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August 22

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  • 1. West Coast Colonization
  • 2. Hernan Cortez
  • 3. Military Technology
    • Cortes and his men had cannons and horses which was a huge advantage during warfare
    • The Aztecs had never seen cannons or horses before
    • The weapons and animals frightened them
    • Cortes’ men used their horses to kill many Aztecs who fought on foot
  • 4. Ideological
    • The Aztecs believed that Cortes and his men were gods which gave the Spaniards a psychological advantage
    • The Aztecs were polytheistic
    • Every 52 years was called a read year in their culture. During this year the Aztecs believed the gods would destroy them
    • Cortes arrived in Mexico during a read year
  • 5. Political
    • Cortes made allies with Natives who were the Aztec’s enemies. This gave Cortes more men to fight with.
    • The enemies of the Aztec were tired of the cruel treatment they received from the Aztec. The Aztecs used the prisoners of war as slaves and human sacrifice victims
    • When Cortes landed in Mexico he only had about 500 men vs. an estimated 20,000,000 Aztec.
    • With the help of other tribes Cortes had enough men to defeat the Aztecs.
  • 6. Social
    • Cortes had Dona Marina to translate for him, and he was able to communicate with the Natives of Mexico
    • She was able to translate the Aztec language, Nahuatl, into Spanish.
  • 7. Serendipity
    • The Spaniards brought disease with them to Mexico which decimated the Native population.
    • One of Cortes’ men had smallpox.
    • The Aztecs had never been exposed to European diseases, so they had no immunity to the diseases.
    • Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, was surrounded by water that the people used for drinking and bathing
    • Smallpox spread through water.
  • 8. How did the Spanish govern their new American Colonies?
  • 9. Spanish Colonial ModelColonies Spanish King: Created the power structure to help him rule over the colonies Council of the Indies : Governed the American colonies from Spain Viceroy a.k.a Vice King: Ruled in place of the Spanish King in the colonies. Audiencia a.k.a. Judges : Checked and balanced the Viceroy’s power The People in the Colonies: Order of Power: Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattoes, Africans, Native Americans
  • 10. The Encomienda* System
    • The Council of the Indies granted the Spaniards the right to demand labor from the Native Americans.
    • The Spaniards enslaved the natives under brutal conditions.
    • The Spanish felt the encomienda was the easiest way to control the natives, and spread Christianity to them.
    • Those who resisted were hunted down and beaten or killed.
    • Disease, starvation, and cruel treatment caused major declines in the native population due to this system of labor.
    • With the dramatic decline of Native American workers, the Europeans turned to importing African slaves to meet their cheap labor needs
    * encomendar-to entrust,to commit, to recommend
  • 11. Role of Class in the Spanish Colonies
    • As you may have already inferred the actual everyday people in the Spanish colonies had the least amount of power.
    • A person’s ethnic background determined just how much or how little power and rights you had.
  • 12. Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattoes Africans Native Americans
  • 13. Today’s lesson makes the important point(s) that… In the slide presentation today, … parenthetical statement …, makes the point(s) that… When it comes to the topic of ... state the topic … , historians agree that… The slide presentation, … parenthetical statement …, claims that … Make Meaning

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