<ul><ul><li>San Diego Mesa College </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Psychology 101 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter One </li></...
Defining Psychology <ul><li>Scientific study of behavior and </li></ul><ul><li>mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Key term...
Psychological Frame of Mind <ul><li>Psychologists approach life questions as scientists. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of sc...
Science of All Human Behavior <ul><li>Not just about psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse field </li></ul><ul...
Careers in Psychology
Historical Perspective <ul><li>Western Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Biology and Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt...
Structuralism <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German philosopher-physician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Functionalism <ul><li>William James (1842-1910) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American psychologist and philosopher </li></ul></ul...
Evolution & Natural Selection <ul><li>Charles Darwin (1809-1882) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British naturalist </li></ul></ul><...
Contemporary Approaches <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>...
Biological Approach <ul><li>Focus on brain and nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structu...
Behavioral Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on observable behavioral responses (not thoughts or feelings) and their environmental...
Psychodynamic Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious (sexual and aggressive) impulses </li></ul><...
Humanistic Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive human qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacit...
Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on mental processes involved in knowing </li></ul><ul><li>How we . . . </li></ul><ul><...
Evolutionary Approach <ul><li>Use of evolutionary ideas . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Sociocultural Approach <ul><li>Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior </li></ul>...
Steps in the Scientific Method
Scientific Method: Observation <ul><li>Choose a  variable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenon studied by scientists </li></u...
Scientific Method: Hypothesis <ul><li>Formulate a  hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated guess derived from theory </...
Scientific Method: Research <ul><li>Establish an  operational definition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective description of v...
Scientific Method: Conclusions <ul><li>Draw conclusions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is theory supported? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Types of Psychological Research <ul><li>Descriptive research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding out about some variable </li></...
Descriptive Research <ul><li>Describing some phenomenon without answering questions of how and why </li></ul><ul><li>Obser...
Correlational Research <ul><li>Examining whether and how variables are related and change together </li></ul><ul><li>Corre...
Correlations: Scatterplots
Correlation and Causation <ul><li>Correlation ≠ Causation </li></ul><ul><li>Third Variable Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
Longitudinal Designs <ul><li>Obtaining measures of variables of interest in multiple waves over time </li></ul><ul><li>Can...
Experimental Research <ul><li>Determining whether causal relationship exists between variables </li></ul><ul><li>Experimen...
Experiments and Causation <ul><li>Random assignment helps establish causation. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variables  M...
Experimental Research: Validity <ul><li>External Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do experimental results apply, or  general...
Experimental Research: Bias <ul><li>Experimenter Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Research Samples <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Random samples likely to be  representative...
Research Settings <ul><li>Laboratory Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control, but with some drawbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Ethical Research <ul><li>History: World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Research participants have certain rights. </li></ul><ul>...
APA Ethics Guidelines <ul><li>Informed Consent </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><u...
Psychology and You <ul><li>Avoid generalizing based on little information. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between group res...
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  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>San Diego Mesa College </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Psychology 101 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter One </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Science of Psychology </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Defining Psychology <ul><li>Scientific study of behavior and </li></ul><ul><li>mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Key terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental processes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Psychological Frame of Mind <ul><li>Psychologists approach life questions as scientists. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of scientific approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Science of All Human Behavior <ul><li>Not just about psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse field </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding truths of human life in all its dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Includes people’s best and worst experiences </li></ul>
  5. 5. Careers in Psychology
  6. 6. Historical Perspective <ul><li>Western Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Biology and Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt & Structuralism </li></ul><ul><li>William James & Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin & Natural Selection </li></ul>
  7. 7. Structuralism <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German philosopher-physician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Psychology Laboratory (1879) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify elements, or structures, of mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introspection </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Functionalism <ul><li>William James (1842-1910) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American psychologist and philosopher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify purposes, or functions, of the mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is human thought adaptive ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural flow of thought, or s tream of consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Evolution & Natural Selection <ul><li>Charles Darwin (1809-1882) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British naturalist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural selection is adaptive and functional. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature favors traits that promote reproduction and survival. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful characteristics become dominant. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Contemporary Approaches <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul>
  11. 11. Biological Approach <ul><li>Focus on brain and nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and nervous system as central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Behavioral Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on observable behavioral responses (not thoughts or feelings) and their environmental determinants </li></ul><ul><li>Notable Behaviorists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John B. Watson (1878-1958) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Psychodynamic Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious (sexual and aggressive) impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between biological drives and society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood early family experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Founding father: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Humanistic Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive human qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity for positive growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to choose any destiny </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable Humanistic Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers (1902-1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Emphasis on mental processes involved in knowing </li></ul><ul><li>How we . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive, remember, think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve problems </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Evolutionary Approach <ul><li>Use of evolutionary ideas . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. . . as basis for explaining specific human behaviors </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sociocultural Approach <ul><li>Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on comparisons of behavior across . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic and cultural groups within countries </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Steps in the Scientific Method
  19. 19. Scientific Method: Observation <ul><li>Choose a variable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenon studied by scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that can change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop a theory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea that attempts to explain observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to explain why something happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to make predictions </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Scientific Method: Hypothesis <ul><li>Formulate a hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated guess derived from theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction that can be tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If supported, can lend credibility to theory </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Scientific Method: Research <ul><li>Establish an operational definition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective description of variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will variable be measured? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collect and analyze data . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number crunching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do data mean? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Scientific Method: Conclusions <ul><li>Draw conclusions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is theory supported? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should theory be changed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate conclusions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication and review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing research process </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Types of Psychological Research <ul><li>Descriptive research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding out about some variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Correlational research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovering relationships between variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimental research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing causal relationships </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Describing some phenomenon without answering questions of how and why </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys and Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul>
  25. 25. Correlational Research <ul><li>Examining whether and how variables are related and change together </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation Coefficient: -1.00 ≤ r ≤ 1.00 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength: Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction: Sign </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Correlations: Scatterplots
  27. 27. Correlation and Causation <ul><li>Correlation ≠ Causation </li></ul><ul><li>Third Variable Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some other variable accounts for relationship between two variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third variables also called confounds </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Longitudinal Designs <ul><li>Obtaining measures of variables of interest in multiple waves over time </li></ul><ul><li>Can suggest potential causal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Causal variable would come first in time </li></ul><ul><li>But causal relationships still not clear </li></ul>
  29. 29. Experimental Research <ul><li>Determining whether causal relationship exists between variables </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation of some variable(s) while holding others constant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random Assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of groups using chance </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Experiments and Causation <ul><li>Random assignment helps establish causation. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variables  Manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables  Measured </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as baseline for comparison </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Experimental Research: Validity <ul><li>External Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do experimental results apply, or generalize , to real world? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are changes in dependent variable due to independent variables? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Experimental Research: Bias <ul><li>Experimenter Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Participant Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placebo effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-blind experiment </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Research Samples <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Random samples likely to be representative of population, to allow generalizing of research results </li></ul>
  34. 34. Research Settings <ul><li>Laboratory Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control, but with some drawbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-world setting </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Ethical Research <ul><li>History: World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Research participants have certain rights. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional Review Board (IRB) </li></ul>
  36. 36. APA Ethics Guidelines <ul><li>Informed Consent </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul>
  37. 37. Psychology and You <ul><li>Avoid generalizing based on little information. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between group results and individual needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for answers beyond a single study. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid attributing causes where none have been found. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider source of psychological information. </li></ul>
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