Resolution No. 01-2011 National and State Water Summit 20111 PREAMBLE. The many high islands, small atolls, and lagoon environments of the FederatedStates of Micronesia are blessed with high and unique biodiversity. Safe and clean water however, isgenerally scarce and is a key factor limiting economic development and improvements to publichealth in the Nations four States of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae. Overuse of freshwater and thecontamination of rivers and water storage areas continue to threaten this critical resource of our smallMicronesian islands.The water resource systems of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae States are highly diverse, with vastdifferences in the overall supply of freshwater from rainfall, freshwater storage capacities, and theinfrastructure used to distribute and treat freshwater for human use. These systems are also subjectto high variability in freshwater supply due to seasonal effects, longer-term drought cycles, and EINino/La Nina-Southem Oscillation patterns. It is also generally acknowledged that each State isunderprepared to accommodate increased variability in rainfall or prolonged droughts particularly thatassociated with any human induced climate change.Despite the importance of freshwater to the natural environment, the development of all economicsectors, and improved public health, the Federated States of Micronesia lacks a comprehensivenational water and sanitation policy. There is also a need for a national cross-sectoral coordinatingbody on water and sanitation to guide the sustainable management of water resources in the fourstates.2 PARTIES. This resolution is entered into by the President of the National Government of theFederated States of Micronesia, the State Governors of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae States.3 BACKGROUND. Recalling the commitment made by the international community to fullyachieve the Millennium Development Goals, including inter alia to halve, by 2015, the proportion ofpeople unable to reach or afford safe drinking water, and to halve the proportion of people withoutaccess to basic sanitation,Acknowledging the resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly of za" July 2010 andHuman Rights Commission of so" September 2010 declaring the right to safe and clean drinkingwater and sanitation as a human right that is essential for full enjoyment of life and all human rights,Reaffirming that the Federated States of Micronesia has obligations under a variety of Multi-lateralEnvironmental Agreements to Conserve the environment and sustainably use natural resources,including adequate flows of freshwater through watersheds and to the sea,Welcoming the water and sanitation resolutions and communiques of the Micronesian TraditionalLeaders of November 2010 and the Micronesian Chief Executives of December 2010,Reaffirming also the important roles and duties of Traditional Leaders in ensuring secure access tosafe drinking water and sanitation in order to sustain their communities as well as Micronesias uniquebiodiversity,Respecting the varied land tenure systems used throughout the Federated States of Micronesia andthe need for consideration of these in water resource and sanitation management,Recognising that landowners, local traditional leaders, non-governmental organisations, Church andwomens groups, and local, state and national governments all have a role to play in water resourcemanagement and that "Water is Everyones Business", andDeeply concerned that the Federated States of Micronesia lacks a comprehensive water andsanitation policy,4. PURPOSE. The Purpose of this Resolution is to facilitate:
• strengthened coordination of government service delivery for water and sanitation throughout the Federated States of Micronesia, and • co-operation among the parties to develop and implement a National Comprehensive Water and Sanitation Policy, including a "National Water OutlooK and Water Sector Investment Plan.5. TASKSBYTHE PARTIES.The Parties undertake to: l. Participate as members of the National Water Task Force o.~tlined in Annex 1 of this agreement, II. Facilitate the cross-sectoral and intergovernmental dialogue necessary for the preparation of a National Water Outlook and Water Sector Investment Plan, III. Develop the Framework National Water Policy outlined in Annex 2 of this agreement, leading to finalisation and endorsement of a National Comprehensive Water and Sanitation Policy by August 2011, IV. Encourage improved information sharing between and amongst communities, traditional leaders, and State and National Government Departments to enhance the replication and mainstreaming of best water resource and wastewater management practices into national development planning and supporting legal frameworks for water and sanitation, V. Co--operate with each other and the Federated States of Micronesias development and technical advisory partners in streamlining efforts Integrated Water Resources Management and improved Water-Use Efficiency throughout the States of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae, Honorable~ Lyndon H. Jackson State of Kosrae March 22,2011 /~ 1-. ;/
ANNEX I Terms of Reference for the Federated States of Micronesias National Water Task Force1. MEMBERSHIP OF THE NATIONAL WATER TASK FORCE1.1 Full members of the Federated States of Micronesias National Water Task Force (FSM NWTF) shall consist solely of representatives of the following offices and groups: I. Office of the President of the Federated States of Micronesia II. Offices of the Governors of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae States III. Federated States of Micronesias Department of Foreign Affairs IV. Federated States of Micronesias Department of Resources and Development; V. Federated States of Micronesias Department of Transport, Communications, and Infrastructu re VI. Federated States of Micronesias Office of Environment and Emergency Management VII. Federated States of Micronesias Office of Planning and Statistics VIII. Federated States of Micronesias Department of Health IX. Federated States of Micronesias Department of Finance X. Federated States of Micronesias Department of Justice XI. National Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) Focal Point XII. Business sector and environmental Non-Governmental Organisation representatives1.2 The FSM NWTF shall elect a Chairperson and a Vice-Chairperson from amongst its full members by 1st May, 2011 with responsibility for chairing each formal meeting of the Committee and for acting as Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of any FSM NWTF meetings convened;1.3 The FSM NWTF may agree, by consensus at the commencement of each meeting to co-opt additional experts as observers or advisors to any meeting of the FSM NWTF or part thereof, as the FSM NWTF shall deem appropriate.2. SECRETARIAT OF THE NATIONAL WATER TASK FORCE2.1 The National Water Policy Officer in the office of the Federated States of Micronesias Department of Resources and Development shall act as Secretary to the meetings of the FSM NWTF.2.2 The Federated States of Micronesias nationally nominated Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) Focal Point may also provide Secretariat and technical support to the meetings and work of the FSM NWTF as required.3. MEETINGS OF THE NATIONAL WATER TASK FORCE3.1 The National Water Policy Officer shall convene regular quarterly meetings of the FSM NWTF.3.2 Ad hoc meetings may be convened by the Chairperson: • when a majority of the Committee members make a request for such a meeting to the National Water Policy Officer or the National Integrated Water Resource Management Focal Point;
• at the request of the National Water Policy Officer and/or National Integrated Water Resource Management Focal Point when circumstances demand.4. TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE NATIONAL WATER TASK FORCEThe Federated States of Micronesias National Water Task Force shall operate on the basis ofconsensus to: i. Provide direction and strategic guidance to the National Water Policy Officer and to the Federated States of Micronesias Department of Resources and Development regarding development of a Comprehensive National Water and Sanitation Policy, ii. Contribute to and oversee the preparation of an annual "Federated States of Micronesia National Water Outlook: and Water Sector Investment Plan, iii. Guide the mainstreaming of Integrated Water Resource Management and Water-Use Efficiency principles, and "Ridge to Reef and "Community to Congress" management approaches, into National and State government service delivery for water resource management and sanitation, iv. Review planned and ongoing water and sanitation projects in the States of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae with the aim of minimising duplication of efforts, and to identify opportunities for cooperation and the sharing of examples of best practices in water and wastewater management throughout the Federated States of Micronesia; v. Assess stakeholder involvement in water resource and wastewater management and to take action where necessary to ensure appropriate levels of government, traditional rights and customs, environmental Non-Governmental Organisations, Church and Womens groups, and private sector engagement; vi. Review community awareness of the need for improved water resource management throughout the Federated States of Micronesia and guide the National Water Policy Officer in planning and implemented water conservation awareness campaigns; vii. Ensure compatibility between the activities of national demonstration projects and other National, State and community-based activities for Integrated Water Resource Management and Water Use Efficiency; andviii. Assist the National Water Policy Officer in leveraging required funding that may be required from time to time. ix. Agree at their first meeting: a) the membership, meeting arrangements, and terms of reference of the committee; and b) such standing orders and manner of conducting business as may be considered necessary by the committee. .5. CONDUCT OF COMMITTEE BUSINESSThe National Water Task Force shall operate and take decisions on the basis of consensus, regardingany matter relating to project execution that has regional significance.Where full consensus cannot be achieved in reaching agreement during a full meeting of theCommittee, the Secretariat shall, in consultation with the Chairperson, facilitate negotiations betweenmeetings with a view to seeking resolution, and will report the results of these negotiations to theCommittee members.6. OTHER MATTERSNotwithstanding the membership and terms of reference contained in this document the NationalWater Task Force shall have the power to amend, from time to time, the membership, terms ofreference, and rules of procedure of the National Water Task Force.
Rules of Procedure for the Federated States of Micronesias National Water Task Force Rule 1Drawing up of the Provisional Agenda: The National Water Policy Officer shall submit to theNational Water Task Force the provisional agenda. The provisional agenda shall include all itemsproposed by members of the National Water Task Force and National Integrated Water ResourceManagement Focal Point. Items proposed by members shall be accompanied by an explanatorymessage and, if possible, by background documentation which shall be submitted to the NationalWater Policy Officer at least 4 weeks (20 working days) prior to the meeting. Rule2Distribution of the Agenda: The National Water Policy Officer shall communicate the provisionalagenda of each National Water Task Force meeting together with all background documentation, tothe members at least 3 weeks (15 working days) in advance. Rule 3Adoption of the Agenda: At the commencement of each National Water Task Force meeting, theNational Water Task Force shall review, amend, and adopt the agenda for the meeting on the basis ofthe provisional agenda. Rule4Elections of Officers: At the commencement of the first National Water Task Force meeting theCommittee shall elect a Chairperson, Vice- Chairperson and a Rapporteur from among its members. Rule 5Alternate Members: In the event that a full member is unable to participate in a meeting of theCommittee an alternate representative may be designated to represent the member concerned.Alternate Members shall be designated through written notification to the National Water PolicyOfficer two (2) weeks (10 working days) before a meeting of the National Water Task Force. Rule 6Regular Meetings: The National Water Policy Officer shall convene regular quarterly meetings of theNational Water Task Force. Each regular session of the National Water Task Force shall be held at adate and location, fixed by the Committee at its previous session, Meetings should be timed tocoincide meetings of the Steering Committee for Global Environment Facility supported IntegratedWater Resource Management demonstration project. Rule 7Acting Chairperson: If the Chairperson cannot preside at a meeting or any part thereof, the Vice-Chairperson shall act as Chairperson. If the Vide-Chairperson is also unavailable, the meeting shallbe chaired by the National Integrated Water Resource Management Focal Point. Rule 8Quorum: A simple majority of the members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum. Rule 9Records of the Meeting: Records of the meetings of the National Water Task Force shall be kept bythe Secretariat. They shall be prepared in the form of a draft report by the Secretary to the NationalWater Task Force and presented in draft to the members. Members shall inform the Secretariat of anychanges they wish to have made. Any disagreement concerning such changes shall be referred to theChairperson, whose decision shall be final. These amended records will be the official minutes of themeeting. Rule 10Distribution of Meeting Reports: The corrected version of the records of National Task ForceMeeting meetings shall be distributed within two weeks of the closure of the meeting.
ANNEX II Framework National Water and Sanitation Policy for the Federated States of Micronesia "Water is Life from Ridge to Reef1. RATIONALE FOR A NATIONAL WATER POLICYThe Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) comprises approximately 607 islands spread over an areaof 2,700 km longitudinally in the Western Pacific Ocean. The four states of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei andKosrae are all centered around one or more main high islands, and include numerous outlying atolls.The different size, geomorphology, hydrology, and climates of these many islands have resulted in anextremely diverse range of freshwater systems. The four states exhibit vast differences in the overallsupply of freshwater from rainfall, freshwater storage capacities, and the infrastructure used todistribute and treat freshwater for human use.For example, some islands such as Pohnpei Island are blessed with high annual rainfall and anabundance of freshwater. For communities on other islands and especially outer atolls, freshwater isan extremely scarce and fragile resource. This situation is made more complex by sometimesunpredictable seasonal variations in rainfall, longer-term drought cycles, and EI Nirio/l.a Nina-Southern Oscillation patterns. The Micronesia region is also subject to disasters caused by stormevents and droughts, and it is generally accepted that all states are underprepared to accommodateincreased variability in rainfall or prolonged droughts, particularly that associated with any humaninduced climate change.Freshwater is central to the lives and culture of all island communities of the FSM. There exists awealth of traditional knowledge and beliefs regarding the use of freshwater throughout the nation,although FSMs fragile water systems are becoming increasingly threatened by overuse, and thepollution of rivers and catchment areas. An adequate supply of safe and clean freshwater is critical tothe development of the food production, tourism, and fisheries sectors of the FSM. It is also essentialin maintaining public health standards and the unique biodiversity of Micronesias terrestrial, lagoon,and coral reef environments.On za" July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on the human right towater and sanitation (document A/64/L.63/REV.1) by a recorded vote of 122 in favour to none against.This resolution "declares the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human rightthat is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights". This resolution was reinforced bythe United Nations Human Rights Council on ao" September 2010 when it adopted by consensus aresolution (A/HRC/15/L.14) affirming that water and sanitation are human rights. The world now has alegal obligation to ensure that people have access to clean water and sanitation.In considering these global resolutions, Micronesias traditional leaders called upon the Micronesiaregion to "ensure access and right to safe and clean drinking water" during the Fifth MicronesianTraditional Leaders Conference in November 2010. Their resolution "Endorsing Access and Right toSafe Drinking Water and Sanitation in the Micronesia Region" calls upon landowners, local traditionalleaders, and local, state and national governments to work together in developing by 2011 "NationalWater and Sanitation Policies" based on the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management.The Presidents and Governors of Micronesia built upon this during the 14th Micronesian ChiefExecutives Summit by calling on all jurisdictions of Micronesia to develop national water policies.This Framework National Water and Sanitation Policy represent an important step in meeting thisChallenge. Each separately governed state of the FSM has its own Water Utility and EnvironmentalProtection Agency, and related water quality standards and regulations. The FSM however, currentlylacks an overarching policy guiding water and wastewater management. It is envisaged that thisframework water policy will be developed during 2011 through a consultative process led by theNational Water Task Force. The output will include a Comprehensive National Water and SanitationPolicy, including a "Federated States of Micronesia National Water Outlook" and Water SectorInvestment Plan.
2. OVERVIEW OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT IN THE FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIAApproximately 60 percent of water resources in FSM exist as surface water in the form of small,intermittent streams that drain catchments areas of limited aerial extent. The streams are low forabout 20 percent of the year. The development of surface water is therefore inherently expensive,since it requires the construction of dams to impound the surface runoff for use during dry periods.The topography in the stream basins is not conducive to the construction of economical dams.Furthermore, surface water requires extensive and costly treatment, largely to reduce high turbidity,undesirable taste and odours, and to remove all micro-organisms.The remaining 40 percent of the islands water resources exist as groundwater in small, dispersedzones of sedimentary deposits, weathered volcanics and weathered schist. These formations are notconducive to the development of high yielding wells as drilling through such sediments is expensive.However, the hydrogeology is suitable for multiple, low- to medium-yielding wells in the range of 20-150 gallons per minutes. The quality of the ground water is mostly excellent, but many health hazardsin the FSM are related to poor water quality and limited water quantity. The small low lying coralislands face severe constraints in terms of both the quality and quantity of freshwater due to limitedgroundwater resources and protected by a thin permeable water lens. Water use practices, arisingfrom the general historical availability of water from rains, are extravagant when water is available.All four of the focal islands have coastal mangrove fringes and intermittent development along theircoasts, with much less interior development. The natural vegetative cover is dense on all islands andhas not generally been disrupted for intensive agriculture use. Whether planned or fortuitous, this hasprotected watersheds, helping to reduce the rapid runoff and maintaining a reasonable rechargeopportunity for the aquifers that are important to each State for a portion of its water supply. The directrunoff from these intense rainfalls, even on these relatively small surface catchments, also providesone important source of water for all four islands; however, in each case, drought periods also arisewhen supplementation from ground water sources is important, and even critical. The islands areprone to extremely damaging natural disasters, in the form of typhoon, extended drought, landslides,tidal erosion and extensive floods.Roof catchments exist in all four islands. In many of the islands, there are no appropriate actions orpolicy to protect and safeguard watershed and groundwater resources, which poses a threat due tothe rapid population growth on the main islands. On the outer islands, there are no piped watersystems and the residents rely exclusively on individual rainwater catchments and dug wells. Thestandard of construction and maintenance of these facilities varies considerably from island to island.The piped water systems utilize stream water sources and consist of a small intake across the stream,a raw water main to the treatment plant (for those systems which incorporate treatment) and atransmission and distribution network. Water treatment is by rapid filtration, followed by chlorination.Only 5 systems out of about 70 have treatment facilities, and most systems supply untreated water.Groundwater systems usually consist of a production borehole fitted with a submersible pump, and atransmission and distribution network. A chlorine injection procedure is sometimes incorporated intothe system at the wellhead. A total of about 90 boreholes have so far been drilled in the main islands.Only limited areas are provided with sewerage systems so far and large numbers of household stillhave pit latrines or other unhygienic excreta disposal systems. Considerable attention is required forplanned drainage in the developed areas to protect the road pavement and foothill areas from landerosion and flooding. There are now five sewerage systems, which serve Kolonia town in Pohnpei,Weno Island in Chuuk, Colonia town in Yap, Lelu town in Kosrae and the Tofol administrative area inKosrae. The sewerage system in Weno Island, Chuuk State is non-functional and raw sewage isdischarged into the Weno lagoon, through a 2,000-foot long marine outfall. The dumping of solidwaste in particular human excreta is considered on of the FSMs foremost environmental healthproblems.Management of the water and sanitation sector is complex in FSM as it is managed by a number oftiers of government, namely:• The FSM national government which provides guidance and assistance including funding support for infrastructure projects to the state governments;
• State governments, which provide funding for capital improvements and operation and maintenance funds in each state. The key utility corporations in each state are the Pohnpei Utility Corporation (PUC), Chuuk Utility Corporation (CPUC), Kosrae Utility Corporation (KUC), Yap State Public Service Corporation (YSPSC) who take the lead role in the management, operations and maintenance otwater supply and water resources management in each state, and • Municipal government, which contribute to funding for capital improvements to local; water supply systems. Municipal governments working with community group and NGOs maintain many community water systems.Contamination of indiscriminately discharged human and livestock wastes is a common threat tofreshwater resource in all states of FSM. Problems of land access in most states, especially in Chuukmakes enforcement difficult. Given the diversity of tiers of government and dispersed nature of thepopulated islands, capacity and expertise in technical, design and planning of the water sector in FSMis limited. At the national level, the need for integrated water resources legislation, clear policy andconsistent planning approaches for improvement of a sustainable management sector are wellrecognised by government. Like many PICs, donors and development banks such as ADS assist inreform of the water sector primarily with a focus on infrastructure and investment needs. Such needsincluding water supply, are reflected in the FSM Infrastructure Development Plan, 2003-2017.Cultural and traditional beliefs are entrenched in many peoples way of life in FSM. It is essential thatthese be integrated into water and environmental improvement programmes, particularly in ruralareas. Cultural factors therefore affect the way groups use the environment and how they approachhealth and health services. In case of rural water supply and environmental sanitation the approach ofcommunity participation is crucial for sustainable development. Public participation in the water supplysector has historically been very low.3. DEVELOPING A STRATEGIC APPROACH FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIAS FRESHWATER RESOURCES3.1 Policy StatementThis Framework National Water and Sanitation Policy have been developed to provide the rationaleand direction for a Comprehensive National Water and Sanitation Policy for the Federated States ofMicronesia. Key elements of comprehensive policy will include a "Federated States of MicronesiaNational Water Outlook" and Water Sector Investment Plan. The intent of this policy is to mainstreamthe principles of Integrated Water Resource Management and Water Use Efficiency into national andstate development planning and resource management.3.2 Policy VisionThis policy strives to ensure that the people of the Federated States of Micronesias right to secureaccess to safe and clean drinking water is met, and that the use of the Nations freshwater resourcesis planned in a manner that maximises the benefits of this scarce and fragile resource for islandcommunities, now and in the future.3.3 Policy GoalsThe overall goals for a Comprehensive National Water and Sanitation Policy for the Federated Statesof Micronesia are: • to create an environment at the national level, in which collaboration and partnership in addressing water resource and wastewater management issues, between all stakeholders, and at all levels is fostered and encouraged; and • to enhance the mainstreaming of Integrated Water Resource Management and Water Use Efficiency Principles into National and State Development Planning3.4 Guiding Principles
appraisal of infrastructure options (e.g. piped gravity fed, rainwater harvesting, desalinisation); and (d) population proximity to secure supplies of safe drinking water and sanitation services, and implication of water demand trends and pollution pressures.3.5.2 Compilation and analysis of national budgets, development policies and plans, and the operational plans of relevant government ministries and/or departments to: (a) Prepare an inventory of ongoing and planned national level actions for freshwater management and sanitation; (b) Determine and benchmark budget allocations and govemment expenditure on water resource management; and (c) Assess national and state level need for improved cross-sectorial coordination and streamlining of govemment service delivery in water resource management.3.5.3 Assessment of existing policy and legal arrangements for water resource management and sanitation and recommendations for their reform: (a) Preparation of an inventory of existing policies, laws, Executive Orders, Presidential Decrees etc. relating to water resources and sanitation; (b) Compilation of stakeholder recommendations for water policy and legal reforms, particularly those needed to ensure harmonisation between different sectorial policies and legislation, as well as between national and local level govemance frameworks; and (c) Documentation of national budgetary planning processes and timings to inform national initiatives to mainstream IWRM into govemment service delivery for water resource management.3.5.4. National consultative process for the identification of national water resource management targets and performance indicators, and national prioritisation of water resource management interventions (a) States should cooperate to identify appropriate water resource management targets and performance indicators, and prioritize State and National freshwater and coastal water quality issues. States should co-operate with each other in addressing the prioritized water resource and sanitation issues in the Federated States of Micronesia (b) Each State should work to mobilize necessary resources, capacities and services, as well as develop legal, financial and economic arrangements, including the adoption of a water sector investment plan aimed at meeting the national targets identified.3.5.5 Preparation of a "Federated States of Micronesia National Water Outlook" and Sectoral Investment Plan.3.5.6 Public Awareness and Exchange. (a) Public awareness should be raised at the national, state, and local community levels on Integrated Water Resource Management and Water Use Efficiency. Public awareness can be raised through State education systems, campaigns and other activities.4. STRENGTHENING NATIONAL COORDINATION OF WATER AND SANITATION SERVICE DELIVERY4.1 Proposed Features of a Coordinating Body for Water and SanitationThe proposed mechanism for coordination and oversight of national water policy development andimplementation is via a National Water Task Force, with the following features: • Multi-stakeholder representation and active participation; • Maintains a separation between discussions of scientific and technical matters from discussions dealing with policy and principles at both the national and state levels; • Facilitates and ensures the incorporation of sound scientific and technical advice and information into policy development and water sector planning; • Emphasises and fosters networking at all levels and amongst all stakeholders;
National Integrated Water Resource Focal Point. The National Water Policy Officer will be responsiblefor ensuring timely submission of substantive outputs, expenditure, administrative progress reports,and annual implementation reviews to the National Water Task Force and the Water and SanitationWorking Group of the Micronesian Chief Executive Summit (MCES WatSan). Independent impactevaluations may possibly be undertake through the MCES WatSan or other regional projects ormechanisms. The National Water Outlook and Water Sector Investment Plan will be updated annuallyand every 3 years, respectively.7. SUPPPORTTo achieve the goals of this Framework National Water Policy and the development of aComprehensive National Water and Sanitation Policy, it is crucial to ensure commitment and supportof all government agencies, non-governmental agencies, private sector representatives andcommunities. In addition, the support from regional and international development partners is neededfor the successful development of this policy. In this respect, the responsible agencies and officer aredirected to engage with development partners to ensure inputs of technical support and financing asand required.8. APPROVALThe Federated States of Micronesia Framework National Water Policy is hereby approved for furtherelaboration this 22 nd of March 2011.