Session 2 stephen hall
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Session 2 stephen hall

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Session 2 stephen hall Session 2 stephen hall Presentation Transcript

  • Meeting the need and demand forAnimal Source Foods in the MENAregion: the potential of aquaculture Stephen J. Hall 1
  • Animal Source Foods Consumption of even small amounts of animal source foods contribute substantially to ensuring dietary adequacy and preventing under nutrition and nutritional deficiencies. Neumann et al (2003)  High quality protein  Improved absorption of other nutrients.  Essential vitamins and minerals  A key part of a balanced diet  An expectation (and right) 2
  • Fish supply 3000000 Farmed vs Capture Capture by CountryFish Production (tonnes) 2500000 2000000 Farmed Capture 1500000 1000000 500000 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year Year Capture fisheries production stagnant, aquaculture the only option for increasing supply 3
  • MENA Aquaculture Production (2009) Egypt Iran Saudi Arabia IraqProduction Value (US$) 4 Sources: FAO FishStat
  • Key Messages Aquaculture is a business  Insights will come from value chain analysis Freshwater culture drives fish production.  A focus on mariculture to meet food security objectives is misplaced.  High capital costs and risks (shaky business case).  Export focus offers limited returns to local economies or food supply. Few MENA countries have meaningful potential to produce fish at scale.  Traditional livestock focus will make more sense in many settings. Only Egypt currently produces significant quantities of fish.  An important contributor of affordable animal source food.  High potential to contribute further to national and regional food security.  Meeting this growth potential can also lead to employment growth. 5
  • Fresh and Brackishwater Aquaculture Production (tonnes) Egypt Iran Sudan Iraq Renewable Water Supply (km3.yr-1) 6 Sources: FAO FishStat;Pacific Institute
  • More Meat Milk and Fish by and for the Poor 7
  • Prioritizing criteria for investment Need  National food and nutrition security assessments indicate current situation as ‘low’ or ‘at risk.’ Potential  Markets for fish are developed to a scale that offers potential to support a value chain focus  Potential for aquaculture to contribute significantly to meeting national/regional fish demand within 5-7 years Enabling environment and potential for partnership  National and regional policy environment supports the proposed approach  International development agency policy environment supports the proposed approach  Non-Government development partners identify aquaculture value chains as a fruitful area for investment 8
  • Egyptian Aquaculture 1994 2009 • 57,000 tonnes • 705,000 tonnes • 8.5 kg fish person-1 y-1 • 15.4 kg fish person-1 y-1 280 260 240 Tilapia 220 Carp thousand tonnes 200 180• 75% of Africa’s 160 Mullet 140 aquaculture 120 Bass&Bream 100 80• Employs 200,000 60 people 40 20 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Years The cheapest Animal Source Food for Egyptian consumers is fish 9
  • a) 700 b) Wild Capture + Imports - Exports With Aquaculture 16 600 Per Capita Fish Supply (kg/person/year) Volume (Tonnes x 1000) 500 12 400 8 300 Wild Capture Without Aquaculture 200 Imports 4 100 Aquaculture 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008c) Year d) Year 400 25 Contribution to total dietary protein (%) 10 Tilapia Price Volume (Tonnes x 1000) 20 300 8 Total Animal Price (LE)/kg 15 6 200 10 4 Tilapia Volume 100 Fish 5 2 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year Year 10
  • Strategic Partnerships  National  ARC and GAFRD  universities  industry  Regional and Global  FAO  NGOs (CARE)  ARIs  Industry 11
  • Equitable efficient value chains Seed Inputs & Services Inputs & Services Feed Production Production Transport Transport & & Processing Processing Marketing Marketing Fish Inputs & Services Production Transport & Processing MarketingIntermediate Outcome Ultimate Outcome Impacts • Sustainable supply of 1 • Average per capita fish• # Identified VC million tonnes of tilapia consumption for poor constraints resolved or per annum for domestic consumers in target lessened. markets by 2018. markets reaches 75% of• % increase in identified • Fish prices for poor national average. value chain effectiveness consumers in target • Consumption patterns metrics. markets remain at or among poor consumers below 2010 prices. are gender equitable. 12
  • The Aquaculture Value Chain, Egypt Inputs : Feed, fry, capital, land, Inputs : Transport/vehicles, Inputs : Transport/vehicles, labour, fertiliser, ice, labour, boxes, ice, labour, buildings, power/electricity, water, nets, power/electricity, power/electricity, fridges, pumps, generators, buildings freezers, cookers transport/vehicles, ice Fish Farms • Stock in April and harvest Fish traders/ Retail Sector (and in Sep–Dec i.e. 8-9 months wholesalers food service sectors) • Sell 99% of the fish • Keep fish <1 day • Keep fish for <1 day harvested • Sell 99% of fish purchased • Sell 99% of fish purchased • Average annual sales • Average annual sales Sell / • Average sales volumes Sell / volumes and values : 94 volumes and values of 65 deliver and values per year of deliver tonnes and LE 890,000 tonnes and LE 940,000 to 1112 tonnes and LE 11.9 to • All product sold live, or • Domestic sales only million fresh (w/wo ice) • All product sold live, or • Almost all product sold • 8.3 full-time jobs per 100 live, or fresh (w/wo ice) fresh (w/wo ice) tonnes sold but small quantities • 0.9 full-time jobs per 100 • Av. size 265 g tilapia, 409 g cooked/grilled tonnes sold grey mullet, 216 g thin- • 4.6 full-time jobs per 100 lipped mullet and 1481 g tonnes sold catfish from: Macfadyen et al. (2011) 13
  • VCA – Key Findings • No exports – short and simple VC • No processing – all fish sold fresh or live • Little spoilage • Employment is around 14 FTEs per 100 tonnes • Evenly divided between youth and older workers • Females mainly in retail • Producers receive 72% finalfrom: Macfadyen et al. 2011 consumer price 14
  • VCA – Key Findings • Production costs = $US 1300 t-1 • Feed accounts for 67% total costs • Operational costs dominate all VC segments Net profits Producers 22% Traders 3.9 Retailers 6.8% • Critical factors affecting producers include poor fry, poor stocking, poor feed management 15
  • Investment needed to: Modernize the industry by improving technologies and building capacity. “Critical factors affecting producers include poor fry, poor stocking, poor feed management” Abbassa strain Commercial strain Photo credit: Nabil Ahmed Ibrahim & Mohamed Yehia Abou Zaid No of trainees 112g Progress, but much more needed 16
  • Investment needed to: Develop regional markets for supplying affordable fish to poor consumers  Identify where regional demand is not being met  Identify barriers to meeting supply in these markets and strategies for overcoming them.  Identify specific interventions that will make value chains more efficient and improve availability and affordability of supply. (e.g. market information systems (ICT’s), producer and retailer networks)• Growing need and opportunity• High potential for employment growth in Egypt (production, processing and marketing) 17
  • Thank You 18