Project planning m des_2011
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Project planning m des_2011

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Project planning m des_2011 Project planning m des_2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Managing Design Projects Fraser Bruce MDes, DJCAD University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
  • Urgent Non - Urgent Important Important Urgent Non - Urgent Non- Important Non - Important DJCAD, University of Dundee 2
  • Problems & Crises Where we Non Effective want to operate – good time- management Meeting others Watching TV needs (interruptions - emails, phone Stay out of this calls…) quadrant DJCAD, University of Dundee 2
  • Understanding time-management Help identify problem areas: •  Do you have trouble completing work within allocated deadlines? •  How many interruptions are there each day? •  Do you have a procedure for handling disruptions? •  Do you have a block of interrupted time available? •  How do you handle drop-in visitors and phone calls? •  Do you find it difficult to say no? •  Do you make a list of things to do? •  Does your work have a degree of flexibility? Kerzner, H. (2006) Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New Jersey: JohnWiley & Sons, Inc. DJCAD, University of Dundee 3
  • Understanding project management A project can be described as an undertaking that encompasses a set of tasks and activities that: •  Have defined objectives to be completed within certain specifications •  Have defined start and completion dates •  Have funded limits •  Have assigned resources (both human and non-human) •  Are multi-functional (Stage-Gate System) Kerzner, H. (2006) Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New Jersey: JohnWiley & Sons, Inc. DJCAD, University of Dundee 4
  • Understanding project management ‘Project management is the planning, monitoring, and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality, and performance’ British Standards (BS)6079-1, 2000:5 Two key words: •  Management – planning, monitoring, controlling and motivating •  Successfully – time, cost, quality and performance DJCAD, University of Dundee 5
  • PM Triangle (triple constraint) •  Within time •  Within budget Resources •  Desired level of performance •  Utilizing the assigned resources Performance effectively and efficiently •  Accepted by all key stakeholders Good stakeholder relationships Kerzner, H. (2006) Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New Jersey: JohnWiley & Sons, Inc. DJCAD, University of Dundee 6
  • Project proposals •  Stages/Tasks •  Timeframes •  Resources •  Project costs •  Deliverables IPD, University of Dundee 7
  • Research Proposals •  Research Significance •  Research question •  Aims and objectives •  Research Context •  Research Outputs •  Endnotes and References IPD, University of Dundee 8
  • Project planning Key questions: •  What needs to be achieved and why? •  When should it be done by? •  How will it be done? •  What will be the cost? Planning documents: •  Activity plan – phases, activities, timescales, deliverables •  Resource plan – skills required, who will be involved •  Budget plan – costs for all resources DJCAD, University of Dundee 9
  • Project planning Systematic, flexible, disciplined, multi-functional: •  Defining the goal to be achieved in a certain time •  Actions to be taken to achieve the objectives •  Allocating resources (both human and non human) •  Defining the quality of work •  Planning budgets to achieve objectives •  Forecasting (a projection of what might happen) •  Identifying key stakeholders DJCAD, University of Dundee 10
  • Project monitoring Key questions: •  Are we still going about the project in the right way? Are we within schedule? •  Is the project still cost effective? Are we within budget? •  Are we still going to get what we want? •  Is the scope still the same? Project monitoring: •  Tracking and reporting progress •  Comparing actual outcome to predicted outcome •  Analyzing impact •  Making adjustments DJCAD, University of Dundee 11
  • New Product Development (NPD) •  Critical factors for product innovation (or development) success: –  Doing the right project –  Doing the project right •  Stage-Gate system (pioneered by Robert Cooper 1980’s): –  Systematic idea-to-launch process –  Stages/Concurrently/Multi-functional –  Gates/ “go” versus “no go” decisions/criteria DJCAD, University of Dundee 12
  • Leading and motivating Leadership and team-building: •  Shaping goals •  Obtaining resources •  Building roles •  Building organisational structures •  Establishing good relationships •  Seeing the whole picture •  Moving things forward DJCAD, University of Dundee 13
  • Leading and motivating Leadership and team-building: •  Shaping goals •  Obtaining resources •  Building roles •  Building organisational structures •  Establishing good relationships •  Seeing the whole picture •  Moving things forward Systems Thinking – Steve Brogan (2010) DJCAD, University of Dundee 13
  • Leading and motivating Leadership and team-building: •  Shaping goals •  Obtaining resources •  Building roles •  Building organisational structures •  Establishing good relationships •  Seeing the whole picture •  Moving things forward Hassle Factor – Speculative Diagram DJCAD, University of Dundee 13
  • Leading and motivating Leadership and team-building: •  Shaping goals •  Obtaining resources •  Building roles •  Building organisational structures •  Establishing good relationships •  Seeing the whole picture •  Moving things forward DJCAD, University of Dundee 13
  • Leadership Characteristics •  Understands the environment •  Visionary and flexible to change •  Creates management options •  Encourages teamwork •  Encourages open channels of communication •  Builds a coalition of supporters •  Determination and perseverance DJCAD, University of Dundee 14
  • Paradoxical characteristics of creative groups Play A team needs fresh, inexperienced perspectives as well as skilled Experience expertise. Bringing in outsiders is often a useful way to provide the necessary balance of perspective. Freedom Your team must work well within the confines of real business needs Discipline – and in alignment with your company’s strategy. But it also needs latitude – some degree of freedom to determine how it will achieve the strategy and address the business needs. Play Creativity thrives on playfulness, but business must be conducted Professionalism professionally. Provide time and space for play, but clarify the appropriate times and places. Improvisation Plan your project carefully, but remember that projects do not Planning always go as planned. Encourage team members to look for ways to turn unexpected events into opportunities. Keep plans flexible enough to incorporate new or improved ideas. Watkins, M. (2003) Managing for Creativity and Innovation. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 85. DJCAD, University of Dundee 15
  • Completing a task Project managers role is to: •  Set the aims and objectives •  Establish detailed plans •  Organize resources •  Provide staffing •  Set up controls •  Issue directives •  Motivate personnel •  Remain flexible DJCAD, University of Dundee 16
  • Project objectives Formulated as SMART: •  Specific – what the objectives must achieve •  Measurable – meeting the objectives •  Achievable – are the objectives achievable and attainable (e.g. time, budget…) •  Realistic – against resources •  Time – when do you want to achieve the objectives Examples: •  Market share objective – To gain 35% of the market for game consoles by August 2011 •  Profitability objectives – To achieve a 15% return on capital employed by April 2011 DJCAD, University of Dundee 17
  • Potential benefits •  Identification of functional responsibilities/all activities are accounted for •  Minimizing the need for continuous reporting •  Identification of time limits for scheduling •  Measurement of accomplishment against plans •  Early identification of problems/corrective action to follow •  Improved estimating capability for future planning •  Knowing when objectives cannot be made Kerzner, H. (2006) Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New Jersey: JohnWiley & Sons, Inc. DJCAD, University of Dundee 18
  • Project Management Tools Visual methods for representing activities: •  Gantt or bar charts –  Displaying simple activities against time and money •  Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) –  Displaying the pathway for a project –  A network diagram/nodes representing events/labelled vectors representing tasks –  Time needed to complete each task/identify minimum time •  Critical Path Method (CPM) –  Construct a model/time duration for each activity/dependencies –  Longest/Minimum time needed to complete a project –  Critical/float •  Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques (GERT) –  Similar to PERT but has the advantage of allowing looping, branching, and multiple project end results DJCAD, University of Dundee 19
  • Project Management Software Benefits: The PM still has to: •  Schedule calculations •  Define the work breakdown structure •  Critical path identification •  Analyse activities •  Cost tracking •  Assign resources to activities •  Planned and actual data comparisons •  Estimate manpower requirements •  Report and chart generation •  Estimate activity duration •  History tracking •  Monitor progress •  Hypothetical simulations •  Evaluate trade-offs •  Trouble spot identification •  Make decisions Gardiner, P-D. (2005) Project management: a strategic planning approach. New York: PalgraveMacMillan. IPD, University of Dundee 20
  • Microsoft Project Management DJCAD, University of Dundee 21
  • GroupWise DJCAD, University of Dundee 22
  • Post-It Notes DJCAD, University of Dundee 23
  • Wunderlist (http://www.6wunderkinder.com/wunderlist-iphone/) DJCAD, University of Dundee 24
  • Design Blog DJCAD, University of Dundee 25
  • Things to remember…. DJCAD, University of Dundee 26
  • •  If you fail to plan you are planning to fail •  Change is inevitable – except from a vending machine •  All project managers face problems on Monday mornings – good project managers are working on next Monday’s problems •  It is about working smarter a not harder DJCAD, University of Dundee 1
  • Literature Sources •  Boyle, G. (2003) Design project management. London: Ashgate Publishing Limited. •  Kerzner, H. (2006) Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. •  Gardiner, P-D. (2005) Project management: a strategic planning approach. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. •  Carrol, T. (2006) Project delivery in business- as-usual organizations. Aldershot: Gower Publishing Ltd. •  Young, T-L. (2000) Successful project management. London: Kogan Page. DJCAD, University of Dundee 28
  • Managing Design Projects Fraser Bruce MDes, DJCAD University of Dundee, Scotland, UK