Cause and Effect Imperialism Arms Race Alliances Nationalism
Causes World War I
First , nationalism  led to  ……  Transition,  imperialism  led to …,  Transition , the arms race  led to ….  Transition , ...
 
 
Germany/Austria-Hungry Alliance Austria declares war on Serbia Russia/Serbia Alliance Gavrilo Princep of  Serbia assassina...
OVERVIEW <ul><li>65 million combatants from 30 countries representing every continent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 million bec...
 
ROAD TO WAR <ul><li>Germany, Italy, Russia, Austro-Hungary all fairly recently “unified” with significant internal unrest ...
U.S. Motives <ul><ul><li>Wilson  - pro-Neutral but also pro-Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submarines  – British navy ...
Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Germans want to finish off French before Russia is ready to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Germans believ...
1914 <ul><li>June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in...
1914  <ul><li>August 4 Germany invades neutral Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>August 26-30 German army achieves its greatest vi...
1915 <ul><li>January 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on England </li></ul><ul><li>February 4 Germany declares a su...
1915 <ul><li>May 7 Sinking of the passenger ship Lusitania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed 1200, 123 Americans </li></ul></ul...
 
1916 <ul><li>February 21 - December 18, 1916  The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw wit...
Homefront <ul><li>Fighting the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft-work or fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government agencie...
Homefront <ul><li>Financing the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty Bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Industries Board-Be...
Homefront <ul><li>Roles Changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took jobs reserved for men (400...
 
 
 
1917 <ul><li>February 1, 1917 Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare </li></ul><ul><li>April 6 The United S...
1917 <ul><li>November 7 Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerinsky government </li></ul><ul><li>December 3 The...
Woman in World War I <ul><li>30,000 woman join military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurses, physical/occupational therapists, cl...
1918 <ul><li>January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peace </li></ul><ul><li>...
1918 <ul><li>May 23 German shells land on Paris </li></ul><ul><li>August 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the ...
 
STALEMATE <ul><li>Allies halt Central Powers; both sides dig in </li></ul><ul><li>No flanks for either side to attack </li...
 
Trench Warfare <ul><li>Machine gun and artillery make it difficult to attack a trench </li></ul><ul><li>Huge artillery pre...
 
Trench Warfare Evolves <ul><li>Three group (squad) infiltration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squad one finds and fixes enemy </l...
RUTHLESS TACTICS <ul><li>Chemical warfare made trench warfare more horrible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mustard agents deployed ...
 
Tanks <ul><li>Brits introduce in Sept 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means to cross No Man’s Land with protection from machine...
Tanks <ul><li>Battle of Somme, Sept 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 of 60 tanks make it into battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
 
Submarines <ul><li>New aspect of “Total War” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting “neutral merchant” ships </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Aviation “Red Baron” <ul><li>Used initially for reconnaissance/spotting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless communication criti...
“ Jenny”  JN-4
Jaeger
Battle for Belleau Wood <ul><li>4 June 1918 Germans reach their “high water mark”, but are turned back by 5 th  Marines at...
 
Belleau Wood <ul><li>Dan Daly: “Come on you sons of bitches.  Do you want to live forever” </li></ul><ul><li>Marines fight...
Esprit de Corps <ul><li>I believe they are soldiers from Montezuma,  At least when they advanced this morning they were al...
Armistice-November 11, 1918 truce (agreement to end fighting) -For Germany- withdrawal of Russians  =  new hope for succes...
Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Big 4 meet in Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lloyd Geo...
Reparations <ul><li>payments made to the victors (winners) by the vanquished (losers) to cover the costs of a war </li></u...
14 Points Versailles Treaty
Mandates-Europe
Mandates-Middle East
 
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Task 8.5 World War I

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  • Task 8.5 World War I

    1. 1. Cause and Effect Imperialism Arms Race Alliances Nationalism
    2. 2. Causes World War I
    3. 3. First , nationalism led to …… Transition, imperialism led to …, Transition , the arms race led to …. Transition , the alliances led to led to resulted caused produced brought about set off First, Second, Third, In addition, Finally, Imperialism Arms Race Alliances Nationalism
    4. 6. Germany/Austria-Hungry Alliance Austria declares war on Serbia Russia/Serbia Alliance Gavrilo Princep of Serbia assassinates Archduke Ferdinand of Austria Russia Declares war on Austria Germany Declares war on Russia France declares war on Germany
    5. 7. OVERVIEW <ul><li>65 million combatants from 30 countries representing every continent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 million become casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Naval battles around the world and land battles in Europe, Africa, and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria, Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+Turkey + Bulgaria - Italy = Central Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entente Cordiale = Britain, France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ Russia + Italy + (later) US = Allied Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary technology, but evolutionary tactics </li></ul>
    6. 9. ROAD TO WAR <ul><li>Germany, Italy, Russia, Austro-Hungary all fairly recently “unified” with significant internal unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Germany seeks new markets/prestige of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Massive arms race </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple and extensive alliances </li></ul>
    7. 10. U.S. Motives <ul><ul><li>Wilson - pro-Neutral but also pro-Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submarines – British navy blockades German ports, u-boats only way to fight back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Lusitania – part cruise ship, part munitions transport </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic ties – America was in a recession – JP Morgan and bankers loan vast money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Military orders from France and Britain huge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological and ethnic ties – align with British (democratic) – Germany embodies autocrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany’s unscrupulous war efforts – makes Germans look like opportunists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Zimmermann Note </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Attack on neutral Belgium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Issue- Autocracy pre-1917 then Communist in 1917. US can not join the other democracies of the world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 11. Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Germans want to finish off French before Russia is ready to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Germans believe French will immediately try to retake Alsace-Lorraine </li></ul><ul><li>Original plan called for economy of force on the left while heavily weighting the right flank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Von Moltke revised and distributed forces more evenly across the front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan failed when Germans were held up by Belgians, then stopped by French and British at the Battle of the Marne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russians also mobilized more quickly than expected </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. 1914 <ul><li>June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in Sarajevo </li></ul><ul><li>July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia </li></ul><ul><li>August 1 Germany declares war on Russia </li></ul><ul><li>August 3 Germany declares war on France </li></ul><ul><li>August 4 Great Britain declares war on Germany </li></ul>
    10. 13. 1914 <ul><li>August 4 Germany invades neutral Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>August 26-30 German army achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front at the Battle of Tannenberg </li></ul><ul><li>September 5-10 First Battle of the Marne halts German invasion in France </li></ul><ul><li>September 15 First trenches of the Western front are dug </li></ul>
    11. 14. 1915 <ul><li>January 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on England </li></ul><ul><li>February 4 Germany declares a submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate target </li></ul><ul><li>April 22-May 5 Second Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weapons </li></ul><ul><li>April 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey </li></ul>
    12. 15. 1915 <ul><li>May 7 Sinking of the passenger ship Lusitania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed 1200, 123 Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 23 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>August 30 Germany responds to U.S. anger by ceasing to sink ships without warning </li></ul><ul><li>December 28 Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli </li></ul>
    13. 17. 1916 <ul><li>February 21 - December 18, 1916 The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualties </li></ul><ul><li>July 1-November 18 The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the Allies </li></ul><ul><li>December 31 Russian Rasputin, is murdered by relatives of the Tsar </li></ul>
    14. 18. Homefront <ul><li>Fighting the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft-work or fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government agencies created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women roles changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propaganda-enforced loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee of Public Information, George Creel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on immigration (xenophobia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Espionage Act 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Censorship of radical writings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedition Act1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-socialist and anti union </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 19. Homefront <ul><li>Financing the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty Bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Industries Board-Bernard Baruck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials, production quotas, fixed prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve grain passage of 18 th amendment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Trade Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigated war profiteers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Board Labor Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced labor disputes threatening war production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor Policies Board-Felix Frankfurter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set wages and working conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government instituted collective bargaining </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 20. Homefront <ul><li>Roles Changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took jobs reserved for men (400,00) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to 19 th Amendment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks and Hispanics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took jobs from the stemmed tide of immigration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>500,00 Blacks moved north-”The Great Migration” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boy Scouts/Girl Scouts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Education becomes part of HS curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 24. 1917 <ul><li>February 1, 1917 Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare </li></ul><ul><li>April 6 The United States declares war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>July 6 T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture Aquaba </li></ul><ul><li>July 16-November 10 Third Battles of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough </li></ul>
    18. 25. 1917 <ul><li>November 7 Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerinsky government </li></ul><ul><li>December 3 The new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signs an armistice with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>December 9 British capture Jerusalem </li></ul>
    19. 26. Woman in World War I <ul><li>30,000 woman join military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurses, physical/occupational therapists, clerks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took place of men in the work force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red Cross </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to support for 19 th amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spearheaded by Wilson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women suffragettes became avid patriots and organizers of women in support of the war effort </li></ul></ul>
    20. 27. 1918 <ul><li>January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peace </li></ul><ul><li>March 21 Germans launch the first of five major offensives to win the war before American troops appear in the trenches </li></ul><ul><li>April 25 British and Australian troops stop the German advance near Amiens </li></ul>                                              
    21. 28. 1918 <ul><li>May 23 German shells land on Paris </li></ul><ul><li>August 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the German army back </li></ul><ul><li>September 29 Allied troops break through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg line </li></ul><ul><li>November 11 At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice </li></ul>
    22. 30. STALEMATE <ul><li>Allies halt Central Powers; both sides dig in </li></ul><ul><li>No flanks for either side to attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbed wire entanglements up to 150’ deep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neither side gains more than 10 miles in over 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is supreme principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massed assaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massed fires </li></ul></ul>
    23. 32. Trench Warfare <ul><li>Machine gun and artillery make it difficult to attack a trench </li></ul><ul><li>Huge artillery preps make “No Man’s Land” virtually impassable </li></ul>
    24. 34. Trench Warfare Evolves <ul><li>Three group (squad) infiltration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squad one finds and fixes enemy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squad two finds and exploits weak spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squad three supports two and exploits breaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong points reduced later from rear/flanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combined arms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grenades, machine guns, flame throwers in infantry squads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fires smoke, gas, to keep defenders’ heads down </li></ul></ul>
    25. 35. RUTHLESS TACTICS <ul><li>Chemical warfare made trench warfare more horrible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mustard agents deployed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve agents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine Gun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600 b/m </li></ul></ul>
    26. 37. Tanks <ul><li>Brits introduce in Sept 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means to cross No Man’s Land with protection from machine guns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially employed piecemeal and in too small numbers to be decisive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable and slow </li></ul></ul>
    27. 38. Tanks <ul><li>Battle of Somme, Sept 1916 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 of 60 tanks make it into battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scattered across 3 mile front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cambria, Nov 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in mass (300 tanks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened 12x6 mile front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amiens, August 1918 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 tanks, 13 infantry divisions, 2 cavalry divisions, 2000 artillery pieces, 800 aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First modern “combined-arms” battle </li></ul></ul>
    28. 40. Submarines <ul><li>New aspect of “Total War” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting “neutral merchant” ships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germans announce submarine blockade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part physical, part psychological weapon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draws Allied resources away from offensive operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilian control of production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sinking of ships with US passengers is major factor in US’s eventual entry into the war </li></ul>
    29. 41. Aviation “Red Baron” <ul><li>Used initially for reconnaissance/spotting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless communication critical development in spotting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arial combat originally a counter-reconnaissance function </li></ul><ul><li>Troops on the ground don’t like the planes overhead…. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the war, planes were being used to drop bombs on railways, intersections, factories, etc… </li></ul>
    30. 42. “ Jenny” JN-4
    31. 43. Jaeger
    32. 44. Battle for Belleau Wood <ul><li>4 June 1918 Germans reach their “high water mark”, but are turned back by 5 th Marines at Les Mares Farms, 50 miles from Paris </li></ul><ul><li>5 June 1918, 4th Marine Brigade (5 th and 6 th Regiments, 6 th Machine Gun Battalion) enters Belleau Wood to stop German advance </li></ul><ul><li>French are retreating as Marines arrive </li></ul><ul><li>One Frenchman advises Marines to join the retreat, Capt Lloyd Williams replies “Retreat, hell, we just got here” </li></ul><ul><li>Marines begin picking off Germans at 800 yards (200 yds considered far to Germans) </li></ul>
    33. 46. Belleau Wood <ul><li>Dan Daly: “Come on you sons of bitches. Do you want to live forever” </li></ul><ul><li>Marines fight until 16 June when an Army unit relieves them </li></ul><ul><li>22 June Marines reenter fight </li></ul><ul><li>26 June Major Shearer sends signal, “Woods are now entirely US Marine Corps.” </li></ul><ul><li>Victory was not the product of sound tactics, but of the discipline and determination of the Brigade </li></ul>
    34. 47. Esprit de Corps <ul><li>I believe they are soldiers from Montezuma, At least when they advanced this morning they were all singing “From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli” </li></ul><ul><li>French soldier describing the Marines in Belleau Wood </li></ul><ul><li>Devil Dog title given to the Marines by German soldiers for their ferocious fighting </li></ul>
    35. 48. Armistice-November 11, 1918 truce (agreement to end fighting) -For Germany- withdrawal of Russians = new hope for successful end to war. Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare -For Allies-American troops pouring into war fronts and Allied forces began advancement towards Germany; Battle of Belleau Wood -September 1918-General Ludendorff informed leaders that war was lost and demanded that government ask for peace; Allies unwilling to make peace; November 1918- sailors in Kiel, Germany mutiny and within days councils of workers and soldiers forming (Socialist Party), taking over civilian and military offices; Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert announce creation of democratic republic--Kaiser in exile.  German government signs armistice two days later
    36. 49. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Big 4 meet in Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lloyd George of Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orlando of Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clemenceau of France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signed June 28, 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates </li></ul>
    37. 50. Reparations <ul><li>payments made to the victors (winners) by the vanquished (losers) to cover the costs of a war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after surrender, Germany stripped of all weapons and made vast payments to cover all costs of the war to France ( Georges Clemenceau) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and Germany </li></ul></ul>
    38. 51. 14 Points Versailles Treaty
    39. 52. Mandates-Europe
    40. 53. Mandates-Middle East
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