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Master thesis s679600

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  • Reguliere media zoals TV en radio brachten niet al het nieuws naar het idee van een groep bloggers die in hun reacties en mails die ze kregen verhalen te horen kregen die niet werden behandeld in de reguliere media. Ze bouwden Ushahidi op basis van bestaande open source technologie.FrontlineSMS werd gebruikt om SMS berichten te verzamelen. Het is een open source platform en het zorgt ervoor dat SMS gebruikt kan worden. Mobiele telfonie is veel belangrijker als technologie dan Internet in opkomende economiën en ontwikkelingslanden. Een Google Maps API, dat is een soort standaard opening in de software om bepaalde functionaliteit te gebruiken en te integreren in je eigen website of software, werd gebruikt om de meldingen te labelen met een locatie.De website verzamelde informatie die niet gebracht werd door de radio en Ushahidi werd daardoor een belangrijke nieuwsbron. Andere media pakten dit op, radiozenders gebruikte de website om nieuws te brengen en zo werden verhalen gebracht die anders waarschijnlijk niet gebracht zouden worden.Het ontwikkelde zich in een platform dat gedownload kan worden en waarmee een ieder een website zelf kan opzetten. Het is open source en het staat een ieder vrij om het pakket aan te passen en in te richten naar zijn of haar idee.Er zit ook functionaliteit in om te reageren via een SMS dus het kan echt als een platform gebruikt worden om een melding van iemand te ontvangen, te behandelen, en hier op te reageren.Het platform bezit ook steeds meer mogelijkheden om tweets, nieuwsberichten, etc. te verzamelen en op de kaart te plaatsen. Foto’s van Flickr, overheidsgegevens, NGO-data, etc.
  • Social Media =Web 2.0
  • Transcript

    • 1. InteractionBetweenSocial Media AndDemocracy
      A case study on the societal factors influencingsuccess of Ushahidi in Afghanistan
      Master Thesis | Frans Staal | S679600
    • 2. Beginnings in Kenya
      Post-election violence 2007/2008
      Crowdsources SMS, Email
      Google Maps
      Evolved into free and open source platform
      Input: SMS, MMS, Email, Web form, API, RSS,
      Visualization: (anonymous)reports on a map, timeline and by category
      Output: SMS-alerts, Email, RSS
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5.
    • 6. Introduction
      Mass media
      Distinction information-producers and information-consumers
      Producers control information
      Consumers are depended on information
      Social media
      Leveling power between producers & consumers creating ‘prosumers’
      Current paradigms
      Social media is an important enabler of democracy
      Social Media (like Ushahidi) fosters democracy through social activism & citizen journalism
      Social media has little effect on democracy
      Social media = no ‘magic bullet’ for democracy
      Interaction between social media & democracy is complex
      Social media may even hinder democracy
    • 7. Problem Statement & Research Questions
      Problem Statement:
      “How do societal factors influence the interaction between social media crowdsourcing tools, and the democratization process of societies and how can we design better social media crowdsourcing tools, and deploy these tools better, by taking into account societal factors?”
      Research Questions
      What is Ushahidi?
      What are relevant theories and methods for designing IT systems which support societal interaction?
      How can we explain the effect of media in society and on democracy?
      How can we explain the effect of the Internet, and specifically social media, in society and on democracy?
      How do societal factors, design and deployment decisions affect the interaction of social media, and specifically Ushahidi, with the democratization process?
    • 8. Socio-Technical System
      Socio-technical levels (Whitworth, 2009)
    • 9. Web Of System Performance
      Web Of System Performance (Whitworth, 2009)
    • 10. Democracy
      “All democracies share certain important precepts – open debate, with sufferance of unpopular opinions, and decisions taken by honest voting and thereupon accepted.“ Dennis and Snyder (1997)
      Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1835)
      Free press is vital for a democracy. When civilians have decision-making rights on the governance of their society, they should be able to become acquainted with the different opinions in their society. The sovereignty of the civilians and freedom of the press are therefore both necessary in a democracy, universal suffrage and censorship are incompatible
      Associationslead to a self-conscious and active political society and a vibrant civil society functioning independently from the state.
    • 11. Media System Dependencytheory
      MSD theory (S. J. Ball-Rokeach & DeFleur, 1976)
    • 12. Methodology
      Research design
      Exploratory research
      Qualitative method
      Case study on the use of Ushahidi in Afghanistan
      Data collection
      In-depth interviews
      Documents
      Archival records
      Data analysis
      External validation
      Reliability
    • 13. Case: Ushahidi in Afghanistan
      Presidential elections 2009
      Alive in Afghanistan
      Parliamentary elections 2010
      Alive in Afghanistan 2010
      Afghan Election Mapper (Free and Fair Election Foundation of Afghanistan)
      Observer Report Map (Democracy International, USAID)
    • 14. Alive in Afghanistan 2009
      14
    • 15. Alive in Afghanistan
      15
    • 16.
    • 17.
    • 18. Societal Factors
      Education
      Structural Location
      Wealth
      Age
      Trust in Government
      Level of Democracy & Development
      Gender
      Communication Infrastructure
    • 19. Design Decisions (Ushahidi)
      SMS-reporting
      Visualizing Reports On A Map
      Free and Open Source Software
      Easy and Fast setup
      (Voice Based Reporting)
    • 20. DeploymentsDecisions
      Partnerships
      Marketing
      Strategic Choices on Crowdsourcing
      Strategic Choices on Anonymity and Accountability
      Strategic Choices on Community Building
      Contingency Planning
      Estimating Feasibility of Citizen-Reporting
    • 21. Conclusion & Discussion
      Social media interacts with democracy through:
      Free press
      Civil society
      “…how can we design better social media crowdsourcing tools, and deploy these tools better, by taking into account societal factors?”
      Step 1: Use MSD theory to assess environment
      Step 2: Use WOSP to design/select right software
      Step 3: Base deployment choices on step 1 and 2.
      Further research:
      Generalization: Interaction societal factors, design and deployment
      Deployment: Partnerships, marketing and funding of these projects.