=61.6; df-1,9; P=.0000).Trend for post hoc difference for one-way ANOVA not significant (F=10.3;df-1,9; P=.0106), Note: P=.0000 when men and women combined(F=102.9; df-1,181./Significant post hoc differencefor one-way ANOVA ( F11.8; d f - 1,9; F ,0074).Tensor fascia lata muscle.Table 7. Integrated Electtomyographic Activity (Percentage of Mmmum) During Wall-Slide Exercbes With and Without H p iAdduction for Subjects Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (N=207 VMO VL AM VMONL - X SD Minimum Maximum % SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum x SD Minimum MaximumWithout adduction 9 6b 1 18 9 5 1 18 2 3d 0 12 1.3 1.2 0.3 5.3With adduction 17 7b 6 32 17 8 5 31 30 53d 1 240 1.2 0.7 0.4 3.1aMuscle abbreviations: vastus medialis oblique WMO),vastus lateralis (VL), adductor magnus (AM)b~ignificant difference for two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F=28.3; df-1,18; P=.0000).Significant difference for two-way ANOVA (F=35.5; df-1,18; P=.0000).d~ignificant difference for two-way ANOVA (F=6.0; df-1,18; e . 0 2 5 3 )Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 /August 1995
  9. 9. increase in the VL activity from Discussion effectively compare the EMG signal-16%? 10%for WSI to 36%?32% with between muscles, each of which mayWSlA did not reach the rigor of post Technique be a different distance from the re-ha: significance. cording electrode, and between sub- The amount of EMG signal recorded is jects, each of whom may have dependent on the location and size of different-sized muscles and different the recording electrodes. In order to distances from active muscle to elec-Table 8. Integrated Electromyographic Activity (Percentage of Maximum1 During Open-Chain Exercises for Subjects WithPatellofemoral Pain Syndrome (N= 10)" VMO VL VMONL - - X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum MaximumQuadriceps femoris muscle set 101 3Pd 54 149 90 36e-g 42 149 1.2 0.5 0.8 2.3Isometric at 60 6 5b*h 1 14 7 6e,i 2 22 1.0 1.0 0.0 3.3Isometric at 15" 40 25C,h 12 81 37 21f,j 6 73 1.2 0.6 0.3 2.4Extension 30"-0" 49 17d 31 79 48 17g 27 67 1.1 0.4 0.5 2.2"Muscle abbreviations: vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL). Note: extension was not compared with isometric exercises. post hoc difference for analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F= 103.4; df= 1 9 ; P= ,0000).b~ignificantSignificant post hoc difference for ANOVA (F=60.1; df= 1,9; F . 0 0 0 0 ) . post hoc difference for ANOVA (F=41.4; df= 1,9; P= ,0001).d~ignificant-Significant post hoc difference for ANOVA (F= 52.2; df= 1,9; P= .0000)./significant post hoc difference for ANOVA (F=29.0; d p 1,9; P=.0004).RSignificantpost hoc difference for ANOVA (F=21.1; d p 1 , 9 ; P= ,0013).significant post hoc difference for ANOVA (F=25.6;df= 1,9; e . 0 0 0 7 ) .Significant post hoc ditference for ANOVA (F=24.4; df-1,9; F . 0 0 0 8 ) .Table 9. Integrated Electromyographic Activity (Percentage of Mmammum) During Closed-Chain Exercises for Subjects WithPatellofernoral Pain Syndrome (N= 101" VMO VL VMONL - X SD Minimum Maximum X SD Minimum Maximum x SD Minimum MaximumWalk stance 31 23beC 6 89 38 36d,e 8 137 1.O 0.6 0.3 2.6Wall slide 13 7 2 28 16 109 5 45 0.9 0.5 0.3 2.0Wall slide with adduction 30 18 8 74 36 32g 11 131 1.0 0.5 0.3 2.0Step down 65 22b 31 98 77 36d 40 171 0.9 0.3 0.5 1.4Isometric sitting at 90 with adduction 63 31" 13 148 69 36e 27 173 1.0 0.4 0.4 1.9"Muscle abbreviations:vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis 0 2 . . ) Data averaged for patellar taped and untaped exercises post hoc difference for two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F=50.9; df= 1,9; P=.0001).b~ignificantSignificant post hoc ditference for two-way ANOVA (F=18.5; df=1,9;P=.0020). post hoc diference for two-way ANOVA (F=218.3; d p 1 , 9 ; P=0000).d~ignificantSignificant post hoc difference for two-way ANOVA (F=56.3; df=1,9;P=0000).&&cant post hoc d8erence for two-way ANOVA (F=11.1; df= 1,9; P= ,0088).8Trend for past hoc difference for two-way ANOVA (F=6.3; df=1,9; e . 0 3 3 6 ) . Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 / August 1995
  10. 10. trodes, a method of expressing the known, as both muscles may be in- cally compare their data and theirEMG activity of a spechc muscle as a creasing their activity the same results could be in error due to vol-ratio of activity to some reference amounts. Normalized EMG data are ume conduction of adductor musclevalue eliminates the influence of loca- ratio data. A true absence of activity activity to their widely spaced (22.54tion and size of recording electrodes. can exist, and ratios are used in nor- c [rli surface electrodes over m aUse of the maximum isometric EMG malization of the data. the VM. Hanten and Sculthies adduc-activity as the normalizing factor al- tion exercise, although not requiringlows expression of activity in an easily Knee flexor activity may have oc- quadriceps femoris muscle activity, stillunderstandable ratio and has been curred in some of the openchain elicited high levels of activity in bothshown to provide better reliability exercises and most likely occurred in the VMO and VL.18 Perhaps conscious(ICC) than using either dynamic maxi- the closed-chain exercises. The pur- activation of the vastus muscles withmal or submaximal EMG activity in the pose of this study was to compare adduction negates any benefit of ad-gastrocnemius muscle.26 results across similar exercises, regard- duction exercise to preferentially aai- less of whether other activity was vate the VMO. Wheatley and Jahnkel9The software used for data collection present. Rather than examine vastus also reported greater V activity dur- Mprevented collection of data for less muscle activity when no other activity ing QS with leg lateral rotation. Inthan 5 seconds per trial. Because was present, this study was designed addition, the findings of my study aremovement during dynamic exercise to study exercises widely used in not consistent with the theories thatwould be much slower than custom- physical therapy. the VMO is selectively activated in aary in clinical practice if movement flexed position of the knee, duringwas prolonged for 5 seconds, only 3 VMOIVL Ratio tibial medial or lateral rotation, orseconds of movement was used, with during subtalar joint pronation.6.9.18-23a 2-second hold at the end position. This study did not support the claimsAs a result, two fifths of each dynamic that certain commonly used exercises Results of taping the patella and theexercise was actually isometric. Be- or patellar or tensor fascia lata muscle tensor fascia lata muscle in my studycause no differences were found in medial-ghde taping enhance VMO are in contrast to McConnells findingVMO/VL ratios at different isometric activity over VL activity. The only of an increased VMO/VL activity ratiopositions, this practice of collecting 2 exercise to show a higher VMO/VL in symptomatic subjects with suchseconds of isometric data in each ratio in comparison with similar exer- taping, even though subjects with PFPdynamic exercise probably had no cises was KEMR in comparison with in my study reported greatly reducedeffect on the overall ratio. Further- KELR. This finding is in contrast to the pain during the SD exercise aftermore, exercises with movement were commonly held hypothesis that hip medial-glide taping.16 McConnell didcompared only with other exercises lateral rotation, by creating a knee not report her EMG recording proce-with movement, except that K was E abduction torque, enhances the activ- dures. Whether her VMO data maycompared with ISs and ISQA was ity of the VM9 but is consistent with have been contaminated by volumecompared with exercises with move- the reported lack of preferential activa- conduction of activity of nearby mus-ment in subjects with PFP syndrome. tion of the VMO during knee exten- cles to the VMO electrode, therefore, sion with a knee abduction torque.27~2~ cannot be judged.I had no method of quantifying my Whether the small magnitude of in-ability to control the speed of move- crease in VMO/VL ratio (0.2) found Some caution must be taken in inter-ment. Undoubtedly, some error ex- with medial over lateral rotation of the preting the findings of no effects ofisted in subjects ability to move at a femur is clinically significant is not specific exercise or taping on theconstant speed with the metronome. known. Its significance most likely VMO/VL activity ratio because of theLikewise, I had no better method of depends on the magnitude of the low number of subjects in this study.controlling isometric knee flexion lateral tracking of the patella. Ratio differences of 0.7 for ISs, 0.3 forpositions than use of a standard goni- QSs, and 0.6 for KEs, WS-SD, andometer. The error introduced by these Likewise, preferential activation of the WSls in subjects without PFP syn-shortcomings is unknown. These VMO over the VL is not consistent drome and of 0.7 for openchain exer-techniques, however, approximate with this and other EMG studies of hip cises, 0.5 for closed-chain exercises,clinical practice more than would a adduction27or tibial rotationl8.29 with and 0.4 for taping in subjects with PFPmore elaborate method used to con- knee extension. Two investigations of syndrome were necessary to satisfy atrol speed or position. openchain adduction exercises that statistical power of .80.3O True differ- did not require a simultaneous quadri- ences less than these ratios, therefore,The VMONL ratio was used in this ceps femoris muscle contraction, how- could have been present withoutstudy because it reflects the relative ever, did show preferential activation rejection of the null hypothesis. Thecontributions of the VMO and VL. I of the V or VM0.18J9 Wheatley and M magnitude of change in the VMO/VLbelieve an increase of VMO activity Jahnke19 reported that V action po- M ratio necessary for therapeutic effect iswith a specific exercise is meaningless tentials occurred during hip adduction, unknown. Certainly, the greater theif the relative activity of the VL is un- but they did not quantlfy or statisti-Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 / August 1995
  11. 11. increase in magnitude, the greater will flexed or moving for at least 3 seconds Conclusionsbe the medial pull on the patella. of all other open-chain activities. As a result, subjects had the opportunity to Whether in the subjects with PFP or inLack of preferential activation of the produce high levels of EMG activity in those without PFP, only one exerciseVMO over the V due to exercise L the QS exercises while maintaining resulted in a higher VMONL activitypurported to produce such activation their test position. I suggest that they ratio over similar exercises. The KEMRor due to patellar taping leads to the produced this high level of activity showed a higher VMONL ratio thanquestion of whether the VMO can be because they were well motivated. the KELR. Exercises more commonlytrained to selectively increase its activ- Attempts at increasing EMG activity prescribed to enhance VMO activityity. Studies of EMG biofeedback train- during the other openchain exercises over that of the VL, however, failed toing for the VMO are needed to answer would have either increased the speed selectively activate the VMO. Further-this question. of movement (controlled with a met- more, the results of this study indicate ronome) or moved the leg from the that medial-glide taping of the patellaBecause no dfierence in the VMONL isometric test position. Either of these or tensor fascia lata muscle does notratio was found with patellar taping activities would have resulted in dis- alter the VMONL ratio.although pain was decreased an aver- carding the data and repeating theage of 94%, I question that taping exercise until the desired velocity or Acknowledgmentsdecreases pain due to appropriate posture was attained. As a result, therealignment of the patella. The ability EMG activity was lower for these I thank the following California Stateto reliably determine patellar align- exercises. Because 0thers27,3~ have University, Long Beach, physical ther-ment is p0or.3~ Therefore, the ability found higher vastus muscle activity in apy students for their assistance in thisto appropriately realign the patella is QS than in straight leg raising, the QS project: Janet Froggatt, Anthonyquestionable. Furthermore, I found no has consistently been shown to be an Granger, Cynthia Grauf, Kathy Harbertevidence in the literature that patellar excellent exercise for recruiting vastus Greenwood, Michael Greenwood,taping can maintain the position of the muscle activity. Gregory R Jue, Mark Klem, Sonjapatella during exercise. The effect on Maul, Nancy Rhoan, Susan Royce,PFP of placebo taping of the patella or The increased activity in both the Stacy Sarnano, Ernie Sanchez, Milanof taping the patella with randomly VMO and VL during IS15 over IS60 Steijn, David Swink, Carol Whitmire,chosen direction has not been studied. in both the subjects with and with- and Laura Olsen. I thank MichaelThe positive effect of taping may be out PFP syndrome is expected due Monahan for his question in class thatdue to additional sensory input or the to the increased quadriceps femoris inspired this research, and I thankplacebo effect. The effect of patellar muscle demand at 15 degrees with- Charles Felder, PT, OCS, instructor fortaping, therefore, should be studied in out preferential demand for VMO McCOM~~~ seminars, who consulteda large group of subjects with PFP. a ~ t i v i t y . ~ ~ ~ " ~ ~ This3 increased ~.3 -35 with me on this project and whoTwo groups of subjects without mechanical demand at 15 degrees taught me the McComell tapingknowledge of taping theory randomly is due to the combined effects of technique.assigned to receive medial or lateral increased gravitational lever armpatellar taping can be studied using a and decreased muscle length andblind research design. lever arm of the quadriceps femoris References muscle. 1 Levine J. Chondromalacia patellae. Tbe Phy-Both subjects with and without PFP sician and Sportsmedicine. 1979;7(8):41-49.appeared to have similar VMO/VL Because the WSlA tended to recruit 2 Outerbridge RE. Further studies on the aeti-ratios in open-chain exercise, whereas w, , greater ~ 0 and AM than ology of ch~ndromalacia Surg [Brl. 1964;46:179-190. patellae. J Bone Jointsubjects with PFP appeared to have the wS1and because the SD and ISQA 3 Puniello MS. Iliotibial band tightness andlower ratios in closed-chain exercise recruited greater VMO, VL, and AM medial patellar glide in patients with patel-than subjects without PEP. Whether activity than the WS, the sumested lofernoral dysfunction. J Ortbop sports ~ h y sthis apparent difference is statistically benefit of these closedcharexercises Tber. 1993;17:144-148. 4 Fulkerson JP, Hungerford DS. Disorders ofsigdicant or whether it is important is in persons with may be due to a the Patellofemoral loitzt. 2nd ed. Baltimore.unknown. Statistical comparison in high level of coactivation of the knee ~ dw : ~ ~ i i m swiikins; 1990 i &further studies would be beneficial. extensors and hlp extensors (AM) to 5 Malek MM, Mangine RE. Patellofemoral pain better conkdl the femur. A comparison syndrome: a comprehensive and conservative approach. J Orthop Sports Phys Tber. 1981;2:VMO, VL, and AM Activity of lower-limb extensor muscle activity 108-116, ~- - - - between closed-chain exercises that 6 McConnell J. The management of chondro-Subjects in this study averaged higher mandate multisegment control of the malacia patellae: a long-term solution. Austra-VMO and V activity during the QS L lower limb and open-chain exercises lian Journal of Physiotherapy. 1986;32:215- q-9 LL3.exercises than in other open-chain in subjects with Pm yndrome 7 Schutzer SF. Ramsby GR, Fulkerson JP.exercises. They were at end range of be beneficial. Computed tomographic classification of patel-knee extension for 5 seconds during lofemoral pain patients. OrthoD Clin North Am. 1986;17:235-248.the QS exercises but were either more Physical Therapy / Volume 75, Number 8 / August 1995
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