Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Schiffman cb10 ppt_08
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Schiffman cb10 ppt_08

  • 4,192 views
Published

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,192
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
791
Comments
0
Likes
5

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Eight.
  • We have attitudes toward many things – to people, products, advertisements, ideas, and more. For the most part, these attitudes have been learned and guide our behavior toward the object. This web link brings you to one of many sites that helps measure attitudes via online surveys.
  • It is important to understand these four concepts. The first is that we must clearly define the object which we are discussing or measuring the attitude toward. Is it a product category, a specific brand, or a particular model? The second is the agreement among researchers that attitudes are learned , either through direct experience or from others. Attitudes are consistent , they are not necessarily permanent and can change over time. We all know how our attitude can be affected by a situation – think about the times you have to eat foods that are not necessarily your favorite but they are what is available or what you are being served at a friend’s house.
  • These are models that attempt to understand the relationships between attitude and behavior. They will be explained in more detail on the following slides.
  • The tricomponent attitude model has three components, as seen on this figure – the cognitive, affective, and conative components. Each of these will be explained in more detail in the slides that follow.
  • The cognitive component is what you know or think about an object. This can be formed through direct experience or what you learn from others. The knowledge you form becomes a belief.
  • How you feel about a brand, the emotions you have toward it, constitutes the affective component of the model. These feelings often tend to be overall good or bad feelings.
  • The conative component describes the likelihood that you will do something in regard to the object. One of the most important is your intention to buy a certain object.
  • You probably have an overall positive or negative feeling toward your university. Try to break this affective component down a bit more – what do you like and not like? You can now look to the cognitive to determine what beliefs you have about these different parts of your university. Finally, how does this influence what you do? Will you come back for a graduate degree? Recommend your little brother or sister attend? Send your children here? Donate money as an alumnus?
  • Just as the name implies, these are models that breakdown overall attitude into the attributes or beliefs which form an overall opinion. There are several of these models, as you will see on the next few slides.
  • According to the attitude-toward-object model , consumers will like a brand or product that has an adequate level of attributes that the consumer thinks are positive. For example, if you are buying a home, there is a list of attributes that the home must have – 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, air conditioning, and a back yard. With this model, an attitude is positive for the house that has the most of these attributes.
  • Instead of asking people what product they like and have positive attitudes toward, the attitude-toward-behavior model is based on how positive someone's attitude is toward acting a certain way, for instance purchasing a certain brand. The question is now how likely are you to purchase brand X rather than how highly do you rate brand X.
  • This is a model that looks at people’s attitudes toward purchasing online. On the lefthand side are the consumer characteristics that tend to impact a person’s attitude toward purchasing online. Their attitude was broken down further by how they view nine benefits of online shopping, including effectiveness, convenience, information, safety, service, delivery speed, web design, selection, and familiarity with company name. In addition, the attitude leads to how a consumer will rate an online shopping experience.
  • Like other models, the theory of reasoned action has the three components, cognitive (think), affective (feel), and conative (do). In this model, we also need to understand subjective norms or how a consumer is influenced by others.
  • This is a figure of the theory of reasoned action . The subjective norms that are distinctive to this model are the two lower blocks on the right. A consumer has beliefs about what others think they should do and also have differing levels of how likely they will follow those beliefs, also known as their motivation to comply with the referents. This subjective norm is now combined with the consumer’s personal attitude toward a behavior to form an intention to perform a behavior. This intention may or may not lead to the actual behavior. Certain groups are very influenced by the motivation to comply with people in their group. This web link brings you to cosmogirl.com. This site for younger female teens is loaded with information to supply motivation – see if you can identify three on the homepage alone.
  • This will lead you to think about the subjective norm and your attitude toward the behavior.
  • The theory of trying to consume addresses the fact that many people may want to purchase but in many cases they cannot. This may occur for personal reasons, such as not having enough money, or environmental reasons, such as not being able to go to a particular store.
  • There are many reasons why people do not consume even if they want to purchase a product. Table 8.7 in the text gives examples of both personal and environment impediments. How many times have these reasons stopped you from purchasing? What can marketers do to remove these impediments?
  • The attitude-toward-the-ad model helps us understand how advertising impacts attitudes. The model is more thoroughly diagramed on the next slide.
  • Here we see that everything begins with exposure to the ad. After this exposure, the consumer has feelings (affect) and thoughts (cognition) regarding the ad. This forms an attitude which works with beliefs about the brand to help form an attitude toward the brand.
  • Attitudes are formed through learning. Recalling the concepts of classical and operant conditioning from earlier chapters, we recall that two stimuli can be paired or linked together to form a learned response. In addition, consumers can learn attitudes from rewards or outcomes from behavior. If attitudes are learned, then it is through experiences that this learning occurs. This can be from personal experience or from experiences with friends or exposure to marketing influences. Another topic studied in an earlier chapter comes into play with attitude formation. This is the consumer’s need for cognition. People will form attitudes based on the information that best suits them, information for the high need for cognition consumer, and images and spokespeople for the low need for cognition.
  • Here are five strategies for attitude change. If you think about it, attitude change and formation are not all that different. They are both learned, they are both influenced by personal experience, and personality affects both of them.
  • Changing the basic motivational function means to change the basic need that a consumer is trying to fulfill. Utilitarian function is how the product is useful to us. A marketer might want to create a more positive attitude toward a brand by showing all it can do. An ego-defensive function would show how the product would make them feel more secure and confident. A value-expressive function would more positively reflect the consumer’s values, lifestyle, and outlook. Finally, the knowledge function would satisfy the consumer’s “need to know” and help them understand more about the world around them. It is important for marketers to realize that they might have to combine functions because different customers are motivated to purchase their products for different reasons. Someone might buy a product because it tastes good and fills them up (utilitarian), while another thinks it is low fat and will make them healthy and therefore look better (ego-defensive).
  • Marketers often associate their products with certain not-for-profit groups. Many of us buy products because of this association. For some products, we are aware of this association but still do not purchase.
  • If we think analytically about a multiattribute model, we realize there are many different attributes that make up an overall attitude. As marketers, we can change the way the consumer evaluates a certain attribute. Perhaps the consumer thinks inexpensive is fine for a product, but a marketer might be able to point out that it is often worth paying a bit more for better quality. A marketer can also change the way consumers believe a brand rates on a certain attribute. Maybe a consumer thinks a brand is very expensive when in fact it is less expensive then several other brands. There may be an attribute that does not even exist. Who thought chewiness was an attribute that could even exist for a vitamin until Gummy Vites came along? Finally, we can step away from looking individually at the attribute and attempt to change the consumer’s overall assessment of the brand. We can do any of these attitude change strategies by changing beliefs of our own product or our competitor's product.
  • The ELM is a much more global view of attitude change than the models reviewed on the previous slide. A more detailed description is provided in a diagram on the next slide.
  • On the left-hand side of the model, we see central variables on the top and peripheral variables on the bottom. Central variables, which lead to the central route, will be effective on highly-motivated consumers. They will do the thinking necessary to understand the information they are presented. Peripheral variables, including music, spokespeople, and bright packaging, work on lower-involvement consumers. Together, or alone, they create an attitude change that results in a certain behavior.
  • Up to this point, we have always had an attitude change, which led to a behavior. It is now time to consumer a behavior that might change attitude. There are two main theories that address this difference in sequencing. The cognitive dissonance theory occurs after the consumer has done something, let’s say purchase a product or accepted admission to a college. They begin to create an attitude around their behavior which is often based on dissonance or discomfort. Attribution theory is related to the question we have after a behavior of “Why did I do that?” This process of making inferences about behavior can lead to attitude formation and change.
  • Here are some interesting issues in attribution theory. Self-perception theory is the inferences or judgment as to the causes of your behavior. Did something happen, like you won an award, because you were really good, because the competition was weak, or because the judges were rushed? We are constantly examining our behavior and often try to stay consistent. This is considered the foot-in-the-door technique, the fact that if you say yes to something, you will probably say yes to a similar act later on to remain consistent in your behavior. We have attribution toward others and always ask ourselves “why” about other’s acts. We question their motives. Would you believe we also have attribution toward things ? Do you sometimes ask yourself, “Why do I like this software or that movie so much?” Over time, we like to test our attributions to see if they are correct. We may decide that if something happens when we use this product, it has distinctiveness. We also see if we have the same reaction to behavior over time, in different situations (modality), and if others agree. There are thousands of dating services online. This web link goes to therightstuff.com, a dating service for Ivy-league graduates only. People have a certain attribution toward others who attend the same colleges or group of colleges as themselves. Because they had this behavior (attended an Ivy League school) they must be like me.

Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER EIGHT Consumer AttitudeFormation and Change
  • 2. Learning Objectives1. To Understand What Attitudes Are, How They Are Learned, as Well as Their Nature and Characteristics.2. To Understand the Composition and Scope of Selected Models of Attitudes.3. To Understand How Experience Leads to the Initial Formation of Consumption-Related Attitudes.4. To Understand the Various Ways in Which Consumers’ Attitudes Are Changed.5. To Understand How Consumers’ Attitudes Can Lead to Behavior and How Behavior Can Lead to Attitudes. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 2
  • 3. What Is Your Attitude Toward the Product Advertised? What Is Your Attitude Toward the Ad Itself? Are the Two Attitudes Similar or Different? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 3
  • 4. You May Have Liked the Product but Disliked the Ad or Vice VersaCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 4
  • 5. A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently Attitude favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 5
  • 6. What Are Attitudes?• The attitude “object”• Attitudes are a learned predisposition• Attitudes have consistency• Attitudes occur within a situationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 6
  • 7. What Information Does This Ad Provide to Assist Consumers in Forming Attitudes Toward the Saturn Vue Hybrid?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 7
  • 8. It is Stylish, Safe, and Good for the EnvironmentCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 8
  • 9. Structural Models of Attitudes• Tricomponent Attitude Model• Multiattribute Attitude Model• The Trying-to-Consume Model• Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 9
  • 10. A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model - Figure 8.3 Cognition Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 10
  • 11. The Tricomponent Model Components The knowledge and perceptions that are • Cognitive acquired by a • Affective combination of direct experience with the • Conative attitude object and related information from various sourcesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 11
  • 12. The Tricomponent Model Components A consumer’s • Cognitive emotions or feelings about a particular • Affective product or brand • ConativeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 12
  • 13. The Tricomponent Model Components The likelihood or • Cognitive tendency that an • Affective individual will undertake a specific • Conative action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude objectCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 13
  • 14. Discussion Questions• Explain your attitude toward your college/university based on the tricomponent attribute model.• Be sure to isolate the cognitive, affective, and conative elements.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 14
  • 15. Attitude models that examine the Multiattribute composition of Attitude consumer attitudes Models in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 15
  • 16. Multiattribute Attitude Models Types• The attitude-toward- • Attitude is function of object model the presence of certain• The attitude-toward- beliefs or attributes. behavior model • Useful to measure• Theory-of-reasoned- attitudes toward action model product and service categories or specific brands.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 16
  • 17. Multiattribute Attitude Models Types• The attitude-toward- • Is the attitude toward object model behaving or acting with• The attitude-toward- respect to an object, behavior model rather than the attitude• Theory-of-reasoned- toward the object itself action model • Corresponds closely to actual behaviorCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 17
  • 18. Consumer Characteristics, Attitude, and Online ShoppingCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 18
  • 19. Multiattribute Attitude Models Types• The attitude-toward- • Includes cognitive, object model affective, and conative• The attitude-toward- components behavior model • Includes subjective• Theory-of-reasoned- norms in addition to action model attitudeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 19
  • 20. A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action - Figure 8.5Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 20
  • 21. Discussion Question• Now use the theory of reasoned action to describe your attitude toward your college/university when deciding on which school to attend.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 21
  • 22. An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases Theory of where the action or Trying to outcome is not certain Consume but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 22
  • 23. Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact Trying - Table 8.7 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 23
  • 24. A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments Attitude- (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an Toward-the- advertisement, which, in Ad Model turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 24
  • 25. A Conception of the Relationship AmongElements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model - Figure 8.6Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 25
  • 26. Issues in Attitude Formation• How attitudes are learned – Conditioning and experience – Knowledge and beliefsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 26
  • 27. How Does a Favorably Known Brand Name Impact the Formation of Consumer Attitudes Toward a New Product? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 27
  • 28. There is Stimulus Generalization From the Lean Cuisine Brand Names to the New Product. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 28
  • 29. Issues in Attitude Formation• Sources of influence on attitude formation – Personal experience – Influence of family – Direct marketing and mass media• Personality factorsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 29
  • 30. How Does a Cents- Off Coupon Impact Consumers’ Attitudes? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 30
  • 31. New Customers Will Try the Product,Existing Customers will be Rewarded. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 31
  • 32. Strategies of Attitude ChangeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 32
  • 33. Changing the Basic Motivational FunctionCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 33
  • 34. Why and How Does This Ad Appeal to the Utilitarian Function? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 34
  • 35. The Product is Green and Works asWell or Better than Other Products. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 35
  • 36. Which Lifestyle- Related Attitudes Are Expressed or Reflected in This Ad? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 36
  • 37. Healthy Eating and Snacking Lifestyle Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 37
  • 38. How Does This Ad Provide Information to Establish or Reinforce Consumer Attitudes? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 38
  • 39. It Raises the Question About UVA Rays andthen Provides Information on Sun Protection. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 39
  • 40. Discussion Questions • What products that you purchase associate themselves with an Admired Group or Event? • When does it personally influence your purchasing?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 40
  • 41. How Is Fiji Water’s Link to an Environmental Cause Likely to Impact Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Its Product?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 41
  • 42. They Might Have a More Favorable Attitude.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 42
  • 43. Attitude Change • Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model – Changing relative evaluation of attributes – Changing brand beliefs – Adding an attribute – Changing the overall brand rating • Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ BrandsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 43
  • 44. How Is This New Benefit Likely to ImpactConsumers’ Attitudes Toward the Product? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 44
  • 45. The Consumer Will Have a More PositiveAttitude Overall from the New Attribute. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 45
  • 46. How Is the Absence of an Ingredient Likely to Lead to a Favorable Attitude Toward a Product? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 46
  • 47. When It Was An Unfavorable AttributeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 47
  • 48. Which Attitude Change Strategy Is Depicted in This Ad?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 48
  • 49. Changing the Overall Brand RatingCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 49
  • 50. How Is Valvoline’s Attempt to Change AttitudesToward a Competing Brand Likely to Impact Attitudes Toward Its Own Brand? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 50
  • 51. By Showing Better Wear Protection Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 51
  • 52. Customer attitudes are Elaboration changed by two Likelihood distinctly different Model routes to persuasion: (ELM) a central route or a peripheral route.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 52
  • 53. Elaboration Likelihood ModelCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 53
  • 54. Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude FormationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 54
  • 55. Issues in Attribution Theory• Self-Perception Theory – Foot-in-the-Door Technique• Attributions toward Others• Attributions toward Things• How We Test Our Attributions – Distinctiveness – Consistency over time – Consistency over modality – ConsensusCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 55
  • 56. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eight Slide 56