Task 8.5 World War I
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Task 8.5 World War I

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  • 1. Cause and Effect Imperialism Arms Race Alliances Nationalism
  • 2. Causes World War I
  • 3. First , nationalism led to …… Transition, imperialism led to …, Transition , the arms race led to …. Transition , the alliances led to led to resulted caused produced brought about set off First, Second, Third, In addition, Finally, Imperialism Arms Race Alliances Nationalism
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Germany/Austria-Hungry Alliance Austria declares war on Serbia Russia/Serbia Alliance Gavrilo Princep of Serbia assassinates Archduke Ferdinand of Austria Russia Declares war on Austria Germany Declares war on Russia France declares war on Germany
  • 7. OVERVIEW
    • 65 million combatants from 30 countries representing every continent
      • 29 million become casualties
    • Naval battles around the world and land battles in Europe, Africa, and Asia
    • Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria, Italy
      • +Turkey + Bulgaria - Italy = Central Powers
    • Entente Cordiale = Britain, France
      • + Russia + Italy + (later) US = Allied Powers
    • Revolutionary technology, but evolutionary tactics
  • 8.  
  • 9. ROAD TO WAR
    • Germany, Italy, Russia, Austro-Hungary all fairly recently “unified” with significant internal unrest
    • Germany seeks new markets/prestige of colonies
    • Massive arms race
    • Multiple and extensive alliances
  • 10. U.S. Motives
      • Wilson - pro-Neutral but also pro-Britain
      • Submarines – British navy blockades German ports, u-boats only way to fight back
            • -Lusitania – part cruise ship, part munitions transport
      • Economic ties – America was in a recession – JP Morgan and bankers loan vast money
        • -Military orders from France and Britain huge
      • Psychological and ethnic ties – align with British (democratic) – Germany embodies autocrat
        • Germany’s unscrupulous war efforts – makes Germans look like opportunists
            • -Zimmermann Note
            • -Attack on neutral Belgium
            • Russian Issue- Autocracy pre-1917 then Communist in 1917. US can not join the other democracies of the world
  • 11. Schlieffen Plan
    • Germans want to finish off French before Russia is ready to fight
    • Germans believe French will immediately try to retake Alsace-Lorraine
    • Original plan called for economy of force on the left while heavily weighting the right flank
      • Von Moltke revised and distributed forces more evenly across the front
    • Plan failed when Germans were held up by Belgians, then stopped by French and British at the Battle of the Marne
      • Russians also mobilized more quickly than expected
  • 12. 1914
    • June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in Sarajevo
    • July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia
    • August 1 Germany declares war on Russia
    • August 3 Germany declares war on France
    • August 4 Great Britain declares war on Germany
  • 13. 1914
    • August 4 Germany invades neutral Belgium
    • August 26-30 German army achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front at the Battle of Tannenberg
    • September 5-10 First Battle of the Marne halts German invasion in France
    • September 15 First trenches of the Western front are dug
  • 14. 1915
    • January 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on England
    • February 4 Germany declares a submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate target
    • April 22-May 5 Second Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weapons
    • April 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey
  • 15. 1915
    • May 7 Sinking of the passenger ship Lusitania
      • Killed 1200, 123 Americans
    • May 23 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary
    • August 30 Germany responds to U.S. anger by ceasing to sink ships without warning
    • December 28 Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli
  • 16.  
  • 17. 1916
    • February 21 - December 18, 1916 The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualties
    • July 1-November 18 The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the Allies
    • December 31 Russian Rasputin, is murdered by relatives of the Tsar
  • 18. Homefront
    • Fighting the war
      • Draft-work or fight
      • Government agencies created
      • Women roles changed
      • Propaganda
    • Propaganda-enforced loyalty
      • Committee of Public Information, George Creel
      • Restrictions on immigration (xenophobia)
      • Espionage Act 1917
        • Censorship of radical writings
      • Sedition Act1918
        • Anti-socialist and anti union
  • 19. Homefront
    • Financing the war
      • Liberty Bonds
      • War Industries Board-Bernard Baruck
        • Raw materials, production quotas, fixed prices
        • Conserve grain passage of 18 th amendment
      • War Trade Board
        • Investigated war profiteers
      • National Board Labor Board
        • Forced labor disputes threatening war production
      • Labor Policies Board-Felix Frankfurter
        • Set wages and working conditions
        • Government instituted collective bargaining
  • 20. Homefront
    • Roles Changed
      • Women
        • Took jobs reserved for men (400,00)
        • Leads to 19 th Amendment
      • Blacks and Hispanics
        • Took jobs from the stemmed tide of immigration
        • 500,00 Blacks moved north-”The Great Migration”
      • Children
        • Boy Scouts/Girl Scouts
        • Physical Education becomes part of HS curriculum
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24. 1917
    • February 1, 1917 Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare
    • April 6 The United States declares war on Germany
    • July 6 T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture Aquaba
    • July 16-November 10 Third Battles of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough
  • 25. 1917
    • November 7 Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerinsky government
    • December 3 The new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signs an armistice with Germany
    • December 9 British capture Jerusalem
  • 26. Woman in World War I
    • 30,000 woman join military
      • Nurses, physical/occupational therapists, clerks
      • Took place of men in the work force
    • Red Cross
    • Leads to support for 19 th amendment
      • Spearheaded by Wilson
      • Women suffragettes became avid patriots and organizers of women in support of the war effort
  • 27. 1918
    • January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peace
    • March 21 Germans launch the first of five major offensives to win the war before American troops appear in the trenches
    • April 25 British and Australian troops stop the German advance near Amiens
                                                  
  • 28. 1918
    • May 23 German shells land on Paris
    • August 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the German army back
    • September 29 Allied troops break through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg line
    • November 11 At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice
  • 29.  
  • 30. STALEMATE
    • Allies halt Central Powers; both sides dig in
    • No flanks for either side to attack
      • Barbed wire entanglements up to 150’ deep
    • Neither side gains more than 10 miles in over 2 years
    • Mass is supreme principle
      • Massed assaults
      • Massed fires
  • 31.  
  • 32. Trench Warfare
    • Machine gun and artillery make it difficult to attack a trench
    • Huge artillery preps make “No Man’s Land” virtually impassable
  • 33.  
  • 34. Trench Warfare Evolves
    • Three group (squad) infiltration:
      • Squad one finds and fixes enemy
      • Squad two finds and exploits weak spots
      • Squad three supports two and exploits breaches
      • Strong points reduced later from rear/flanks
    • Combined arms:
      • grenades, machine guns, flame throwers in infantry squads
      • fires smoke, gas, to keep defenders’ heads down
  • 35. RUTHLESS TACTICS
    • Chemical warfare made trench warfare more horrible
      • Mustard agents deployed
      • Nerve agents
    • Machine Gun
      • Maxim
      • 600 b/m
  • 36.  
  • 37. Tanks
    • Brits introduce in Sept 1916
      • Means to cross No Man’s Land with protection from machine guns
      • Initially employed piecemeal and in too small numbers to be decisive
      • Unreliable and slow
  • 38. Tanks
    • Battle of Somme, Sept 1916
      • 36 of 60 tanks make it into battle
      • Scattered across 3 mile front
    • Cambria, Nov 1917
      • Used in mass (300 tanks)
      • Opened 12x6 mile front
    • Amiens, August 1918
      • 500 tanks, 13 infantry divisions, 2 cavalry divisions, 2000 artillery pieces, 800 aircraft
      • First modern “combined-arms” battle
  • 39.  
  • 40. Submarines
    • New aspect of “Total War”
      • Targeting “neutral merchant” ships
    • Germans announce submarine blockade
      • Part physical, part psychological weapon
    • Draws Allied resources away from offensive operations
      • Civilian control of production
    • Sinking of ships with US passengers is major factor in US’s eventual entry into the war
  • 41. Aviation “Red Baron”
    • Used initially for reconnaissance/spotting
      • Wireless communication critical development in spotting
    • Arial combat originally a counter-reconnaissance function
    • Troops on the ground don’t like the planes overhead….
    • By the end of the war, planes were being used to drop bombs on railways, intersections, factories, etc…
  • 42. “ Jenny” JN-4
  • 43. Jaeger
  • 44. Battle for Belleau Wood
    • 4 June 1918 Germans reach their “high water mark”, but are turned back by 5 th Marines at Les Mares Farms, 50 miles from Paris
    • 5 June 1918, 4th Marine Brigade (5 th and 6 th Regiments, 6 th Machine Gun Battalion) enters Belleau Wood to stop German advance
    • French are retreating as Marines arrive
    • One Frenchman advises Marines to join the retreat, Capt Lloyd Williams replies “Retreat, hell, we just got here”
    • Marines begin picking off Germans at 800 yards (200 yds considered far to Germans)
  • 45.  
  • 46. Belleau Wood
    • Dan Daly: “Come on you sons of bitches. Do you want to live forever”
    • Marines fight until 16 June when an Army unit relieves them
    • 22 June Marines reenter fight
    • 26 June Major Shearer sends signal, “Woods are now entirely US Marine Corps.”
    • Victory was not the product of sound tactics, but of the discipline and determination of the Brigade
  • 47. Esprit de Corps
    • I believe they are soldiers from Montezuma, At least when they advanced this morning they were all singing “From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli”
    • French soldier describing the Marines in Belleau Wood
    • Devil Dog title given to the Marines by German soldiers for their ferocious fighting
  • 48. Armistice-November 11, 1918 truce (agreement to end fighting) -For Germany- withdrawal of Russians = new hope for successful end to war. Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare -For Allies-American troops pouring into war fronts and Allied forces began advancement towards Germany; Battle of Belleau Wood -September 1918-General Ludendorff informed leaders that war was lost and demanded that government ask for peace; Allies unwilling to make peace; November 1918- sailors in Kiel, Germany mutiny and within days councils of workers and soldiers forming (Socialist Party), taking over civilian and military offices; Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert announce creation of democratic republic--Kaiser in exile.  German government signs armistice two days later
  • 49. Treaty of Versailles
    • Big 4 meet in Paris
      • Woodrow Wilson
      • Lloyd George of Britain
      • Orlando of Italy
      • Clemenceau of France
    • Signed June 28, 1919
    • Reparations
    • Mandates
  • 50. Reparations
    • payments made to the victors (winners) by the vanquished (losers) to cover the costs of a war
      • after surrender, Germany stripped of all weapons and made vast payments to cover all costs of the war to France ( Georges Clemenceau)
      • a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and Germany
  • 51. 14 Points Versailles Treaty
  • 52. Mandates-Europe
  • 53. Mandates-Middle East
  • 54.