香港六合彩 » SlideShare

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也不知道为了什么事,不过,现在风言风语很多,都是对你不利的。你在黑道打打闹闹,特别最近,和什么洪门闹得天翻地覆,不可开交,中央已经难以容忍,而在这时候,你又将魂组的总部炸了,对于中央来说,这是一件好事,但却又不能不考虑到日本那方面的压力,如果因为此事必须要做出一个牺牲的话,你说中央会牺牲你一条命还是会牺牲中日之间的外交关系?

谢文东颔了颔首,凝目看着自己的鞋尖,摇头道:我的命,恐怕还没有那么值钱。

你明白这个道理就好。东方易疲惫的靠在车椅上,仰着头,喃喃道:所以,我说你是不应该来的。

世上没有后悔药。谢文东笑眯眯道:既来之,则安之,更何况,我还没有后悔呢。因为,你是疯子。

要见谢文东的这个香港六合彩,确实是个高官,高到什么程度,'一香港六合彩之下,万香港六合彩之上'来形容香港六合彩,一点不过分。

北京,钓鱼台。园内雄伟的建筑气势磅礴,古香古色,绿草茵茵,古树参天,数万平米的内胡清澈见底,明如镜面。对于谢文东来说,钓鱼台是神秘

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香港六合彩 » SlideShare

  1. 1. Build a Balanced Speech <ul><li>Introduction-10% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain audience attention via an example, quote, statistics or a visual aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the Central Thesis (the main idea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish your credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify with the audience and recognize the occasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview the main points, in the same order they will appear in the speech </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Build a Balanced Speech (continued) <ul><li>Body-80% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 3-5 main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give balanced attention to each section </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion-10% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a mirror image of introduction, with a review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer back to the attention-getter in the introduction (e.g., a vivid example) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t introduce new information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End with authority, and always on time </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Employ Frequent Transitions <ul><li>Transitions help adult learners know what to expect </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions link the main parts of the speech, and create a smooth flow </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions can review, and then preview main points </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions can be long or short </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single words, phrases or sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Transitions <ul><li>“Now that we have reviewed the problem of homelessness, let’s examine three main causes…” </li></ul><ul><li>“The second major problem is…” </li></ul><ul><li>“Next, we will consider..” </li></ul><ul><li>“That brings us to…” </li></ul><ul><li>“The final point…” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Employ Humor With Care <ul><li>Where humor is concerned, there are no standards - no one can say what is good or bad, although you can be sure that everyone will! </li></ul><ul><li>John Kenneth Galbraith </li></ul>
  6. 6. Use Varied and Multiple Types of Evidence and Support <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid success stories or brief scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual aids or models </li></ul><ul><li>Expert testimony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes attributed to an expert enhance the speaker’s credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to round off and interpret </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies and statistics . Benjamin Disraeli
  8. 8. Statistics always remind me of the fellow who drowned in a river whose average depth was three feet. Woody Hayes Coach, Ohio State Football
  9. 9. Always provide people with a context to help them understand. Richard E. Moran
  10. 10. A talk is a voyage with a purpose, and it must be charted. The man who starts out going nowhere, generally gets there. Dale Carnegie
  11. 11. Strategically Choose Your Organizational Pattern(s) <ul><li>Chronological (in order of occurrence, as in a historical perspective) </li></ul><ul><li>Topical (by subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial (by physical position, as in geographic) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Cause-Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence </li></ul>
  12. 12. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create interest in the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze problem characteristics and relate these to the audience needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose a course of action that eliminates the problem and satisfies audience needs, desires and wants </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (continued) <ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbally depict the world as it will exist if the plan is or is not instituted, and contrast these possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for audience commitment and action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is commonly used in advertising to persuade… </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Delivery Tips <ul><li>A speaker is always “on stage” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are “on” from moment they are announced, to the time they return to their place in the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pause before beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Vary intonation </li></ul><ul><li>A slightly faster pace increases audience comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain good eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Assume a relaxed, open posture, with few self-adaptors/touch </li></ul>
  15. 15. (Sometimes, “less” is “more”) Talk low, talk slow and don’t say too much. John Wayne
  16. 16. The right word may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause. Mark Twain
  17. 17. To Minimize Anxiety <ul><li>Convert anxiety to presentational energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that mild arousal is normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seek public speaking opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More speaking experience=less anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Eat and sleep enough </li></ul><ul><li>Deep breathing, activity and relaxation may help </li></ul>
  18. 18. Practice the Presentation <ul><li>Rehearse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your emotional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions (this is where many speakers experience the most difficulty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Become Familiar With the Room <ul><li>Messages are perceived better in an attractive room </li></ul><ul><li>Check-out the sound system and lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with audiovisual (AV) technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for water, pointer, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Always Have A Back-Up Plan <ul><li>What if the AV fails? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a lo-tech back-up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What if your available time is diminished? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate sub-points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t speed rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What if you misplace your speech? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep an extra copy, or quickly construct an outline </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. FAQ’s <ul><li>What if I make a mistake? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that most speakers make them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct it; humor is ok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize profusely or start over </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can I avoid saying “Um?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ speaking transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate silence </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. FAQ’s <ul><li>How can I slow down? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause between sections. Stop at the end of sentences. Underline key words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape record your practice sessions and count the words per minute. Then, practice speaking at a deliberately slower rate to gain conscious control over rate. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. FAQ’s <ul><li>What about eye contact? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t bob your head up and down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t fix your gaze at one person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up at the end of a section, rather than lose your place, or train of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face the audience, not your slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look more at friendly, supportive people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t favor one side of the room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased eye contact increases audience learning </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. FAQ’s <ul><li>What do I do with my hands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t play with your hair, clothes, objects or jingle money in your pockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t worry about your gestures--they will emerge naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your hands on or near the podium, or at your sides. Don’t cross your arms, or clasp your hands in front of your body. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Audience Q&As <ul><li>Anticipate potential questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listen to the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t get defensive and never embarrass an audience member </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain an open and relaxed posture </li></ul><ul><li>Admit to not having an answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“I really can’t speak to that; I will refer that concern to….” </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. I’m glad this question came up, in a way, because there are so many ways to answer it that one if them is bound to be right. Robert Benchley I was gratified to be able to answer promptly. I said, “I don’t know.” Mark Twain
  27. 27. In Closing <ul><li>Speaking in public represents an opportunity to enhance knowledge, change attitudes, and promote action </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, strive to communicate with your audience and to meet their unique needs </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker has a responsibility to communicate publicly in an informed and ethical manner </li></ul>
  28. 28. Source: Cohn, E. Public Speaking, University of Pittsburgh Center for Instructional Development & Distance Education, Fifth Edition, January 2001.

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