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CHAPTER   FOURConsumer Motivation
Learning Objectives1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs and   Motives and the Meaning of Goals.2. To Understand the D...
Motivation as a Psychological Force• Motivation is the  driving force within  individuals that impels  them to action.• Ne...
Model of the Motivation Process                   Figure 4.2Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice ...
Types of Needs• Innate Needs      – Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are        considered primary needs or motives•...
Goals• The sought-after results of motivated  behavior• Generic goals are general categories of goals  that consumers see ...
How Does this Ad Appeal to                     One’s Goals?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice H...
It Appeals to Several Physical                    Appearance-related goals.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishi...
The Selection of Goals• The goals selected by an individual depend on  their:      – Personal experiences      – Physical ...
Discussion Questions• What are three generic goals you have set for  yourself in the past year?• What are three product-sp...
Motivations and GoalsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   Chapter Four Slide 11
Blogger’s Motivation - Table 4.1 (excerpt)Construct              ItemsBlogging for           I use my blog to free my mind...
Rational versus Emotional Motives• Rationality implies that consumers select  goals based on totally objective criteria, s...
Discussion Questions• What products  might be purchased  using rational and  emotional motives?• What marketing  strategie...
The Dynamics of Motivation• Needs are never fully satisfied• New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied• People who achie...
Substitute Goals• Are used when a consumer cannot attain a  specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a  need• The sub...
Frustration• Failure to achieve a goal may result in  frustration.• Some adapt; others adopt defense  mechanisms to protec...
Defense Mechanisms- Table 4.2 (excerpt)Construct              ItemsAggression             In response to frustration, indi...
Arousal of Motives•   Physiological arousal•   Emotional arousal•   Cognitive arousal•   Environmental arousalCopyright 20...
How Does This Ad                            Arouse One’s Needs?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prenti...
The Ad Is Designed to Arouse One’s Yearning  for an Adventurous Vacation by Appealing to               the Sense of TouchC...
Philosophies Concerned with                       Arousal of Motives• Behaviorist School      – Behavior is response to st...
Types and Systems of Needs• Henry Murray’s 28 psychogenic needs• Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs• A trio of needsCopyr...
Murray’s List of Psychogenic NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   Chapter Four Slide 24
Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs                       (continued)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as P...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs                      Figure 4.10Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice ...
To Which of Maslow’s               Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice...
Both Physiological and Social NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   Chapter Four Slide...
To Which of Maslow’s               Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice...
Egoistic NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   Chapter Four Slide 30
To Which of Maslow’s               Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice...
Self-ActualizationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   Chapter Four Slide 32
Discussion Questions• What are three types of products related to  more then one level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of  Needs?• F...
A Trio of Needs• Power      – individual’s desire to control environment• Affiliation      – need for friendship, acceptan...
To Which of the Trio           of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice ...
The Affiliation Needs Of Young,     Environmentally Concerned AdultsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as P...
To Which of the Trio           of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice ...
Affiliation NeedCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   Chapter Four Slide 38
Power And Achievement NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   Chapter Four Slide 39
Measurement of Motives                                                               • Researchers rely on a              ...
Qualitative Measures of Motives               Table 4.7 (excerpt)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pren...
Motivational Research• Term coined in the 1950s by Dr. Ernest Dichter• Based on premise that consumers are not  always awa...
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a  retrieval system, or transmitted, in any ...
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  • Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Four.
  • Motivation is produced by a state of tension, by having a need which is unfulfilled. Consumers want to fulfill these needs and reduce the state of tension. For example, when you are very hungry, you are extremely motivated to find food. Perhaps when you need a new pair of pants, you are a bit less motivated to fulfill this need as compared to your need for food. In the case of needing pants, it is important for marketers to help increase your motivation and/or specify your need for their products - perhaps Diesel Jeans.
  • This model highlights the motivation process. We can see that the “drive” toward behavior will often end in the fulfillment of the need. The processes and effects of previous learning tie strongly into choices made when the behavior is defined.
  • The example of the need for food compared to a new pair of jeans can be further described by understanding types of needs. The need for food is more of an innate need and is considered a primary need. The need for a pair of jeans would be considered acquired. The need for clothing could be considered primary, but the need specifically for a pair of jeans is acquired, especially when they are a certain brand or designer jean. Needs may have a positive or negative direction. There are in fact some products we are NOT drawn to. For example, when people shop for funeral services, this is not something they are usually drawn to but rather must pursue and purchase.
  • Continuing with our example of jeans, we can understand the types of goals that exist. When a consumer states they want a pair of jeans, they have stated a generic goal . When they announce they really want a pair of Calvin Klein jeans, then they have stated product-specific goals.
  • Consumers have many possible goals when making decisions. They are strongly influenced by their experiences, personality, and others’ opinions and input. When choosing goals, they have to keep in mind what is socially acceptable and what they can physically attain. Think of a recent decision you might have made to go on a vacation. How was it influenced by personal experiences, the accessibility of the goal, and the social environment?
  • There are many responses to this question based on your personality, family, experiences, friends, and teacher influences. Maybe your goals are educational, financial, and fitness related. Perhaps you have decided to attend a certain program at the college, join a gym, and open accounts at stock brokerage firms. In general, the product goals should fit in to the generic goals. It is interesting to reflect on how each of the influences and experiences in your life have led you to both your generic and your product-specific goals.
  • We learned in an earlier slide that needs can be positive or negative. The same is true for goals which can be positive or negative. A positive goal would include joining a gym to get strong and train for an upcoming race. Another person, with a negative goal, might join the gym to avoid health problems that will certainly exist if they do not exercise regularly. Which are you?
  • The value of bloggers to marketers is undeniable – they post their experiences and exposures to brands online where many other users or potential users can hear more about the brands. Marketers must understand the motivations, needs, and goals of bloggers to effectively target them. In the research results in Table 4.1, respondents answered on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.”
  • There has been extensive research regarding rational versus emotional motives during purchase. Their existence has been tied to how consumers view marketing variables, including advertisements and pricing adjustments. Furthermore, it must be realized that the definition of emotional vs. rational motivation differs significantly from one consumer to another and in different situations.
  • You should consider that rational motives are often tied to products that are higher involvement and emotional motives are often used on low-involvement items. The marketing strategies will also differ in the amount of information and the advertising appeals.
  • Motivation is highly dynamic and constantly changes in response to life experiences. Motivations change as we age, interact with others, change careers, acquire wealth, become ill, marry or divorce, or pursue education. Humans constantly have needs . This is due in part to the fact that our needs are never fully satisfied, or once satisfied, reappear. Hunger is a good example of a need that is often not satisfied and reappears. As humans, we also develop new needs as we satisfy existing needs. The hierarch of effects model shows how we meet our lower-level needs first and then move up the hierarchy. Finally, our needs are based on the goals that we set for ourselves. If one sets a goal to enter politics, they may feel they need a law degree. However, if they are unsuccessful in getting accepted at law school, their needs may change and they may want to pursue a few years of work experience first and need to find a job.
  • It is very common that a consumer can not attain a goal. This may be due to a lack of money, ability, desire, or accessibility. In this instance, the consumer often substitutes a different goal to reduce the tension created from the existence of this need. In time, this substitute goal might replace the initial goal. For instance, if a consumer wanted a certain cable television service, but it was not available in their area, they might choose a satellite television provider. Over time, they may be very satisfied with this choice and feel that they actually prefer the satellite service over the cable television service.
  • Failure to achieve a goal and the frustration that follows has been experienced by everyone at some time or another. Marketers must realize what consumers’ responses might be and how they can address these responses. Online education exists for those who are too far or do not have the structured time to attend college. The table on the next slide represents several defense mechanisms that consumers might exhibit when they are frustrated about not meeting a goal. The understanding of these defense mechanisms will help provide many opportunities to craft advertising messages to reach the emotional side of the consumers.
  • Defense mechanisms are used when people cannot cope with frustration. They are often developed to protect one’s ego from feelings of failure when goals are not achieved. Perhaps you can identify a time when you used a defense mechanism when reacting to a difficult situation.
  • A consumer has a variety of needs but only some of them are aroused at any given time and given top-of-mind priority. Motives become aroused by the consumer’s psychological condition (they get hungry), their emotional state (frustrated), cognitive processes (they read an ad that made them think about their needs), or by events occurring in their general surroundings (the weather becomes cold).
  • There are two opposing philosophies that deal with the arousal of human motives. The behaviorists see motivation as a mechanical process that results from a stimulus – something prompts the behavior and people behave or react. On the other hand, the cognitive school believes that all behavior is directed toward a fulfilling of goals – consumers think through their motives.
  • Researchers are interested in developing a complete list of human needs. Although basic biological needs are easily understood and agreed upon, it is the psychological and psychosocial needs that differ from researcher to researcher. Murray and Maslow have both developed lists of needs and Maslow orders them within a hierarchy from lower-level to higher-level needs. Somewhat related to Maslow’s theory is the belief in a trio of basic needs including power, affiliation, and achievement. Consider the needs outlined on the following slides to better understand which needs this product would meet for a consumer in New York.
  • This slide and the next provide a list of Murray’s psychogenic needs. He believed that everyone has the same basic set of needs but that individuals differ in their priority of those needs. His needs include many motives that are important when studying consumer behavior, including acquisition, achievement, recognition, and exhibition.
  • Dr. Abraham Maslow is well known for his hierarchy of needs. The web link on this page will bring you to www.maslow.com which reports on other publications by Dr. Maslow. The hierarchy presents five basic levels of human needs which rank in order of importance from lower-level needs to higher-level needs. The theory says that consumers will fill lower-level needs before the higher-level needs – they will eat before they enroll in a Master’s program.
  • To answer this question, think of products that provide safety and shelter but may also vary in price. For the second part of this question, you might want to consider companies that market coats and jackets. Some will emphasize different needs than the coat will meet and these unmet needs will exist in several layers of the hierarchy.
  • Some psychologists believe that this trio of needs exists for most consumers and that marketers can find a tie to motivation. Power refers to the individual’s desire to control other people and objects – it is tied to a type of ego needs. Affiliation is similar to Maslow’s social need and suggests that behavior is influenced by the desire for social ties. Finally, the need for achievement , like the other needs, will vary from individual to individual.
  • Motives are very difficult to identify and measure. This is in part because they are hypothetical and not physical concepts that can be weighed and measured with a ruler. Because they are not tangible, marketers must use a variety of measurement techniques. Because consumers often cannot or will not express their motivations outright, researchers use qualitative research to uncover consumer motives. Many of these qualitative research techniques are called projective techniques because the consumer must “project” their subconscious or hidden motives onto another stimulus. The following slide summarizes some projective techniques.
  • These are three commonly used projective techniques. As you can see, metaphor analysis uses pictures as a stimulus for the consumer to express their thoughts, feelings, and beliefs regarding a product or brand. Storytelling was successfully used by Kimberly-Clark when researching diapers with young mothers. Finally, word association and sentence completion have respondents filling in phrases and matching words quickly to get their genuine responses.
  • Much of the research done in consumer behavior is based on motivational research . The understanding of consumers’ motives can help marketers make better products, communicate more clearly, and deliver benefits to the consumer. This web link will bring you to the homepage for Olson Zaltman Associates. When visiting the website, you can learn more about the ZMET method and the strengths of motivational research.
  • Transcript of "Schiffman cb10 ppt_04"

    1. 1. CHAPTER FOURConsumer Motivation
    2. 2. Learning Objectives1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs and Motives and the Meaning of Goals.2. To Understand the Dynamics of Motivation, Arousal of Needs, Setting of Goals, and Interrelationship Between Needs and Goals.3. To Learn About Several Systems of Needs Developed by Researchers.4. To Understand How Human Motives Are Studied and Measured.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 2
    3. 3. Motivation as a Psychological Force• Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action.• Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 3
    4. 4. Model of the Motivation Process Figure 4.2Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 4
    5. 5. Types of Needs• Innate Needs – Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives• Acquired Needs – Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 5
    6. 6. Goals• The sought-after results of motivated behavior• Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs• Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goalsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 6
    7. 7. How Does this Ad Appeal to One’s Goals?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 7
    8. 8. It Appeals to Several Physical Appearance-related goals.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 8
    9. 9. The Selection of Goals• The goals selected by an individual depend on their: – Personal experiences – Physical capacity – Prevailing cultural norms and values – Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environmentCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 9
    10. 10. Discussion Questions• What are three generic goals you have set for yourself in the past year?• What are three product-specific goals you have set in the past year?• In what situations are these two related?• How were these goals selected? Was it personal experiences, physical capacity, or prevailing cultural norms and values?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 10
    11. 11. Motivations and GoalsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 11
    12. 12. Blogger’s Motivation - Table 4.1 (excerpt)Construct ItemsBlogging for I use my blog to free my mind when I am moody.self- I express myself by writing in my blog.expressing My blog is the place where I express what I feel.Blogging for I use my blog as my diary to document my life.life By writing text and posting video/audio files, I keep a record of my life.documentingBlogging for I’m willing to comment on what other bloggers say.commenting I’d like to respond to other blogs that I read (no matter if I know of the blogger or not). I’d like to receive people’s comments on what I post on my blog.Blogging for Blogging helps me to make more like-minded friends.forum In my blogroll I have friends with whom I can share things.participating By blogging I interact with a set of blogs that have contents similar to what I put in my blog.Blogging for Blogging helps me extract information behind events that interest me.information Blogging helps me explore more information about products and/orseeking services. To me it is convenient to search for information by blogging. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 12
    13. 13. Rational versus Emotional Motives• Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria, such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon• Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteriaCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 13
    14. 14. Discussion Questions• What products might be purchased using rational and emotional motives?• What marketing strategies are effective when there are combined motives?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 14
    15. 15. The Dynamics of Motivation• Needs are never fully satisfied• New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied• People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselvesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 15
    16. 16. Substitute Goals• Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need• The substitute goal will dispel tension• Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over timeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 16
    17. 17. Frustration• Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration.• Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 17
    18. 18. Defense Mechanisms- Table 4.2 (excerpt)Construct ItemsAggression In response to frustration, individuals may resort to aggressive behavior in attempting to protect their self-esteem. The tennis pro who slams his tennis racket to the ground when disappointed with his game or the baseball player who physically intimidates an umpire for his call are examples of such conduct. So are consumer boycotts of companies or stores.Rationalization People sometimes resolve frustration by inventing plausible reasons for being unable to attain their goals (e.g., not having enough time to practice) or deciding that the goal is not really worth pursuing (e.g., how important is it to achieve a high bowling score?).Regression An individual may react to a frustrating situation with childish or immature behavior. A shopper attending a bargain sale, for example, may fight over merchandise and even rip a garment that another shopper will not relinquish rather than allow the other person to have it.Withdrawal Frustration may be resolved by simply withdrawing from the situation. For instance, a person who has difficulty achieving officer status in an organization may decide he can use his time more constructively in other activities and simply quit that organization. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 18
    19. 19. Arousal of Motives• Physiological arousal• Emotional arousal• Cognitive arousal• Environmental arousalCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 19
    20. 20. How Does This Ad Arouse One’s Needs?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 20
    21. 21. The Ad Is Designed to Arouse One’s Yearning for an Adventurous Vacation by Appealing to the Sense of TouchCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 21
    22. 22. Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives• Behaviorist School – Behavior is response to stimulus – Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored – Consumer does not act, but reacts• Cognitive School – Behavior is directed at goal achievement – Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 22
    23. 23. Types and Systems of Needs• Henry Murray’s 28 psychogenic needs• Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs• A trio of needsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 23
    24. 24. Murray’s List of Psychogenic NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 24
    25. 25. Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs (continued)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 25
    26. 26. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.10Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 26
    27. 27. To Which of Maslow’s Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 27
    28. 28. Both Physiological and Social NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 28
    29. 29. To Which of Maslow’s Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 29
    30. 30. Egoistic NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 30
    31. 31. To Which of Maslow’s Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 31
    32. 32. Self-ActualizationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 32
    33. 33. Discussion Questions• What are three types of products related to more then one level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?• For each type of product, consider two brands. How do marketers attempt to differentiate their product from the competition?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 33
    34. 34. A Trio of Needs• Power – individual’s desire to control environment• Affiliation – need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging• Achievement – need for personal accomplishment – closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 34
    35. 35. To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 35
    36. 36. The Affiliation Needs Of Young, Environmentally Concerned AdultsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 36
    37. 37. To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 37
    38. 38. Affiliation NeedCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 38
    39. 39. Power And Achievement NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 39
    40. 40. Measurement of Motives • Researchers rely on a combination of techniques • Qualitative research is widely used • Projective techniques are often very successful in identifying motives.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 40
    41. 41. Qualitative Measures of Motives Table 4.7 (excerpt)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 41
    42. 42. Motivational Research• Term coined in the 1950s by Dr. Ernest Dichter• Based on premise that consumers are not always aware of their motivations• Identifies underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotionsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 42
    43. 43. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 43
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