Food Security in the context of Rio+20            Conference                 Riccardo Mesiano               Productivity S...
Outline• FS, Sustainable Agriculture and Sustainable  Land Management• FS for the Arab Region: Challenges• International C...
Sustainable Development and Food               Security Sustainable environment and natural resource  management (ENRM) l...
Food Security, Sustainable Agriculture and        Sustainable Land Management Food security exists when all people, at al...
Per capita land availability in the region        Source: ESCWA based on FAOSTAT (2007) and United Nations Population Divi...
Aridity in the Arab region                                                         HyperArid                              ...
FS for the Arab Region: Challenges• Policy /political level: lack of appropriate policies,  legislations &/or incentives, ...
FS for the Arab Region: Challenges• Knowledge & technology: Limited access to easily  understandable and applicable land m...
International Commitments on FS  International time-bound and qualitative commitments  in the area of food security and su...
Rome Declaration on FS   The Rome Declaration on World Food Security (1996) had   seven detailed commitments (without targ...
CSD 17- A new Focus  Until 2009, global delivery of the food security and sustainable  agriculture‐related commitments hav...
L’Aquila and Rome for FS G8‐led l’Aquila Food Security Initiative (2009) committed to mobilise  $22 billion over three ye...
RIO+20 ConferenceThe Decision to convene UNCSD (Rio+20) was decided in Dec 2009 bythe United Nations General Assembly Reso...
Rio+20: New and Emerging Challenges   New issues facing the Arab region that will be addressed   at Rio+20 Conference: Cl...
Food Security and Rio+20: Zero Draft   64.         We reaffirm the right to food and call upon all States to    prioritiz...
Food Security and Rio+20: issues to be                  addressed     Governments should work on setting up the following ...
Food Security and Rio+20: issues to be                  addressed    Reduce the footprint of the agriculture sector by ma...
Food Security and Rio+20:Finance, fiscal,                  regulation Scale up and catalyze new and additional sources of...
Food Security and Rio+20: Institutions At Rio+20 leaders should ensure the effective  integration of the social, economic...
Rio+20: Sustainable Development Goals•   Food Security amongst the proposed Sustainable Development Goals    (Par107 Zero ...
Rio+20: Sustainable Development Goals     Farmers’ major groups1.   Increase the proportion of ODA focused on agriculture ...
Rio+20: Green Economy• UNEP Definition *:      – “Green economy is an economy that results in        improved human well-b...
Examples: G E Sectors RENEWABLE ENERGY                                                Solar and wind energy, biofuel, etc....
Rio+20: Green Economy• As Sustainable Land Management and Food Security impact poverty  alleviation, livelihood improvemen...
Food Security and Rio+20: Conclusions  Rio+20 comes at the right moment to: Address the poor management and regulation of...
Thank you!Productive Sectors SectionSustainable Development and Productivity DivisionUN-ESCWATel: +961 1 978 519Fax: +961 ...
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Session 4 b riccardo mesiano

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Session 4 b riccardo mesiano

  1. 1. Food Security in the context of Rio+20 Conference Riccardo Mesiano Productivity Sectors Section, Sustainable Development and Productivity Division
  2. 2. Outline• FS, Sustainable Agriculture and Sustainable Land Management• FS for the Arab Region: Challenges• International Commitments on FS• FS and Rio+20• Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Sustainable Development and Food Security Sustainable environment and natural resource management (ENRM) lies at the heart of delivering food security and lasting poverty reduction Long-term food security is contingent on the sustainable and equitable management and conservation of the world’s natural capital 3
  4. 4. Food Security, Sustainable Agriculture and Sustainable Land Management Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security covers availability, access, utilization and stability issues. Sustainable agriculture refers to the capacity of agriculture over time to contribute to overall welfare by providing sufficient food and other goods and services in ways that are economically efficient and profitable, socially responsible, and environmentally sound. Sustainable Land Management involves the use of land resources for the production of goods to meet human needs while ensuring their long- term productive potential and the maintenance of their environmental functions Par 92 Zero Draft: “We recognize the economic and social significance of land, particularly its contribution to growth, food security, and poverty eradication, and note that the intensity of desertification of most of Africa’s arable land is a serious challenge to sustainable development in the region” 4
  5. 5. Per capita land availability in the region Source: ESCWA based on FAOSTAT (2007) and United Nations Population Division (2006) 5
  6. 6. Aridity in the Arab region HyperArid 92% Dry Sub- Humid 4%Semi-Arid Arid 3% 1% ESCWA; 2007: Land Degradation Assessment and Prevention, ESCWA, Beirut, Lebanon 6
  7. 7. FS for the Arab Region: Challenges• Policy /political level: lack of appropriate policies, legislations &/or incentives, failure to mainstream Sustainability in planning (including land use) & rural development; political agenda prevailing over sustainable development;• Technical level: low investments in new technologies, paucity of data for planning, and for M&E;• Community level: relevance of sustainability importance not always apparent, difficulty of scaling up & replicating experiences, unrealistic expectation-building. Need to maintain livelihoods in rural areas (land is the major or only asset for many); 7
  8. 8. FS for the Arab Region: Challenges• Knowledge & technology: Limited access to easily understandable and applicable land management and food security practices• Governance: No decentralized management and participatory governance of natural resources Economic & financial aspects: Environmental concerns not mainstreamed into production programs, policies and cross-cutting sectors. Dependency of the region to external food markets; Social & behavioral motivation: Rural illiteracy and poor education especially environmental education 8
  9. 9. International Commitments on FS International time-bound and qualitative commitments in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture in: Agenda 21 (1992) the action plan of the United Nations Conference of Rio on Environment and Development .• Chapter 14 of Agenda 21 is dedicated to sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD). Ten time‐bound commitments and cross‐references are made to chapter 18,19, and 21. Rome Declaration on World Food Security (1996) CSD8 (2000) JPOI (2002) MDGs (2000) CSD17 (2009)• All reaffirmed the objective of, and called for the implementation of, the World Food Summit in 1996 9
  10. 10. Rome Declaration on FS The Rome Declaration on World Food Security (1996) had seven detailed commitments (without targets or time limits)• (1) to provide enabling political, social, and economic environment• (2) and (4) policies, including trade policies to improve food security• (3) pursue participatory and sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and rural development policies and practices everywhere and at all levels• (5) prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man‐made emergencies• (6) promote optimal allocation and use of public and private investments to foster human resources, sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry systems, and rural development• (7) implement, monitor, and follow‐up this Plan of Action at all levels in cooperation with the international community 10
  11. 11. CSD 17- A new Focus Until 2009, global delivery of the food security and sustainable agriculture‐related commitments have been disappointing. CSD‐17 reiterated several of the quantitative Agenda 21 objectives. The summary of the Secretary General Report on Agriculture for CSD‐17 called for “renewed commitment and a new vision for global cooperation to implement policies that simultaneously aim at increasing agricultural productivity, creating fair trade regimes, conserving natural resources and promoting investment in agricultural related infrastructure.” The difference with previous reviews is the focus on social issues, on small holder, especially women farmers, who must be at the center of any intervention. “Reducing the gender gap in access to agricultural inputs alone would increase women’s yields by 20‐30%.” 11
  12. 12. L’Aquila and Rome for FS G8‐led l’Aquila Food Security Initiative (2009) committed to mobilise $22 billion over three years to support country‐led plans for agriculture and food and nutrition security Rome World Summit on Food Security (2009): The Five Rome Principles for Sustainable Global Food Security and the High Level Task Force on Global Food Security (principles and a framework for increased investment in agriculture and food security) Improved coordination of international interventions through the updated Comprehensive Framework for Action (CFA). The Committee on Food Security reformed Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition (GSF) now provides strategies to foster coordinated and coherent global and national action 12
  13. 13. RIO+20 ConferenceThe Decision to convene UNCSD (Rio+20) was decided in Dec 2009 bythe United Nations General Assembly Resolution 64/236, in 2012 in Riode Janeiro in Brazil.Objectives:• To secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development;• To assess progress and implementation gaps in summit outcomes on sustainable Development implementation;• To address new and emerging challenges.Themes:I. Institutional framework for sustainable development;II. A green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.
  14. 14. Rio+20: New and Emerging Challenges New issues facing the Arab region that will be addressed at Rio+20 Conference: Climate change and climate change adaptation; Food security; Water security; Increasing drought and desertification, land degradation; Natural disasters and extreme events; Diseases and epidemics Par 88 Zero Draft :”We reaffirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time, and express our deep concern that developing countries are particularly vulnerable to and are experiencing increased negative impacts from climate change, which is severely undermining food security and efforts to eradicate poverty” 14
  15. 15. Food Security and Rio+20: Zero Draft 64. We reaffirm the right to food and call upon all States to prioritize sustainable intensification of food production through increased investment in local food production, improved access to local and global agri-food markets, and reduced waste throughout the supply chain, with special attention to women, smallholders, youth, and indigenous farmers. We are committed to ensuring proper nutrition for our people. 65. We call for more transparent and open trading systems and, where appropriate, practices that contribute to the stability of food prices and domestic markets; ensure access to land, water and other resources; and support social protection programmes. 66. We further support initiatives at all levels that improve access to information, enhance interactions among farmers and experts through education and extension services, and increase the use of appropriate technologies for sustainable agriculture. 15
  16. 16. Food Security and Rio+20: issues to be addressed Governments should work on setting up the following enabling conditions: Increase efficiency in the food system by reducing waste in the production and distribution of food; Address the inequitable distribution of natural resources by actively promoting changed consumption patterns in high-income countries, including more balanced diets, which are less rich in meat, fish and dairy Promoting pro-poor conservation measures to support the diversification of rural incomes Help break the link between food prices and oil prices by encouraging more diversified production and consumption as well as reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers; Investing in support to small sustainable farmers in developing countries for measures that maximize their potential contribution to food 16
  17. 17. Food Security and Rio+20: issues to be addressed Reduce the footprint of the agriculture sector by making sustainable food production central to development and encouraging the treatment and re-use of wastewater for agricultural purposes; Take into account the food-water nexus, especially in a changing climate, with water availability becoming increasingly unpredictable and extreme water events, such as floods and droughts, more frequent and intense; reduce the pressure on land and water resources from agriculture Develop frameworks to limit urban sprawl and promote urban agriculture and sustainable waste water management to support peri-urban agriculture, thus increasing urban food security and reducing waste of land, water and nutrients Conserve natural habitats such as forests that harbor the genetic origins of many of today’s agricultural staples and commodities, as a form of insurance against future disease resistance and as reservoirs for future breeding and crop development Prioritizing the rehabilitation of degraded, abandoned or underperforming lands rather than farming in new areas 17
  18. 18. Food Security and Rio+20:Finance, fiscal, regulation Scale up and catalyze new and additional sources of funding, from both public and private funding with a view to raise the capital necessary to transition to green economies; Finance leapfrogging technologies and refitting programmes with a view to capture the increased returns inherent in economies that better address social and environmental concerns; Invest in the food, water and energy nexus, particularly on technology cooperation Eliminating all subsidies that undermine sustainable development, particularly those underpinning fossil fuel use, unsustainable agriculture and fisheries, taking appropriate action to offset this measures’ regressive impact. 18
  19. 19. Food Security and Rio+20: Institutions At Rio+20 leaders should ensure the effective integration of the social, economic and environmental pillars and coordinate synergies with the UN agencies with sustainable development mandates across the UN system Creation of a Sustainable Development Council (SDC). The SDC should be granted authority to bring agenda items to the Security Council 19
  20. 20. Rio+20: Sustainable Development Goals• Food Security amongst the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (Par107 Zero Draft. We propose that the Sustainable Development Goals could include sustainable consumption and production patterns as well as priority areas such as oceans; food security and sustainable agriculture; sustainable energy for all; water access and efficiency; sustainable cities; green jobs, decent work and social inclusion; and disaster risk reduction and resilience) An overarching goal in this area could be universal access to nutritious foods Several specific targets have been proposed in various submissions to the compilation text for Rio+20: (1) zero net land degradation; (2) 20% increase in total food supply‐chain efficiency – reducing losses and waste from field to fork; (3) 20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture–more nutrition and crop per drop; (4) 70% of irrigated land using technology that increases crop per drop 20
  21. 21. Rio+20: Sustainable Development Goals Farmers’ major groups1. Increase the proportion of ODA focused on agriculture and rural development to 20%; countries meeting their l’Aquila commitments;2. Increase yields on women’s farms by 2.5% to 4%. The Bonn DPI/NGO conference declaration from 1400 Civil Society Organizations:1. By 2030, global agricultural production is transformed from industrial to sustainable. Chemical inputs, herbicides, and pesticides are largely replaced with organic and biological alternatives. Food for export is secondary to food for local consumption. Cultivated crop strains are diversified, as are production techniques and the mix of agricultural producers.2. Best management practices reduce erosion by 90% and nitrogen runoff by 50% or more 20
  22. 22. Rio+20: Green Economy• UNEP Definition *: – “Green economy is an economy that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities”*Source: UNEP, 2011, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication, www.unep.org/greeneconomy 22
  23. 23. Examples: G E Sectors RENEWABLE ENERGY Solar and wind energy, biofuel, etc. Green building materials, reducing energy GREEN BUILDINGS and water consumption, etc. SUSTAINABLE Hybrid cars, public transportation, etc. TRANSPORTATIONWATER MANAGEMENT Water recycling, rainwater harvesting, etc.WASTE MANAGEMENT Recycling, toxic waste remediation, etc.AGRICULTURE/LAND Organic agriculture, soil stabilization, MANAGEMENT reforestation, habitat conservation, etc. 23C. Palmer for ESCWA Consultative Workshop on Green Economy Principles and Application for Sustainable Development in theESCWA Region (Beirut, 6-7 October, 2010)
  24. 24. Rio+20: Green Economy• As Sustainable Land Management and Food Security impact poverty alleviation, livelihood improvement and ecosystem service, it involves the 3 dimension of SD (economic, social and environmental) that a Green Economy aims to address• Maintaining the social, economic and environmental functions of the land with a view to support livelihoods and food security…fits within the globally adopted water-energy-food security nexus and Green Economy• Need for environmental preservation (to combat degradation) while responding appropriately to scarcity of resources plaguing the region is amongst the goal of the Green Economy paradigm• Par. 25 Zero Draft: “We are convinced that a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should contribute to meeting key goals – in particular the priorities of poverty eradication, food security…” 24
  25. 25. Food Security and Rio+20: Conclusions Rio+20 comes at the right moment to: Address the poor management and regulation of natural assets and ecosystems (major factor behind food, water and energy insecurity) Deliver a new framework to address the interlinkages between these common challenges Ensure integrated discussions between new and emerging issues such as economic security, water, security, climate security, energy security, food security and natural disasters. 25
  26. 26. Thank you!Productive Sectors SectionSustainable Development and Productivity DivisionUN-ESCWATel: +961 1 978 519Fax: +961 1 981 510Email: mesiano@un.orgWebsite: http://www.escwa.un.orgFacebook: http://www.facebook.com/unescwaTwitter: http://twitter.com/#!/unescwa 26
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