Palestra j palmer

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The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
Plant physiology as a tool of productivity
in different orchard systems
John Palmer, Plant & Food Research Ltd., Motueka Research Centre,
New Zealand

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Palestra j palmer

  1. 1. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research LimitedPlant physiology as a tool of productivityin different orchard systems John Palmer, Plant & Food Research Ltd., Motueka Research Centre, New Zealand
  2. 2.  Kerikeri 35o SPlant & Food Research  Auckland Ruakura   Te PukeThe New Zealand Institute for  Hawke’s BayPlant & Food Research Limited  Palmerston North Nelson A Crown Research Institute  Marlborough  Lincoln  Clyde 45o S The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  3. 3. I began my career in pipfruit physiology over 40 yearsago at East Malling Research Station, England.Over those 40 years I have been privileged to workwith and to know many of the leading pipfruitphysiologists all over the world. Ours is very much aworld wide community, like all science we advance byan interaction of ideas, tempered by our ownenvironment.And that environment includes, not only the physicalenvironment, but the grower community and thefunding opportunities and limitations. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  4. 4. Crop physiology is all about understanding theprocesses that control and determine plant growth anddevelopment.Horticulture is all about plant manipulation to achievedesired ends. Physiological understanding enables usto predictably manipulate our plants.Classically, for example, the understanding of theeffect of daylength on flowering has enabled theglasshouse flower industry to reliably programme theproduction of flowers and flowering pot plants. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  5. 5. Fruit development pathway Fruit growth Fertilisation Fruit maturation Fruit harvest Flowering Fruit storage &Flower differentiation distribution Flower evocation Consumer The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  6. 6. Orchard development pathway Tree training Tree quality Early yield and fruit quality Tree spacing Mature yield andChoice of rootstock fruit qualityChoice of cultivar The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  7. 7. Key developments over the last 40 years I believe that physiology has played, is playing and will play a key role in the future of fruit growing. In this talk I will inevitably be selective in the examples I use of the contribution of physiology. Many of those examples I have been involved in, but I choose them just because I am so familiar with them. Other speakers will cover other key physiological contributions in their presentations. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  8. 8. Key developments1. The importance of light interception and distribution and the link to yield and fruit quality.2. The widespread adoption of intensive planting on dwarfing rootstocks.3. An understanding of the orchard as a system.4. A general move away from pruning to branch manipulation.5. The use of computer models to aid decision making.6. The use of PGRs in nursery and orchard.7. The need to apply physiological understanding to new cultivars. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  9. 9. Key developments1. The importance of light interception and distribution and the link to yield and fruit quality.2. The widespread adoption of intensive planting on dwarfing rootstocks.3. An understanding of the orchard as a system.4. A general move away from pruning to branch manipulation.5. The use of computer models to aid decision making.6. The use of PGRs.7. The need to apply physiological understanding to new cultivars. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  10. 10. Key developments1. The importance of light interception and distribution and the link to yield and fruit quality.2. The widespread adoption of intensive planting on dwarfing rootstocks.3. An understanding of the orchard as a system.4. A general move away from pruning to branch manipulation.5. The use of computer models to aid decision making.6. The use of PGRs.7. The need to apply physiological understanding to new cultivars. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  11. 11. Key developments1. The importance of light interception and distribution and the link to yield and fruit quality.2. The widespread adoption of intensive planting on dwarfing rootstocks.3. An understanding of the orchard as a system.4. A general move away from pruning to branch manipulation.5. The use of computer models to aid decision making.6. The use of PGRs.7. The need to apply physiological understanding to new cultivars. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  12. 12. Key developments1. The importance of light interception and distribution and the link to yield and fruit quality.2. The widespread adoption of intensive planting on dwarfing rootstocks.3. An understanding of the orchard as a system.4. A general move away from pruning to branch manipulation.5. The use of computer models to aid decision making.6. The use of PGRs.7. The need to apply physiological understanding to new cultivars. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  13. 13. Key developments1. The importance of light interception and distribution and the link to yield and fruit quality.2. The widespread adoption of intensive planting on dwarfing rootstocks.3. An understanding of the orchard as a system.4. A general move away from pruning to branch manipulation.5. The use of computer models to aid decision making.6. The use of PGRs in nursery and orchard.7. The need to apply physiological understanding to new cultivars. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  14. 14. Key developments1. The importance of light interception and distribution and the link to yield and fruit quality.2. The widespread adoption of intensive planting on dwarfing rootstocks.3. An understanding of the orchard as a system.4. A general move away from pruning to branch manipulation.5. The use of computer models to aid decision making.6. The use of PGRs in nursery and orchard.7. The need to apply physiological understanding to new cultivars. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  15. 15. Presentation overview1) Tree manipulation2) Carbon acquisition - light into dry matter3) Carbon partitioning - total dry matter to fruit dry matter4) Fruit quality - fruit dry matter into saleable product5) Where to from here? The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  16. 16. Tree manipulation in thenursery and the orchard The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  17. 17. Tree manipulation in the nursery and the orchard with PGRsInterest in feathering agents to induce syllepticbranching began in the USA and in Europe in the1970s (Max Williams, Jim Quinlan, Bob Wertheim).The physiological understanding underpinningthis was that the apex suppressed lateral buddevelopment but application of materials to eitherslow the development of the apex or increase thesupply of cytokinins to the lateral buds wouldinduce axillary bud development.This resulted in the release of products such asPromalin, benzyladenine and recently Tiberon. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  18. 18. A well-feathered treeof ‘Braeburn’/M.9 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  19. 19. Effect of concentration and frequency of application of BA sprays on ‘Fuji’/MM.106 BA concn. Number of Total length of Mean feather mg L-1 feathers feathers (m) length (cm)Control 0 1.0 0.6 624 sprays 100 4.3 1.9 47 200 8.8 2.5 25 400 12.0 3.3 276 sprays 100 6.9 2.1 29 200 13.4 3.7 26 400 15.9 4.1 255% LSD 2.78* 1.43* 12.9* for comparisons within treatments, excluding control Sprays applied weekly The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  20. 20. Effect of repeat sprays of BA followed by repeat sprays of GAs on the number of feathers on ‘Comice’/QC Gibberellin spraysBA sprays None 200 mg L 400 mg L-1 200 mg L-1 400 mg L-1 -1 GA4+7 GA4+7 GA3 GA3None 0.9 14.1 16.6 15.7 17.0750 mg L-1 BA 2.4 12.9 15.3 15.8 17.41500 mg L-1 BA 3.5 10.4 10.2 12.7 16.8Mean 2.5 12.1 13.5 14.5 17.1P for main effect of BA spray = <0.001; P for main effect of GA spray = <0.001;P for interaction = 0.001 4 weekly sprays of BA followed by (Simplified from Palmer et al. 2010) 4 weekly sprays of GA The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  21. 21. Young ‘Scifresh’/M.9 treeshowing typical barewood The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  22. 22. Excessive axillary flowering, with poor qualityspurs, particularly towards the base of the shoot The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  23. 23. Tree manipulation in relation to barewood1) Prevention of flowering on one-year-old wood on newly planted trees in the orchard by using GA sprays in the nursery2) Reinvigoration of blind buds in the orchard using local application of thidiazuronIn both cases we were using physiological understanding in our approach to this problem The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  24. 24. Effects of GA on flowering and subsequent spur development• GA3 at 400 mg l-1 applied on 3 January and 30 January on trees in their last season in the nursery, resulted in a 46% reduction in flowering the following spring.• One year later the treated trees showed a 41% increase in density of spur and terminal flower clusters along the feathers.• So by reducing the axillary flowering, we had allowed vegetative buds to develop into spurs. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  25. 25. Extinct spursBlind buds The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  26. 26. Effect of timing, product and concentration on % envigorated buds of ‘Scifresh’/M.9 BA = benzyladenine, TDZ = thidiazuron Spray Conc. Weeks in relation to bud break Mean (mg l-1) -2 0 +2 +4 Control 6 BA 500 7 5 9 8 7 BA 2500 3 8 10 7 7 TDZ 500 26 13 8 7 12 TDZ 2500 79 64 69 54 66 Mean 21 17 20 15P for effect of chemical = <0.001: P for effect of timing = 0.100;P for interaction = 0.004Simplified from Palmer et al. (2005) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  27. 27. TDZ (2500ppm) applied 3.5 weeks before budbreaktaken 7.7 weeks after treatment. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  28. 28. Treated on the left with 2500 mg L-1 TDZ the previous year. Untreated on the right.The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  29. 29. Carbon acquisition:light into total dry matter The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  30. 30. The whole apple tree responds dynamically to changes in incident light 8 400 CO2 uptake Solar radiation Incident solar radiation PAR (W m ) 7 -2-1 6 300CO2 exchange rate g h 5 4 200 3 2 100 1 0 0 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Time of day The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  31. 31. Relationship between intercepted solar radiation and dry matter production 25 Total dry matter production (t ha ) -1 sugar beet 20 15 potatoes barley 10 apples 5 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 -2 Intercepted solar radiation (GJ m )Redrawn from Monteith (1977) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  32. 32. Seasonal pattern of light interception by ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple in New Zealand 35 Mean 5 day solar radiation (MJ m d ) -1 50 -2 30 40 25 Light interception (%) 20 30 15 20 10 10 5 0 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 Time from September 15 (days)Redrawn from Palmer et al. (2002) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  33. 33. Relationship between seasonal light interception and total dry matter production for apple 30 Total dry matter production (t ha ) Royal Gala Braeburn -1 25 Fuji UK data 20 15 10 5 0 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 -2 Light interception (MJ m PAR)From Palmer et al. (2002) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  34. 34. Factors influencing light interception Site factors – what light is available 1. latitude 2. cloudiness 3. frost-free period Tree factors – how we capture the light 1. leaf area index 2. tree height 3. row orientation 4. tree width 5. cultivar The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  35. 35. Relationship between LAI and light interception 100 90 80Light interception % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Leaf area index The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  36. 36. Light interception has proved to be avery useful physiological tool tocompare different production systemswith different tree heights, rowspacings and tree pruning and trainingtreatments.Light interception sets the upper limitfor production. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  37. 37. Harvest index:total dry matter into fruit dry matter The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  38. 38. Harvest indexHarvest index is the proportion of the total drymatter production harvested in the fruit.It is determined primarily by:1. crop load2. the strength of the alternative sinks for carbohydrate, particularly vegetative vigour. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  39. 39. Effect of crop load on partitioning of dry matter of ‘Crispin’/M.27 apple trees. 100 90 80 % dry matter increment 70 Fruit 60 50 40 Leaf 30 20 Wood 10 Root 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 -2 Number of fruit/leaf area (fruit m )Palmer, 1993 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  40. 40. Commercially, our harvest index may be less than that physiological possible because of:1) young trees2) bienniality3) reduced crop load to achieve our desired fruit size profile. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  41. 41. Effect of crop load on partitioning of dry matter into fruit, ‘Crispin’/M.27 450 400 Mean fruit weight (g) 350 300 250 200 150 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Partitioning to fruit (%)Data of 1982 taken from Palmer (1992) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  42. 42. Nearly all of our recent changes to treemanagement have encouraged anincrease in harvest index e.g.1. dwarfing rootstocks2. minimal pruning3. tying down4. PGRsAll by reducing vegetative vigour. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  43. 43. Apple tree growth control by rootstocks The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  44. 44. A two year old tree of ‘Peasgood Nonsuch’ apple on M.27 rootstock, showing a very high harvest indexThe New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  45. 45. Harvest indexWe can consistently achieve up to 70%harvest index, for trees at maturity.Our limitations may be commercial or due toproblems with bienniality.I do not believe we have reached the limit ofthe biological system, particularly in relationto the speed at which we reach fullproduction. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  46. 46. Fruit quality:fruit dry matter into saleable product The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  47. 47. Fruit quality: fruit dry matter into saleable productThis of course is the critical stage for we need topresent the customer fruit that is attractive, withgood texture and flavour that is typical of thecultivar.We are now dealing with hydrated dry matter in aready to eat, attractive, healthy, edible package.There are, however, two key factors that wehave to get right – light distribution and fruitdry matter concentration The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  48. 48. Generalised effects of shade on apple fruit qualityShade decreases: fruit weight fruit red colour soluble solids concentration bitter pit incidence and severity sunburn skin russet flower bud numbers fruit set The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  49. 49. Shady business is therefore to bediscouraged in the orchard, formore reasons than one! The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  50. 50. Certainly one of the major drivers in theadoption of intensive systems has been thedesire for better light distribution within ourtree canopies.However, intensive systems of production donot necessarily mean we avoid the problemsof shading within our canopies.Never forget the link between light and fruitquality. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  51. 51. ‘Fiesta’/M.9 three-row bed The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  52. 52. Shaded fruit within the canopy The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  53. 53. Recent ways of manipulating light in the orchardHail netting1. need minimum shade coupled with effective hail control.2. lighter colours increase scattered light.Reflective mulch1. newer materials now available that can be run over with tractors.2. importance of diffuse scattering. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  54. 54. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  55. 55. The use and the misuse of lightHigh light interception is essential for high yieldper hectare.Good light distribution is essential for highquality fruit.A successful system is one that combines bothof these.Maximum use with minimum misuse The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  56. 56. Fruit dry matter and qualityThe packaging of dry matter into a fresh fruitform is one of the most critical parts of fruitgrowing.Although eye appeal remains important in manyfruit, particularly colour and freedom fromblemish, taste is becoming increasinglyimportant. Initial purchase is based on eyeappeal but repeat purchase is based on theeating experience.Our production target should therefore be yield,fruit size, appearance AND eating quality(maturity and dry matter concentration). The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  57. 57. Fruit dry matter and qualityEating quality with apples is complex, ascrispness and juiciness are vitalrequirements, as well as taste.Each cultivar has its own characteristictexture, flavour and taste.Taste with apples has, until recently, largelybeen determined by fruit maturity, although forsome cultivars a minimum soluble solidsconcentration is being specified. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  58. 58. Fruit dry matter and qualityCarbohydrates (starch and sugars) and acidsmake up the major proportion of the fruit drymatter in many fleshy fruit.Therefore the accumulation of carbohydrateinto the fruit is the key process thatdetermines the final fruit quality.Traditionally, however, carbon acquisition anddistribution have not been closely integratedinto the development of fruit quality. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  59. 59. Composition of the edible portion of several fruit (USDA website) Fruit dry % of dry matterFruit matter Sugar + Fibre (%) starchApple 14 70 17Kiwifruit 17 55 20Pear 16 60 20Apricot 14 70 15Peach 11 75 13Melon 10 80 8Tomato 5.5 50 22 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  60. 60. Royal Gala from 4 orchards in Nelson and four orchards in Hawke’s Bay 14 Hawkes Bay Soluble solids after 12 weeks storage ( Brix) 2 Nelson r = 0.41 o 13 12 11 10 11 12 13 o Soluble solids at harvest ( Brix)From Palmer et al. (2010) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  61. 61. Royal Gala from 4 orchards in Nelson and four orchards in Hawke’s Bay 14 Hawkes Bay Nelson Soluble solids at harvest ( Brix) 13 2 r = 0.32 o 12 11 10 12 13 14 15 16 Dry matter concentration at harvest (%)From Palmer et al. (2010) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  62. 62. Royal Gala from 4 orchards in Nelson and four orchards in Hawke’s Bay 14 Soluble solids after 6 weeks storage ( Brix) Hawkes Bay Nelson 2 r = 0.53 o 13 12 11 10 12 13 14 15 16 Dry matter concentration at harvest (%)From Palmer et al. (2010) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  63. 63. Royal Gala from 4 orchards in Nelson and four orchards in Hawke’s Bay Soluble solids after 12 weeks storage ( Brix) 14 2 r = 0.82 Hawkes Bay Nelson o 13 12 11 10 12 13 14 15 16 Dry matter concentration at harvest (%)From Palmer et al. (2010) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  64. 64. Relationship between fruit dry matter concentration and soluble solids after 12 weeks storage of ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘Scifresh’. Samples from Nelson and HB 16 2 Royal Gala r = 0.97 Scifresh 15 Soluble solids ( Brix) 14 o 13 12 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 Fruit dry matter concentration (%)From Palmer et al. (2010) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  65. 65. Apple fruit dry matter concentration (DMC) and soluble solids r2 = 0.93 ‘Royal Gala’ fruit from 3 orchards and two picking dates Redrawn from McGlone et al. (2003) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  66. 66. Consumers’ scores for ‘Royal Gala’ apples from different DMC categories after 10–12 weeks of cool storage. 100 100 8 a 80 ab 80 a b Likelihood of Purchase % 6 b b a Acceptability % 60 60 Liking Score b b 4 40 40 2 20 20 0 0 0 Low Moderate High Low Moderate High Low Moderate High DMC Category DMC Category DMC CategoryFrom Palmer et al. 2010 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  67. 67. Fruit quality and fruit maturityThe traditional harvest indices are indicators ofharvest maturity; fruit DMC can be viewed as acomplementary fruit quality index.A high DMC fruit will only achieve its highsensory potential if it is harvested at the correctstage of maturity and then stored in a manner inwhich firmness and acidity are optimallyconserved. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  68. 68. The control of DMCIf fruit dry matter concentration is auseful fruit quality index, then the keyphysiological question is then how dowe control and manipulate it to achieveoptimal fruit quality? The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  69. 69. Key fluxes into and within apple fruit Sor = sorbitol Fru = fructose Glu = glucose Suc = sucrose The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  70. 70. Where to from here? The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  71. 71. Growing to product specification The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  72. 72. Future physiological challenges – precision horticulture1. “Every bud counts”2. Improved rootstocks with resistance to biotic and edaphic factors for apples and a range of dwarfing, easily propagated Pyrus rootstocks to revolutionise the pear industry.3. Growing to product specification. Consistent high fruit quality at point of sale, with greater emphasis on eating quality rather than cosmetic appearance.4. Increased development of multidisciplinary teams including molecular biologists.5. Orchard systems in a wider context. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  73. 73. Future physiological challenges – precision horticulture1. “Every bud counts”2. Improved rootstocks with resistance to biotic and edaphic factors for apples and a range of dwarfing, easily propagated Pyrus rootstocks to revolutionise the pear industry.3. Growing to product specification. Consistent high fruit quality at point of sale, with greater emphasis on eating quality rather than cosmetic appearance.4. Increased development of multidisciplinary teams including molecular biologists.5. Orchard systems in a wider context. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  74. 74. Future physiological challenges – precision horticulture1. “Every bud counts”2. Improved rootstocks with resistance to biotic and edaphic factors for apples and a range of dwarfing, easily propagated Pyrus rootstocks to revolutionise the pear industry.3. Growing to product specification. Consistent high fruit quality at point of sale, with greater emphasis on eating quality rather than cosmetic appearance.4. Increased development of multidisciplinary teams including molecular biologists.5. Orchard systems in a wider context. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  75. 75. Future physiological challenges – precision horticulture1. “Every bud counts”2. Improved rootstocks with resistance to biotic and edaphic factors for apples and a range of dwarfing, easily propagated Pyrus rootstocks to revolutionise the pear industry.3. Growing to product specification. Consistent high fruit quality at point of sale, with greater emphasis on eating quality rather than cosmetic appearance.4. Increased development of multidisciplinary teams including molecular biologists.5. Orchard systems in a wider context. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  76. 76. Future physiological challenges – precision horticulture1. “Every bud counts”2. Improved rootstocks with resistance to biotic and edaphic factors for apples and a range of dwarfing, easily propagated Pyrus rootstocks to revolutionise the pear industry.3. Growing to product specification. Consistent high fruit quality at point of sale, with greater emphasis on eating quality rather than cosmetic appearance.4. Increased development of multidisciplinary teams including molecular biologists.5. Orchard systems in a wider context. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  77. 77. Our traditional view of the orchard systemModified from Bruce Barritt The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  78. 78. Our enlarged view of the orchard system Sustainability Carbon footprint Water footprint The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  79. 79. SummaryI believe physiology has aided the development offruit growing in many ways, as I hope thispresentation has illustrated.But the challenges that are currently with us and willpresent themselves in the future will require evenmore physiological input. Our fruit growingindustries need to continue to produce desirable,healthy, saleable fruit, produced in sustainable,reliable and predictable ways.Only by understanding the way in which the treedynamically responds to its environment and itsown internal regulation can we achieve those goals. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  80. 80. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research LimitedThank you www.plantandfood.comJohn.Palmer@plantandfood.co.nz The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited

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