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  • Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Three.
  • Not all consumers are alike – different customers have different needs. By segmenting the market and choosing target markets, companies can differentiate their products to provide the benefits that the segments desire. Once a marketer has identified their segment, they can choose media that is targeted to that segment for their advertising.
  • Positioning is the unifying element of each marketing mix. Product, place, price, and promotional strategies must work to state the product or service’s ability to deliver benefits to the consumer. Positioning is discussed in more detail in Chapter 6, but it is important to think about the concept as it is closely tied to the choice of a target market.
  • There are five criteria for effective targeting, as shown on the slide. First of all, the target must be identifiable. This means that the marketer must be able to see or find the characteristic they have chosen for segmentation. The segment must also be sizeable . It must be large enough to be profitable to the marketer. A stable segment means that the consumers are not “fickle” and likely to change very quickly. A group of consumers must be accessible to be targeted. The marketer must be able to reach that market in an affordable way. Finally, the target must be congruent with the company’s objectives and resources.
  • This two-by-two matrix is important for understanding types of segmentation schemes. It is possible to break segmentation into two broad groups – those that are based on the consumers themselves and those that are based on the consumers’ interaction or potential interaction with the product and are therefore consumption based. Within each of these two larger types of schemes, segmentation variables can be considered to be based on facts or what is absolutely known and measureable about the consumer versus cognitions, which are abstract and can be determined only through more complex questioning.
  • Demographics are the core of almost all segmentation because they are easy and logical. In addition, they are a cost-effective way to reach segments and demographic shifts are easier to identify than other types of shifts. When researching segmentation and media exposure, a consumer researcher will learn that media exposure is often directly related to demographics. Age segmentation includes segments such as the baby boomers and generations X and Y. Family life-cycle is based on the premise that many families pass through similar phases in their lives and share major life events such as moving, marriage, birth of a child, and retirement. Income, education, and occupation tend to tie together and lead to segmentation based on social class.
  • Geodemographic segmentation is a popular use of geography in targeting. People who live close to one another are likely to be similar in tastes, incomes, lifestyles and consumption. They might eat similar foods, like the same movies, and take the same types of vacations. This web link is to Claritas’ Prizm classifications. If you enter your zip code, you can find out which Prizm clusters are in your area.
  • This is one of four PRIZM segments that are shown in the text. The other two are the New Empty Nests, The Boomtown Singles, and Bedrock America. Each one is described by where they live, their income, their lifestyle traits, and characteristics.
  • Personality traits help us identify what segments are valuable to marketers. For instance, if an innovator also classifies themselves high on an “exhibition” personality trait, it means they want to be the center of a group and might be important as these are the type of innovators to spread word-of-mouth messages regarding new products and services.
  • Demographics will tell us the consumer’s ability to buy them and will work for segmentation of basic products, but psychographics or lifestyles are based on consumer’s values. These shared values, interests, activities, opinions, and interests are an effective way to explain buyers’ purchase decisions.
  • These are two of the four views presented in the book in Table 3.6. In this segmentation by lifestyle, you will have two individuals with similar demographics who share a very different view of this stage of the family life-cycle.
  • VALS is the most popular segmentation system that combines lifestyles and values. You can see how it is related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the concept of social character. The system looks at three primary motivations and then the resources that individuals might have to draw upon. The lower resource consumer is at the bottom and labeled survivors while the highest resource consumer is often the innovator. We will talk about innovators in later chapters who are similar to this innovator. This web link will take you to the VALS website so you can see where you are classified. If you are a full-time student, run the survey twice – once with your own salary and once with your parents’.
  • An American might identify with common American cultural values, such as fitness and health but also with sub-cultural values if they are Hispanic or Asian Americans. In this global world, marketers must often think cross-culturally, including many countries and more global marketing segmentation. A consumer may be cross-cultural if they were born in one country and are now living in another.
  • Consumption-specific bases include facts about actual consumption behavior and cognitions consumers have about products and services in the form of attitudes and preferences.
  • Usage rate is often based on whether a group of consumers are heavy, medium, light, or nonusers of a product. Many marketers target the heavy consumers since they are often the most loyal and account for the largest portion of sales. A company with a strong growth objective might target the other usage segments to fuel their growth in the marketplace. Furthermore, a marketer might target those who are unaware of their product in order to start the process that could lead to purchase. Level of involvement is discussed in future slides when we reach Chapter seven.
  • Usage rate or amount is important to some marketers, but it might also be worth considering WHEN a given product is used. This is the basis for a usage-situation segmentation opportunity. People might consume certain products for special events, certain days of the week, or certain times during the year. Think of the rise of sales in chocolate and flowers for Valentine’s Day.
  • In many ways, segmentation is tied to the benefits that a group desires from your product or service. Knowing these benefits is important for positioning your product in the minds of the consumer. Consumers are constantly weighing the benefits of different types of media and noticing that digital media might be preferred in immediacy and accessibility but that traditional media often provides more depth and details.
  • Brand loyalty includes the behavior to the brand – how often somebody purchases the brand, in addition to the attitude or feeling the consumer has to a brand. Many companies have frequency award or loyalty programs where loyal customers receive rewards and benefits for purchasing often. Customer relationships are very complex and differ based on commitment by the customers, their sense of loyalty, their expectations of specialty treatment, their confidence in the company, and how they are treated by staff and employees from the company.
  • Micro-targeted began in 2004 and is growing field within marketing. It is growing due to the marketer’s ability to use complex databases and personalized media including email and mobile phones. Micro-targeting focuses on delivering a personalized advertising message to the user whether they are at work, at home, or on-the-go.
  • Acxiom is a major company involved in profiling customers and providing marketers with data. Like VALS and PRIZM, they have created segments or clusters for marketers. This table shows three sample clusters, including shooting stars, tots & toys, and Mid Americana.
  • Concentrated marketing usually involves only one segment, whereas a differentiated marketing strategy is targeting several segments with individual marketing mixes. Differentiated marketing is usually used by financially strong companies that are well established in their market sector. Countersegmentation involves combining existing segments for a company to become more efficient and profitable.

Schiffman cb10 ppt_03 Schiffman cb10 ppt_03 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER THREEMarket Segmentation and Strategic Targeting
  • Learning Objectives1. To Understand Why Market Segmentation Is Essential.2. To Understand the Criteria for Targeting Selected Segments Effectively.3. To Understand the Bases for Segmenting Consumers.4. To Understand How Segmentation and Strategic Targeting Are Carried Out.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 2
  • What Kind of Consumer Does This Ad Target?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 3
  • This Ad Targets Runners Who Are Physically Active People and Also Relish the Outdoors.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 4
  • Why Segmentation is Necessary• Consumer needs differs• Differentiation helps products compete• Segmentation helps identify mediaCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 5
  • Positioning The value proposition, expressed through promotion, stating the product’s or service’s capacity to deliver specific benefits.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 6
  • Criteria for Effective TargetingCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 7
  • Which Distinct Benefit Does Each of theTwo Brands Shown in This Figure Deliver?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 8
  • The Dentyne Ad’s Benefit is Fresh Breath and the Nicorette Ad is Whitening and Smoking CessationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 9
  • Bases for SegmentationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 10
  • Discussion Questions• Considering the largest bank in your college’s city or town: – How might consumers’ needs differ? – What types of products might meet their needs? – What advertising media makes sense for the different segments of consumers?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 11
  • Consumer-Rooted Segmentation BasesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 12
  • Demographic SegmentationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 13
  • Discussion Questions• What types of marketers might segment according to social class?• What ethical issues might marketers have when marketing to different social classes?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 14
  • Geodemographic Segmentation• Based on geography and demographics• People who live close to one another are similar• “Birds of a feather flock together”Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 15
  • One PRIZM Segment - Table 3.4 (excerpt)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 16
  • Personality Traits• People often do not identify these traits because they are guarded or not consciously recognized• Consumer innovators – Open minded – Perceive less risk in trying new thingsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 17
  • Lifestyles• Psychographics• Includes activities, interests, and opinions• They explain buyer’s purchase decisions and choicesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 18
  • Discussion Questions• How might you differ from a person with similar demographics to yourself?• How would this be important for marketers?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 19
  • Two Views of Post-Retirement Lifestyle Table 3.6 (excerpt)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 20
  • VALS – Figure 3.4Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 21
  • Socio-Cultural Values and Beliefs• Sociological = group• Anthropological = cultural• Include segments based on – Cultural values – Sub-cultural membership – Cross-cultural affiliationsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 22
  • Consumption-Specific Segmentation BasesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 23
  • Consumption-Specific Segmentation Usage-Behavior• Usage rate – Awareness status – Level of involvementCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 24
  • Consumption-Specific Segmentation Usage-Behavior• Usage-situation segmentation – Segmenting on the basis of special occasions or situations – Example : When I’m away on business, I try to stay at a suites hotel.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 25
  • Which Consumption-Related Segmentation Is Featured in This Ad?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 26
  • This is an Example of a Situational Special Usage Segmentation.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 27
  • Benefits Segmentation• Benefits sought represent consumer needs• Important for positioning• Benefits of mediaCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 28
  • Benefits Visiting Tourists Seek in National Park – Table 3.13 (excerpt)Segment DescriptionEnvironmentalists Interested in an unpolluted, un-spoilt natural environment and in conservation. Not interested in socializing, entertainment, or sports. Desire authenticity and less man-made structures and vehicles in the park.Want-it-all Tourists Value socializing and entertainment more than conservation. Interested in more activities and opportunities for meeting other tourists. Do not mind the “urbanization” of some park sections.Independent Tourists Looking for calm and unpolluted environment, exploring the park by themselves, and staying at a comfortable place to relax. Influenced by word of mouth in choosing travel destinations.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 29
  • Brand Loyalty and Relationships• Brand loyalty includes: – Behavior – Attitude• Frequency award programs are popular• Customer relationships can be active or passive• Retail customers seek: – Personal connections vs. functional features• Banking customers seek: – Special treatment – Confidence benefits – Social benefitsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 30
  • Implementing Segmentation Strategies• Micro- and behavioral targeting – Personalized advertising messages – Narrowcasting • Email • Mobile – Use of many data sourcesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 31
  • Sample Acxiom Clusters - Table 3.16 (excerpt)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 32
  • Implementing Segmentation Strategies• Concentrated Marketing – One segment• Differentiated – Several segments with individual marketing mixes• CountersegmentationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 33
  • All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Three Slide 34