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  • Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Five.
  • Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Five.
  • The study of personality has been approached in many different ways. Heredity, early childhood experiences, and other social influences have a strong effect on who you become. The definition given here is on inner characteristics which distinguish one individual from others. The web link on this page brings you to one of the thousands of personality tests you can find online. There are some interesting findings regarding the nature of personality. First of all, personality reflects individual differences. Because no two people are exactly the same, marketers can look for certain similar personality traits in different consumers. These consumers can then be grouped together based on this identified personality train. Personality is consistent and enduring. This helps marketers predict consumer behavior over time in terms of personality. Finally, personality can change due to major life events, such as marriage. You may notice personally that your personality has changed somewhat as you have grown – certainly your personality now is somewhat different then from when you were 7 years old.
  • You will probably describe your personality in terms of qualities, attributes, traits, factors and mannerisms. These personality traits influence products, including food, vacations, education, clothing, and more.
  • These are the three major theories of personalities . There are many more but these three have been chosen because they are important to the relationship between personality and consumer behavior. Each will be discussed in detail on the next couple of slides.
  • Sigmund Freud was one of the most important and influential psychiatrists of all time. There are many web sited devoted to him and his theories. The web link on this page will take you to one such site. Freudian theory itself is based on the existence of unconscious needs or drives as the heart of human motivation and personality. According to Freud, human personality consists of these three systems, the id, super ego and the ego. The Id is the “warehouse” of primitive drives, basic physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex. The superego drives the individual to fulfill their needs in a socially acceptable function. Finally, the ego is the internal monitor that balances the needs of the id and the superego.
  • Can certain foods be a reflection of your personality? This table shows the results of a study of 19,000 consumers which examined the link between snack food perceptions and personality types. The table shows, for example, that nuts are associated with a personality that is take charge, pitches in often, modest, self-confident but not a show-off.
  • As opposed to Freud’s theories which were based heavily on development, Neo-Freudian’s are concerned with social relationships. These relationships are formed to reduce feelings of inferiority or tension. Furthermore, people can be classified as to how they interact with others – are they compliant, aggressive, or detached. A compliant individual desires attention, an aggressive desires admirations, and a detached person desires independence and freedom from obligation. What is particularly interesting is how research has shown that these different personality groups differ in their brand usage.
  • Unlike Freudian and Neo-Freudian theories, trait theory is less qualitative and more focused on measurement of personality. Tests can be done to measure single traits in consumers such as how receptive they are to new experiences (innovativeness), their attachment to worldly possessions (materialism), and their likelihood to accept or reject foreign-made products (ethnocentrism).
  • Researchers have found that traits are more tied to general product categories then specific brands. For instance, in this chart we see the type of soup a consumer prefers but not necessarily the brands they would purchase.
  • Marketers are very interested in the link between personality and consumer behavior. These are seven topics which are examined on the following slides.
  • Consumer innovators are the group of consumers that are very open to new ideas and are usually the first to purchase products. Innovativeness is the underlying trait that describes a consumer’s willingness to try new products. Companies have found this very important when introducing brand extensions because it is a key factor in the consumer’s likelihood to try the new product. For hi-tech products, we see that innovativeness can be explained at three levels. The first, global innovativeness, is the overall innovative level of the consumer. Drilling down further, domain-specific innovativeness has to do with the particular product category, and finally, the innovative behavior is the actual purchase of the new product.
  • This is an example of a consumer innovation measurement scale that would be used by a researcher. There are many scales that are used to try to understand the consumer’s general or global level of innovativeness. On this scale, the respondent was asked to answer the questions on a scale as to how much they AGREE or DISAGREE with the statement.
  • Dogmatic is a personality trait that describes how rigid or open a person is to new and unfamiliar ideas and products. A person who is highly dogmatic approaches the unfamiliar defensively and with discomfort. They will rarely consider the unfamiliar and tend to be very close minded. Marketers have realized this type of customer appreciates advertising appeals with celebrities and other experts.
  • This personality trait has its origins in sociological research but it is of great interest to marketers because it differentiates the type of advertising that influences these customers. Inner-directed people prefer ads that stress product features. Other-directed individuals gravitate to ads that that show approving social environment rather than product information – they want to look to others to understand how to act or be accepted, and the ads give an example of this.
  • You may be able to identify friends with greater need for uniqueness . You can see it in their clothes and hairstyles. Similarly to the other personality traits we have been discussing, there is a measurement scale that researchers use to quantify an individual’s need for uniqueness. If the respondent scores high on this scale, then they have a higher need for uniqueness.
  • Optimum stimulation levels are related to how a consumer tends to like or dislike novel, complex, and unusual experiences and products. High optimum stimulation levels lead consumers to take risks and try new products. Similar to a person with high innovativeness, these consumers are important to marketers of new products.
  • Sensation-seeking traits tie to the need to take risks to fulfill the sensations of experiences which are different and extreme. Much research has been tied to the study of teenage males who often engage in this behavior.
  • Consumers seek variety in many ways. Some exhibit exploratory purchase behavior where they switch brands often to experience new products. Other consumers display variety by use innovativeness , using an existing product in a new way. Finally, vicarious exploration, which often does not involve actual purchase about the product, refers to daydreaming or thinking often about a new product. Ask yourself, for product categories, how do you exhibit variety-novelty seeking?
  • Researchers are aware that cognitive personality factors influence consumer behavior. In fact, it has been realized that the level of a consumer’s need for cognition affects how they are likely to respond to certain types of advertisements. Those that are high in need for cognition tend to respond to ads that supply product information as opposed to those who are low in need for cognition who tend to be attracted to the background of the ad, attractive models, and cartoon characters.
  • Another cognitive personality factor that researchers have isolated is whether a consumer is a visualizer who prefers visual information or a verbalizer who prefers written or verbal information. This difference in cognitive personality factors would affect how they respond to a print ad.
  • Think about how each of these media delivers information vs. visual cues.
  • Consumer researchers are interested in possession traits and their relationship to consumption. The first, consumer materialism , is a personality-like trait that describes how essential a person finds possessions in relation to their identities and their lives. Think of people you know – do some seem to have more possessions and find them more important?
  • Consumer researchers are interested in possession traits and their relationship to consumption. Fixated consumption behavior is displayed by a consumer who seems “fixated” in consuming in a certain product category. For instance, people who collect Star Trek memorabilia from the original television series or comic books would display fixated consumption behavior. Compulsive consumption behavior begins to enter the area of abnormal behavior. These individuals are somewhat out of control with their purchasing and suffer from a shopping addiction called oniomania.
  • Consumer ethnocentrism has been found to differ from country to country and to change over time. Certain events in the U.S., including the terrorist attacks on 9/11, will change the ethnocentrism in the country. For some products, the country-of-origin can be very important when marketing the product, but in other situations it must be downplayed. In general, if the image of the country is positive, for example a French wine, it would be advantageous for the marketer to emphasize where the product was made. In many ways, cosmopolitanism is the opposite of ethnocentrism. There is an increase in Australia, for example, due to the multiculturalism.
  • Brand personality can be tied to many a successful brand. If the personality is favorable and strong, it will strengthen the brand and lead to a more favorable attitude, brand preference, higher purchase intention, and brand loyalty. In addition, in commodity category, detergent for example, it can help differentiate a brand (it’s the one with the Snuggly Teddy Bear).
  • You might find yourself choosing the Keebler Elves' cookies because the elves are cute and friendly. Perhaps you choose Gatorade because it is all about extreme physical performance. Perhaps you choose a gum because it is funny that it lasts so long (Stride).
  • Many marketers humanize their products. Research has shown that this can be effective but the product must have human attributes. Furthermore, brands have personalities. If brand X were a person, can you describe them?
  • This is a brand personality framework that shows the five dimensions of a brands personality. Consider one of your favorite brands – how does it map out on this framework?
  • Knowing the gender that consumers assign to your brand help form advertising and marketing decisions. Who should be the spokesperson in your ad? How should they interact with the brand? In terms of geography , certain products have a strong geographical association in consumers‘ minds. Where do you think of when you think of Clam Chowder? Most likely, you thought New England. It is interesting to note that these geographic locations can be real (Texas and Mexico) or fictitious (Hidden Valley and Sorrel Ridge). Consumers also connect personality traits with certain colors . For instance, black is related to sophisticated and red is excitement. This web link is for a site called colormatters.com. The site is rich with information on colors and marketing.
  • Consumers’ images of themselves is very closely tied to personality and consumption behavior. People tend to purchase products that enhance their self-concept and relate to their own self-images. Think of products that you might purchase to support your self-image.
  • To understand multiple selves , think of the way you present yourself and think about yourself at a formal university function (career fair perhaps) vs. a party with good friends. Next, think of the clothing you would purchase for these events. It would likely be very different as you are presenting a different “self” at each event.
  • We have an image of ourselves that has developed over time. Consumers will tend to purchase products that match their self images or personalities – they choose brands that help them define themselves.
  • There are different self-images that have been recognized in consumer behavior. They all deal with the actual image of an individual and the ideal or expected image of that same person. Many consumers will purchase products to meet the gap between their actual and ideal selves.
  • There is a strong relationship for many consumers between some of their possessions and their self. In this instance, the objects are really part of the consumer’s extended self . The object might have specific meaning to them that goes beyond what most possessions can offer. It is many a student who must wear a lucky shirt or bring a charm to an exam to perform at their peak in this situation.
  • Often, a consumer wishes to change themselves. Perhaps they want a new look or to appear in a different way. Altering the self-image can tie to personal vanity as it is involved in one’s appearance.
  • There are many opportunities to create online “selves.” Whether it is a chat room, a character in an online role-playing game, or a virtual world – people often pick identities that are very different then their true selves.

Schiffman cb10 ppt_05 Schiffman cb10 ppt_05 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER FIVE Personality andConsumer Behavior
  • Learning Objectives1. To Understand How Personality Reflects Consumers’ Inner Differences.2. To Understand How Freudian, Neo-Freudian, and Trait Theories Each Explain the Influence of Personality on Consumers’ Attitudes and Behavior.3. To Understand How Personality Reflects Consumers’ Responses to Product and Marketing Messages.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 2
  • Learning Objectives (continued)4. To Understand How Marketers Seek to Create Brand Personalities-Like Traits.5. To Understand How the Products and Services That Consumers Use Enhance Their Self-Images.6. To Understand How Consumers Can Create Online Identities Reflecting a Particular Set of Personality Traits.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 3
  • What Is the Personality Trait Characterizing the Consumers to Whom This Ad Appeals?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 4
  • Enthusiastic or Extremely Involved CollectorsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 5
  • Personality and The Nature of Personality• The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment• The Nature of Personality: – Personality reflects individual differences – Personality is consistent and enduring – Personality can changeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 6
  • Discussion Questions• How would you describe your personality?• How does it influence products that you purchase?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 7
  • Theories of Personality• Freudian theory – Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation• Neo-Freudian personality theory – Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality• Trait theory – Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traitsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 8
  • Freudian Theory• Id – Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction• Superego – Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct• Ego – Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 9
  • Snack Foods and Personality Traits Table 5.1 (excerpt)Snack Personality TraitsFoodsPotato Ambitious, successful, high achiever, impatient with lesschips than the best.Tortilla Perfectionist, high expectations, punctual, conservative,chips responsible.Pretzels Lively, easily bored with same old routine, flirtatious, intuitive, may over commit to projects.Snack Rational, logical, contemplative, shy, prefers time alone.crackersCheese Conscientious, principled, proper, fair, may appear rigidcurls but has great integrity, plans ahead, loves order. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 10
  • How Does This Marketing Message Apply the Notion of the Id?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 11
  • It Captures Some of the Mystery and The Excitement Associated With the “Forces” of Primitive Drives.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 12
  • Neo-Freudian Personality Theory• Social relationships are fundamental to personality• Alfred Adler: – Style of life – Feelings of inferiority• Harry Stack Sullivan – We establish relationships with others to reduce tensions• Karen Horney’s three personality groups – Compliant: move toward others – Aggressive: move against others – Detached: move away from others Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 13
  • Why Is Appealing to an Aggressive Consumer a Logical Position for This Product?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 14
  • Because its Consumer Seeks to Excel and Achieve RecognitionCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 15
  • Trait Theory• Focus on measurement of personality in terms of traits• Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another• Personality is linked to broad product categories and NOT specific brandsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 16
  • Soup and Soup Lover’s Traits Table 5.2 (excerpt)• Chicken Noodle Soup Lovers • Vegetable/Minestrone Soup – Watch a lot of TV Lovers – Are family oriented – Enjoy the outdoors – Have a great sense of humor – Usually game for trying new – Are outgoing and loyal things – Like daytime talk shows – Spend more money than any – Most likely to go to church other group dining in fancy restaurants• Tomato Soup Lovers – Likely to be physically fit – Passionate about reading – Gardening is often a favorite – Love pets hobby – Like meeting people for coffee – Aren’t usually the life of the partyCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 17
  • Personality and Understanding Consumer BehaviorCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 18
  • How Does This Ad Target the Inner- Directed Outdoors Person?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 19
  • A Sole Person is Experiencing the Joys and Adventure of the WildernessCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 20
  • Consumer Innovativeness• Willingness to innovate• Further broken down for hi-tech products – Global innovativeness – Domain-specific innovativeness – Innovative behaviorCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 21
  • Consumer Motivation Scales Table 5.3 (excerpt)A “GENERAL” CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS SCALE1. I would rather stick to a brand I usually buy than try something I am not very sure of.2. When I go to a restaurant, I feel it is safer to order dishes I am familiar with.A DOMAIN-SPECIFIC CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS SCALE1. Compared to my friends, I own few rock albums.2. In general, I am the last in my circle of friends to know the titles of the latest rock albums.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 22
  • Dogmatism• A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 23
  • Personality and Understanding Consumer Behavior• Ranges on a continuum for inner-directedness to other-directedness• Inner-directedness – rely on own values when evaluating products – Innovators• Other-directedness – look to others – less likely to be innovators Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 24
  • Need for Uniqueness• Consumers who avoid conforming to expectations or standards of others Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 25
  • Optimum Stimulation Level• A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences• High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 26
  • Sensation Seeking • The need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience. And the willingness to take social and physical risks for the sensations.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 27
  • Variety-Novelty Seeking• Measures a consumer’s degree of variety seeking• Examples include: – Exploratory Purchase Behavior – Use Innovativeness – Vicarious ExplorationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 28
  • Cognitive Personality Factors• Need for cognition (NFC) – A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking – Individual with high NFC more likely to respond to ads rich in product information.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 29
  • Cognitive Personality Factors• Visualizers• Verbalizers Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 30
  • Why Is This Ad Particularly Appealing to Visualizers?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 31
  • The Ad Stresses Strong Visual DimensionsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 32
  • Why Is This Ad Particularly Appealing to Verbalizers?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 33
  • It Features a Detailed DescriptionCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 34
  • Discussion Question• What advertising media (print, television, Internet, salesperson, POP display, newspaper, radio) is good for a person with a high NFD?• A VerbalizerCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 35
  • From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive ConsumptionCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 36
  • From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption• Fixated consumption behavior – Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products – Characteristics • Passionate interest in a product category • Willingness to go to great lengths to secure objects • Dedication of time and money to collecting• Compulsive consumption behavior – “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumersCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 37
  • Consumer Ethnocentrism and Cosmopolitanism• Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products because of the impact on the economy• They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes• A cosmopolitan orientation would consider the word to be their marketplace and would be attracted to products from other cultures and countries.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 38
  • Brand Personality• Personality-like traits associated with brands• Examples – Purdue and freshness – Nike and athlete – BMW is performance driven• Brand personality which is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a price premiumCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 39
  • In What Ways Do Max and Other Brand Personifications Help Create VW’s Brand Image?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 40
  • Speaks English, is “interviewed”about VW products, and is a friendCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 41
  • Discussion Questions• Pick three of your favorite food brands.• Describe their personality. Do they have a gender? What personality traits do they have?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 42
  • Product Anthropomorphism and Brand Personification• Product Anthropomorphism – Attributing human characteristics to objects – Tony the Tiger and Mr. Peanut• Brand Personification – Consumer’s perception of brand’s attributes for a human-like character – Mr. Coffee is seen as dependable, friendly, efficient, intelligent and smart.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 43
  • A Brand Personality Framework Figure 5.12Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 44
  • Product Personality Issues• Gender – Some products perceived as masculine (coffee and toothpaste) while others as feminine (bath soap and shampoo)• Geography – Actual locations, like Philadelphia cream cheese and Arizona iced tea – Fictitious names also used, such as Hidden Valley and Bear Creek• Color – Color combinations in packaging and products denotes personalityCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 45
  • Self and Self-Image• Consumers have a variety of enduring images of themselves• These images are associated with personality in that individuals’ consumption relates to self-imageCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 46
  • One or Multiple Selves• A single consumer will act differently in different situations or with different people• We have a variety of social roles• Marketers can target products to a particular “self”Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 47
  • Makeup of the Self-Image• Contains traits, skills, habits, possessions, relationships, and way of behavior• Developed through background, experience, and interaction with others• Consumers select products congruent with this imageCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 48
  • Which Consumer Self-Image Does This Ad Target, and Why?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 49
  • Actual self-image because it tells middle-age women who like their hair long to continue doing so.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 50
  • Different Self-ImagesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 51
  • Extended Self• Possessions can extend self in a number of ways: – Actually – Symbolically – Conferring status or rank – Bestowing feelings of immortality – Endowing with magical powersCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 52
  • Altering the Self-Image• Consumers use self-altering products to express individualism by: – Creating new self – Maintaining the existing self – Extending the self – ConformingCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 53
  • Virtual Personality• You can be anyone… – Gender swapping – Age differences – Mild-mannered to aggressiveCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 54
  • All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Five Slide 55