Metabolic functions
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  • 1. Metabolic Functions By: Erin McLoon Rachel Corning Fianna Walsh Julia Davis
  • 2. General Overview of Metabolic Functions & ATP
    • ATP- adenosine triphosphate
      • Function: provide a form of chemical energy cells can use
      • Molecules are made and broken down
      • Helps cells maintain boundaries
      • Moves along all life processes
  • 3. General Overview Cont..
    • Structure: Modified nucleotide
      • Adenine base
      • Ribose sugar
      • Three phosphate groups
      • Phosphate groups attached by high energy phosphate bonds
    • When high energy phosphate bonds are broken by hydrolysis, energy is released and can be used by the cell to do work/power an activity
  • 4. ATP
    • What does the cell use ATP to do?
      • Synthesize proteins
      • Transport substances across its membrane
      • Causes the muscle cells to contract
    • When the high energy phosphate bond is broken:
    • ATP  ADP + P +E
        • ADP = adenosine diphosphate, P= inorganic phosphate E= energy
    • ATP supplies are replenished by oxidation of food fuels
  • 5. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Breakdown of Glucose Without Oxygen
    • Anaerobic Glycolysis:
      • Occurs in a cystol (doesn’t use Oxygen)
      • Glucose is broken down into Pyruvic acid
      • Due to lack of Oxygen, the Pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid
    • Can provide most of ATP needed for 30-40 seconds of strenuous muscle activity
  • 6. Shortcomings of Anaerobic Respiration
    • Uses a lot of glucose for a small amount of ATP
    • Accumulating lactic acid promotes muscle soreness
  • 7. Anaerobic Respiration Diagram
  • 8. Anaerobic VS Aerobic
    • Anaerobic respiration produces only 5% of the ATP that Aerobic Respiration produces
    • Anaerobic is 2 ½ times faster than Aerobic Respiration
  • 9. Aerobic Respiration
    • Occurs in mitochondria & involves a series of metabolic pathways that use oxyen
    • Glucose is broken down completely into CO2 and H2O
      • Some of the energy is released as the bonds are broken and is captured in the bonds of ATP molecules
    • Provides 32 ATP per 1 Glucose molecule
  • 10. Aerobic Respiration
    • Slow, and requires continuous delivery of O2 and nutrient fuels to the muscles
  • 11. Krebs Cycle
    • Occurs in mitochondria
    • Produces virtually all CO2 during cell respiration
    • Yields a small amount of ATP by transferring high energy phosphate groups directly from phosphorylated substances to ADP
        • Free oxygen is not involved
        • Process called substrate-level phosphorylation
        • Phosphorylate = to add phosphate to an organic compound
        • ADP = A nucleotide, composed of adenosine and two linked phosphate groups, that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy.
  • 12. Electron Transport Chain
    • Where the production of ATP occurs
    • Hydrogen atoms removed during the first two metabolic phases are loaded with energy
    • Hydrogens are delivered by the coenzymes to the protein carriers of the ETC
      • Form part of mitochondrial cristae membranes
    • H atoms split into H ions (H+) and electrons
  • 13. Electron Transport Chain cont.
    • Electrons “fall down energy hill” (go from each carrier to carrier of lower energy)
    • Give off their load of energy in small amounts, in a series of steps to enable cells to attach phosphate to ADP to make ATP
    • Free oxygen is reduced
    • H ions and electrons unite with molecular oxygen
    • Form H2O and large amounts of ATP