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Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei
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Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei

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Invasive species are recognized as one of the driving factors behind biodiversity loss worldwide. They have significant negative impacts upon many other sectors including: economic development, …

Invasive species are recognized as one of the driving factors behind biodiversity loss worldwide. They have significant negative impacts upon many other sectors including: economic development, health, agriculture, tourism and trade. Islands are very vulnerable to biological invasions. Island ecosystems, while highly diverse, are particularly fragile and vulnerable due to their small size, relative isolation, disproportionate susceptibility to the overharvesting of resources, and to natural disasters. Island biodiversity is also under serious threat from another major driver of biodiversity loss – climate change- which will interact with biological invasions and other processes in complex ways. Anticipated impacts from climate change including sea level rise and rainfall pattern-changes, which threaten to damage ecosystem health and may accelerate species loss. By fostering ecosystem health, invasive species management represents an effective form of Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA) to climate change.

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  1. Invasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN JULY 2010-JULY 2013
  2. Table of ContentsAcknowledgement 2Acronyms 3Executive Summary 5Introduction to Invasive Species 6Background 6Vision 8Mission 8Target Invasive Species 8Goal 1 Conserve Biodiversity and Protect Livelihoods from the threat 9of invasive species.Goal 2 Policy: National and State Leadership provide supporting 13Legislation and funding for invasive species management.Cost Summary by Objectives. 15
  3. AcknowledgementOn behalf of the Invasive Species Taskforce Of Pohnpei (iSTOP) I would like to take this opportunityto extend my sincere thanks and appreciation to all the people and agencies who have been involvedin the development of this Strategic Action Plan (SAP).Particularly, I would like to give a special thanks to Konrad Englberger for facilitating the SAP work-shop and providing pictures for our presentations and many publications, Patterson Shed, ExecutiveDirector of the Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP) for coordinating and facilitating the SAP work-shop. I also wish to convey special thanks to Josh Fuder, Deputy Director of CSP for the instrumentalsupport in drafting and layout of our strategic action plan and designing of our new iSTOP logo. I also would like to give my thanks to the following people who were involved and contributed in thedevelopment of this SAP: Paul Lake and Gibson Santos from Natural Resources Conservation Ser-vice (NRCS), Engly Ioanis and Mark Kostka from the College of Micronesia (COM)-FSM CooperativeExtension Services (CES), Roseo Marquez and John Wichep from FSM National Government, Sai-mon Lihpai from Pohnpei Forestry, Mike Helgenberger from the Office of Fisheries and AquacultureOFA, Karlos Kusto from Micronesia Conservation Trust (MCT), Dona Scheuring from the Environ-mental Protection Agency (EPA) and Bejay Obispo, Rudi Andreas and Francisca Sohl from CSP.Through the Conservation Society of Pohnpei I wish to express our sincere appreciation to the CriticalEcosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) for funding support to enable the development of iTOP’s futurestrategies.Thanks are also given to the Pohnpei Office of Economic Affairs (OEA) and Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA) for providing the venue for the workshop.I sincerely hope that this plan will be successfully implemented and all the goals will be achieved.Kalahngan,Kadalino LorensChairmanInvasive Species Taskforce of Pohnpei ( iSTOP)July 1. 2010
  4. AcronymsAG Attorney GeneralBSAP Biodiversity Strategic Action PlanEPA Environmental Protection AgencyCCO Community Conservation OfficersCEPF Critical Ecosystem Partnership FundCES Cooperative Extension ServiceCOM FSM College of Micronesia, Federated States of MicronesiaCSP Conservation Society of PohnpeiDFMC Division of Forestry and Marine ConservationFAO Food and Agricultural OrganizationFSM Federated States of MicronesiaFSM-R&D Federated States Of Micronesia - Resource and DevelopmentIUCN International Union for Conservation of NatureIS Invasive SpeciesiSTOP Invasive Species Taskforce Of PohnpeiIST Invasive Species TaskforceIS Invasive SpeciesISSG Invasive Species Specialist Group of Int. Union for the Conservation of NatureJEMCO Joint Economic Management CommitteeMCT Micronesia Conservation TrustNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationsNRCS Natural Resources Conservation ServiceOEA Office of Economic Affairs
  5. OFA Office of Fisheries and AquaculturePILN Pacific Invasives Learning NetworkPII Pacific Invasive InitiativePIP Pacific Invasive PartnershipPIST Pohnpei Invasive Species TaskforcePRMC Pohnpei Resource Management CommitteeRISC Regional Invasive Species CouncilSAP Strategic Action PlanSPC Secretariat of the Pacific CommunitySPREP Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment ProgrammeTA Technical AssistantTOR Terms of ReferenceTNC The Nature ConservancyUSDA United States Department of Agriculture
  6. Executive SummaryFrom June 29-July 1st the participating members of Invasive Species Taskforce Of Pohnpei, (iSTOP)convened to develop a new Strategic Action Plan (SAP) to guide invasive species management workfrom July 2010-June 2013. iSTOP has identified a list of invasive species which have a potential forcausing threats to livelyhoods. False sakau, Mile-A-Minute, Chain of Love, Ivy Gourd, HonoluluRose, Octopus Tree, Bengal Trumpet vine, Lolo pepper, Tree sparrow, and the Feral Pigeon havebeen identified for eradication. The Kerosene Tree, Koster’s curse and Tilapia are currently being as-sessed.The iSTOP SAP establishes goals, objectives, activities, collaborators, timeframes, funding sourcesand estimated costs for the different activities.The iSTOP SAP is divided into 2 priority goals that are divided into nine objectives with a total of 34activities. Funding for most activities has been secured through grants from the Critical EcosystemProtection Fund(CEPF) and U.S Forest Service Competitive grant initiative. In kind contributionswere provided by all participating member agencies through their services and support. However,funding is yet to be secured for key activities, including the Invasives Coordinator position.Workplans have been developed to address terrestrial, marine, and avian species. These work plansare linked to the goals and objectives of the iSTOP SAP and carry through to the middle of 2013.iSTOP committee members during the SAP workshop. Back: Francisca Obispo, Konrad Englberger, Mike Hel-genberger, Dona Scheuring, Joshua Fuder, Mark Kostka, John Wichep, Patterson Shed. Front: Rudy Andreas,Paul Lake, Gibson Santos, BJ Obispo, Kadalino Lorens
  7. Introduction to Invasive SpeciesInvasive species are recognized as one of the driving factors behind biodiversity loss worldwide.They have significant negative impacts upon many other sectors including: economic development,health, agriculture, tourism and trade. Islands are very vulnerable to biological invasions. Islandecosystems, while highly diverse, are particularly fragile and vulnerable due to their small size, rela-tive isolation, disproportionate susceptibility to the overharvesting of resources, and to natural disas-ters. Island biodiversity is also under serious threat from another major driver of biodiversity loss –climate change- which will interact with biological invasions and other processes in complex ways.Anticipated impacts from climate change including sea level rise and rainfall pattern-changes, whichthreaten to damage ecosystem health and may accelerate species loss. By fostering ecosystem health,invasive species management represents an effective form of Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA) toclimate change.Invasive species (IS) have directly or indirectly caused or contributed to the decline and extinction ofmany birds, reptiles, mammals and plants. Exotic invasive ants disrupt traditional outdoor lifestylesand cause harm to people and their crops. Invasive weeds compete with other plants for space, nu-trients; and some overgrow and kill useful plants. Snakes like the brown tree snake in Guam causesignificant economic losses due to power outages and biodiversity losses as a result of the extinctionof several native bird species.Islands present unique opportunities to manage invasive species. Three main ways of managing in-vasive species are: Prevention, Eradication, or Control. Preventing invasions of terrestrial speciesshould be more achievable on islands than at land-locked sites. Eradication should be considered ifan invasive species is newly introduced and not wide spread.Many invasive species in neighboring countries are not present in the FSM. Therefore a high prioritymust be given to prevent the introduction of such invasive species.
  8. BackgroundThe first Invasive Species Taskforce (IST) group was formed in 2000. At that time, the group decidedto attempt to eradicate False Sakau, Piper auritum, which was reported by a USDA weed surveygroup to be in one area in Awak, U. Since this time the IST has met every 4 to 8 weeks to discuss theprogress on invasive management activities.In 2002, the IST became a sub-committee of the Pohnpei Resource Management Committee (PRMC)to whom the Chairperson of the IST reports the progress of activities. Also in 2002, other species likeChain of Love, Ivy Gourd, Mile-A-Minute and Honolulu Rose were included as target species foreradication.In 2004, when meetings took place to develop the Pohnpei State, Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan(BSAP), one of the Goals in the plan was to “Address the invasive species problem in Pohnpei Stateby strengthening the quarantine program and controlling and/or eradicating at least five selectedspecies”.In late 2005, the IST became one of the founding members of the Pacific Invasives Learning Networks(PILN), which held its first meeting in early 2006 in Palau. During the PILN meeting the IST decidedto have a more formalized group, which led to the name change to the Pohnpei Invasive SpeciesTaskforce (PIST) The new group completed its first SAP in October of 2006 to guide activities throughthe end of 2008.Since invasive species management activities began in 2000, the taskforce has been able to keep sev-eral potentially threatening, invasive weeds under control. Of the targeted species: Ivy Gourd,Chain-of-Love, Mile-a-Minute, False Sakau, Honolulu Rose, only Ivy Gourd was successfully eradi-cated. While the other target species are not fully eradicated they have remained under continuousmanagement and are now reduced to less than 10% of their original coverage area. The major chal-lenge to complete eradication of all species was the discovery of previously unknown sites.From June 29-July 1st 2010 the participating members of PIST convened to develop a new SAP toguide invasive species management work from July 2010-June 2013. A decision made during thismeeting was to rename the group to the Invasive Species Taskforce Of Pohnpei (iSTOP). iSTOP re-viewed and extended the list from the original five to the following ten species identified for eradica-tion: False sakau, Mile-A-Minute, Chain of Love, Ivy Gourd, Honolulu Rose, Octopus Tree, BengalTrumpet, Lolo pepper, Tree sparrow, and the Feral Pigeon. Further assessment will be done on theKerosene Tree, Koster’s curse, Tilapia, and catfish to determine their ecological and economic threatand possibility for eradication or management. 7
  9. The following organizations/agencies are contributing members of iSTOP:Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP)College of Micronesia FSM, Cooperative Extension Service (CES),Pohnpei State Office of Fisheries and Aquaculture (OFA),Pohnpei State Division of Agriculture (OEA),FSM Resources and Development (FSM-R&D),Pacific Invasive Initiative (PII)Pohnpei State Division of Forestry and Marine Conservation (DFMC), Department of Land and Nat-ural Resources (DLNR),Pohnpei State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),Pohnpei State Attorney General Office,The Nature Conservancy (TNC),United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS),Micronesia Conservation Trust (MCT) VisionPohnpei will have sustainable aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems for the environmental, social, cul-tural, and economic well being of future generations. MissionInvasive Species Taskforce Of Pohnpei aims to enhance and preserve the natural biodiversity ofPohnpei State through collaborative efforts at all levels of our society while cooperating with neigh-boring states and countries to identify, prevent, eradicate or control invasive species.
  10. Target SpeciesFalse Sakau (Piper auritum) Chain of love (Antigonon leptopus)Sakau Likamw Rohsenpoak SuwedIvy Gourd, (Coccina grandis) Octopus Tree (Schefflera actinophylla)Aipikohrd Tuhke Kihs 9
  11. Mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) Honolulu Rose (Clerodendrum chinense)Selmwadang Rohsen OnoluhluBengal Trumpet vine Iolen Pengkal Lolo Pepper (Piper lolat)(Thunbergia grandiflora) Pepper LoloFeral Pigeon (Columba liviavar) Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)Mwuroi en wai
  12. Goals, Objectives and Activities Goal 1: Conserve Biodiversity and protect Livelihoods from the threat of invasive species. Objective Activities Time Frame Outputs Partners $$$ Funding Source 2010 2011 2012 20131. By mid 2013, at a. Assess distribution 1. Improved knowledge ofleast 5 of the 10 of all 10 species and distribution. CEPF-CSP, NRCS-intargeted species update GIS map. CSP, JICA, CCO, kind, JICA-in kind,are eradicated. X X X X DLNR, NRCS, USFS, 30,000 2. GIS map produced and DLNR-in kind, USFS- CES updated regularly. cash b. Respond to newly 1. Updated database of reported sites. active sites and area under control. CSP, CCO, Forestry, CEPF-CSP, DLNR-in X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1,500 CES, NRCS kind, USFS-cash 2. Initial control achieved. c. Follow-up visits to 1. Updated database of known active sites active sites and area under and apply control control. CSP, CCO, Forestry, CEPF-CSP, USFS- X X X X X X X X X X X X X 11,000 where necessary. CES, NRCS cash d. Quarterly monitor- 1. Increased understanding ing and evaluation of for all stakeholders on the invasive species status of invasive species eradication. management. X X X X X X X X X X X X X CSP, DFMC, iSTOP 2,000 ALL partners 2. Quarterly report pro- duced.2. By 2013, 75% of a. Training of CCOs in 1. CCOs are trained in inva-Pohnpei communi- invasive species sive species identificationties will have an identification and and weed control tech-increased aware- basic weed control. niques. CEPF-CSP, State CSP, CCO, Municipalness of invasive X X X 5,000 Govt agencies- Govts, NRCSspecies. venue b. Continue produc- 1. Awareness materials are tion and distribution produced and distributed to CEPF-CSP, NRCS-in CSP, CCO, Municipal of awareness mate- municipalities. kind, JICA-in kind, X X X Govts, CES, SPC, RD- 25,000 rials. DLNR-in kind, USFS- FSM cash
  13. Goal 1: Conserve Biodiversity and protect Livelihoods from the threat of invasive species.Objective Activities Time Frame Outputs Partners $$$ Funding Source 2010 2011 2012 2013 c. Quarterly public 1. Increased public aware- awareness an- ness of invasive species and nouncements are their impact. PIST members and released through X X X X X X X X X X X X X chairman, Radio 2,000 CEPF-CSP, USFS various media outlets. stations d. Produce and 1. Increased public under- present awareness standing of the impact of DOE, Municipal CD to schools, com- invasive species and their CEPF-CSP, USFS- X Govts, CSP, Fore- 2,000 munities, and TV identification. cash stry, CES station. e. Five community 1. 25 community meetings meetings will be held conducted. yearly in each munici- pality. 2. Increased public un- CES, CSP, Forestry, X X X X X X X X X X X X X 2,500 derstanding of the im- Municipal Govts pact of invasive species and their identification. f. iSTOP members 1. At least 1 iSTOP member participate in regional attends regional/national train- meetings or trainings per CEPF-CSP, USFS, x x x iSTOP 15,000 ings/conferences. year. Other sources TBD g. Display invasive 1. Public awareness in- species exhibit at creased. public events, eg. X X X iSTOP IN KIND iSTOP World Food Day. h. Guest lectures at 1. Public awareness in- COM-FSM, Pohnpei creased. campuses on invasive X X X iSTOP IN KIND iSTOP species. i. Assist quarantine in 1. Awareness materials are the production and produced and disseminated. dissemination of awareness materials SPC, FSM R&D, iS- for the prevention of X X 5,000 CEPF, TBD TOP, invasive species.
  14. Goal 1: Conserve Biodiversity and protect Livelihoods from the threat of invasive species. Objective Activities Time Frame Outputs Partners $$$ Funding Source 2010 2011 2012 20133. Assess and a.Identify funding and 1.Funding and technicalDetermine the technical assistance assistance obtained.level of toxicity sources.and impact of the x EPA, iSTOP, CES in KINDKerosine Tree b. Carry 1. Toxicity and environmen- out study tal impact determined and of toxicity response plan developed. and effect on eco- systems. EPA, iSTOP, CES, X 10,000 USFS, NRCS, TNC, NRCS, UOG, UH4. Assess and a. Establish communi- 1. Increased communitydevelop a strategy ty management pro- participation.for management gram. Municipal Govts.of Koster’s curse. X 2. Reduction in the dis- 3,000 iSTOP persal area of Koster’s curse. b. Determine feasibili- 1. Feasibility of bio-control ty of bio-control. X determined. c. Introduce biological 1. Bio-control agent re- control. leased and target species FSM-R&D, SPC, OEA, X 7,000 GEF, SPC suppressed. CES, AES5. Provide assis- a. Identify and deter- 1. Species has been identi-tance in the event mine level of inva- fied, information on inva- iSTOP, AG, CSP, FSMof a newly found siveness of new spe- siveness determined. R&D, CES, UOG, 1,500 Pohnpei State, TBDspecies. cies. DFMC, PII b. Determine the 1. Survey conducted and distribution of new sites identified. iSTOP, AG, CSP, FSM 2,000 TBD species. R&D, CES, DFMC, d. Determine appro- iSTOP, AG, CSP, FSM priate control me- 1. Control method deter- R&D, CES, DFMC, 1,000 TBD thods. mined. ISSG
  15. Goal 1: Conserve Biodiversity and protect Livelihoods from the threat of invasive species. Objective Activities Time Frame Outputs Partners $$$ Funding Source 2010 2011 2012 2013 c. Follow-up visits 1. Follow up visits conducted apply control where and control applied where CSP, CCO, DFMC, 1,500 TBD necessary needed. CES, d. Identify and request 1. Funding is secured for funds. invasive species manage- CSP, MCT, TNC, CES, IN KIND ment. SPC, RD-FSM, DFMC,6. At lease one 1. Identify donors or 1. Funding source is identi-major grant pro- funding sources. fied.posal to be funded CSP, MCT, TNC, CES, IN KINDby 2012 SPC, RD-FSM, DFMC, 2. Draft and submit 1. Proposals drafted and proposals for funding. submitted. CSP, MCT, TNC, CES, IN KIND SPC, RD-FSM, DFMC,7. By 2011 iSTOP 1. Identify donors or 1. Funding is secured forwill have a full funding sources for iSTOP coordinatortime coordinator position. iSTOP, AG, CSP, FSM X IN KIND TBDin place. R&D, CES, DFMC, SPC 2. Recruitment and 1. Coordinator is hired. hiring of full-time iSTOP, AG, CSP, FSM 20-30000 TBD, USFS, State X X ISTOP coordinator. R&D, CES, DFMC, SPC per year Govt, SPC8. By the end of a. Catfish and tilapia 1. Catfish and Tilapia species OFA, CSP, DFMC,2012 appropriate specimens are col- are identified and docu- SPC, CES, Communi-response plan for lected for identifica- mented tiesmarine species is tion. X 500 OFA, TNC, SPC, CSPidentified. b. Determine the 1. Appropriate management OFA, CSP, DFMC, possible impact on plan developed. SPC, CES, Communi- X 2,500 OFA, TNC, SPC, CSP biodiversity. ties c. Conduct species 1. Documentation of intro- OFA, CSP, DFMC, distribution survey. duction and distribution of SPC, CES, Communi- X catfish and tilapia is pro- ties 2,500 OFA, TNC, SPC, CSP duced.
  16. Goal 1: Conserve Biodiversity and protect Livelihoods from the threat of invasive species. Objective Activities Time Frame Outputs Partners $$$ Funding Source 2010 2011 2012 20139. By the end of a. Update distribution 1. Distribution list is pro- CSP, iSTOP, CES,2013, feral pig- survey for two known duced and made available CCO, OFA, DFMC,eons and/or Tree invasive avian spe- Municipal Govt X 500 In KindSparrows is era- cies.dicated. b. Determine the most 1. Permission is granted CSP, iSTOP, CES, appropriate approach allowing the eradication of CCO, OFA, DFMC, to eradicate feral feral pigeons. Municipal Govt X 200 In Kind pigeons c. Develop and imple- 1. Control methods identified CSP, iSTOP, CES, ment appropriate and implemented CCO, OFA, DFMC, control plan for Tree X Municipal Govt 5,000 TBD Sparrow. Goal 2 Policy:National and State leadership provide supporting legislation and funding for invasive species management. Objective Activities Time Frame Outputs Partners $$$ Funding Source 2010 2011 2012 20131. Increase iSTOP a. Review existing laws X 1. Existing laws relat-ability to eradicate relating to iSTOP and ing to ISTOP on inva- iSTOP, AG office,species in Pohnpei invasives management. sives are reviewed. TNC, CSP, FSM- in kindState. R&D, b. Draft legislation X 1.Appropriate govern- and/or executive ment agency will have order to allow eradica- legal authority to iSTOP, AG office, tion efforts on private enter private lands. TNC, CSP, FSM- in kind land. R&D, c. Facilitate the enact- X 1.Proposed legislation ment of legislation will be approved in- and/or executive creasing iSTOP ability iSTOP, AG office, orders. to eradicate invasives. TNC, CSP, FSM- in kind R&D, d. Coordinate with X 1.iSTOP members will appropriate law en- be able to safely and forcement to ensure effectively eradicate iSTOP, AG office, compliance when invasives on both TNC, CSP, public in kind necessary. public and private safety, municipal lands. governments,
  17. Goal 2 Policy:National and State leadership provide supporting legislation and funding for invasive species management.2. Increase leader- a. Conduct a yearly 1. Increased level ofship support for invasive awareness awareness increasesinvasive manage- seminar to share leaders ability toment. progress and new make decisions re- materials for policy garding invasives X X X iSTOP 1500 CEPF-CSP, USFS makers and relevant management. partners. b. Encourage and 1. Increased funding promote invasive for more resources species management and activities is allo- to be included into X X X cated. iSTOP in kind State budgets. c. Engage the PRMC 1. iSTOP will report at through quarterly quarterly PRMC meet- updates on invasive ings. Chairman of X X X X X X X X X X X X X in kind species management. iSTOP d. Distribute newly X 1. The new SAP is CEPF-CSP, USFS developed iSTOP SAP presented to all levels to all channels of State of Pohnpei State govt and National Govts. and all National and and interested parties. interested parties. iSTOP 500
  18. Cost Summary by Objective Summary of Project Costs by ObjectiveObjective/Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 Unsecured Funding Secured Funding Total Cost Goal 1: Conserve Biodiversity and protect Livelihoods from the threat of invasive species.1. By mid 2013, atleast 5 of the 10 tar-geted species are $7,750 $15,500 $15,500 $7,750 $46,500 $46,500eradicated.2. By 2013 75% ofPohnpei will have anincreased awarenessof invasive species. $7,750 $15,500 $15,500 $7,750 $46,500 $46,5003. Assess and Deter-mine the level oftoxicity and impact of $10,000 $10,000 $0.00 $10,000the Kerosine Tree4. Assess and developstrategies for man-agement of non-target species, ie. $10,000 $10,000 $0.00 $10,000Koster’s curse5. Provide assistancein the event of a new-ly found species. $6,000 $0.00 $6,0006. At least one majorgrant proposal to befunded by 20127. By 2011iSTOP will have a fulltime coordinator in $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 $75,000 $0.00 $75,000place.
  19. Summary of Project Costs by Objective8. By the end of 2012appropriate responseplan for marine spe-cies is identified? $5,500 $5,500 $0.00 $5,5009. By the end of 2013at least one of thetwo invasive avian $700 $5,000 $5,700 $0 $5,700species will be eradi-cated. Goal 2: National and State leadership provide supporting legislation and funding for invasive species management. 1. Increase ISTOP ability to eradicate species around the island2. Enhance aware- $1,000 $500 $500 $0.00 $2,000 $2,000ness of the impact ofinvasive species toincrease leadershipsupport for invasivemanagement to abecome priority. $ 16,500 $ 77,200 $ 67,000 $ 40,500 $ 112,200 $ 95,000 $ 207,200Note: In-kind contributions from partner agencies are not included in the totals.

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