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Fertilization icm-vacaria-toselli

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The role of nutrition in the development of high density orchards in Italy …

The role of nutrition in the development of high density orchards in Italy
Moreno Toselli
Dipartimento Colture Arboree, University of Bologna
moreno.toselli@unibo.it


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  • 1. The role of nutrition in the development of high density orchards in Italy Moreno Toselli Dipartimento Colture Arboree, University of Bologna moreno.toselli@unibo.it
  • 2. Objectives• High and constant production• High fruit quality•Environment preservation
  • 3. Foto S. Michele A. A:
  • 4. features• rate = tree request• time of applicationaccording to uptake kinetics•Avoid deficiencies and excess•Maximize nutrient efficiency
  • 5. N deficiency
  • 6. Knowledge• environment of cultivation(soil & climate)
  • 7. Clay-Loam Sandy
  • 8. Water vs N Leaching 4 3NO3- N Flow Rate 3 (kg/day/ha) 2 R2 = 0.91 2 1 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 Water Flow Rate (tons/day/ha)
  • 9. Sandy soil of North America
  • 10. NO3-N (kg/ha) 0 10 20 30 40 50 30-Jan 18-Feb 05-Mar 19-Mar 01-Apr 15-Apr 28-Apr 13-May 28-May 10-Jun 24-Jun N LeachingDate kg 140.7 08-Jul 22-Jul 05-Aug 19-Aug 02-Sep 16-Sep 30-Sep 21-Oct 04-Nov
  • 11. Knowledge• environment of cultivation(soil & climate)• genotype (rootstock &variety)
  • 12. Tagliavini e Malaguti
  • 13. Trunks Gala/M9 cm100 cm 135 100 cm Root > 2mm Tagliavini and Malaguti
  • 14. Optimal leaf nutrient concentration in Emilia- Romagna (Fuji)nutrient Petal drop1 fruit set summer (%) N 3.4 - 3.9 2.4 - 2.8 2.4 - 2.7 P 0.2 - 0.35 0.18 - 0.3 0.15 - 0.3 K 1.2 - 1.8 1.2 - 1.7 0.8 - 1.4 Ca 0.8 - 1.3 1.0 - 1.3 1.2 - 1.6 Mg 0.2 - 0.3 0.25 - 0.3 0.2 - 0.4 : spur leaflets 1
  • 15. Optimal leaf nutrient concentration in Emilia- Romagna (Fuji)nutrient Petal drop1 fruit set summer(ppm)Fe 100 - 150 70 -100 70 - 95Mn 11 - 220 15 - 45 22 - 55Cu 13 - 40 8 - 15 8 - 16Zn 30 - 70 28 - 50 20 - 301 : spur leaflets
  • 16. Leaf N concentration in Soth Tyrol of Italy (Golden, Fuji, and others varieties) 4 Fuji - Ferrara 3N (% SS) 2 1 0 50 100 150 200 gg. dopo la piena fioritura Days after full bloom (Stimpfl e Aichner, 2002)
  • 17. P leaf concentration in S T of Italy (Golden, Fuji) 0.5 0.4 Fuji - FerraraP (% SS) 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 50 100 150 200 Days after la piena fioritura gg. dopo full bloom (Stimpfl e Aichner, 2002)
  • 18. K leaf in S T of Italy (Golden, Fuji) 3 Fuji - Ferrara 2K (% SS) 1 0 0 50 100 150 200 Days dopo la piena fioritura gg. after full bloom (Stimpfl e Aichner, 2002)
  • 19. Knowledge• Environment (soil and climate)• Genotype (rootstock & variety)• Nutrient request (amount and kynetics)
  • 20. KEY QUESTIONS• AMOUNT OF FERTILIZER• APPLICATION TIME
  • 21. + N Balance -SOURCE Uptaken•Atmospheric • Leaves•NH4+ adsorbed • pruning wood•Irrigation water • permanent wood•Fertilizers • FruitsRISERVES LOST•OM •Leackage•Microbs •Volatilization
  • 22. Fruits Pruning biomass (21) (17) Fallen leaves (16)skeleton (6) (60) (data VI year SOIL kg N/ha)
  • 23. Fruits(42) Pruning biomass (11) Fallen leaves (27) Skeleton (4) (84) (data VI year SOIL kg K/ha)
  • 24. Fruits Pruning biomass Fallen leavesSkeleton Ca (kg Ca/ha) in 6 years Soil
  • 25. Amount of nutrients removed by apple trees after 6 years and partitioning to tree organsnutrient total skeleton leaves pruning fruits (kg/ha) (%) (%) % (%)N 358 30 21 25P 66 33 22 28K 435 15 11 40Ca 489 30 17 3Mg 105 19 13 29
  • 26. Nutrient removed by apple (kg/ha)Organ N P K CaO MgOFruits 20 5 50 4 2leaves 43 2.6 45 72 18pruning 10 1.6 3 21 18wood 15 3.4 12 36 2others 10 1.2 12 3 1Total 99 13.8 122 136 41 Disciplinari Provincia Trento., 1992
  • 27. Removal (kg/ha)SPECIE N P K Ca Mgkiwifruit 130-140 15-20 100-110 200-235 10-12cherry 90-100 10-20 85-100 90-95 15-18Kaki 150-170 15-20 115-125 100-115 18-21apple 40-90 10-20 115-150 120-135 18-21pear 70-90 5-10 65-85 135-140 12-15peach 90-150 10-20 100-150 110-130 21-24grape 60-100 10-15 65-85 40-90 9-15 Scudellari, 1998
  • 28. N uptake kineticsspecies time % of N total uptake grape Before full bloom 25 Full bloom – veraison 50 Veraison – harvest 25 peach Before mid May 10 Mid May – end August 65 End August – leaf fall 25 plum Before April 15 May – end August 60 End August – leaf fall 25
  • 29. approx 90-95% of leaf N comes from N remobilization ( Neilsen et al., 1997 )
  • 30. 18 Leaf N trend 16 14 12 10 8N (mg/leaf) 6 pre-harvest 96 4 bloom97 2 0 8 29 72 94 115 143 178 Days after bloom
  • 31. N accumulation in Mutsu apple 140 120 100N (mg/fruit) 80 60 pre-harvest 96 40 bloom 97 20 29 72 94 115 143 Day after bloom
  • 32. POTTED WALNUTTIME OF NUE (%)FERTILIZATION 7 days after End of trial fertilization May 2008Bud burst 4.19 66.4Pistillate flower 21.6 60.0Late summer 34.5 69.1Significance * ns
  • 33. SOIL N AVAILABILITY NO3- - N (mg kg-1) *soil volume (0.8 m*10000 m2) / 2Soil apparent specific weigth (1.2-1.4) AVAILABILITY kg N/ha
  • 34. Estimation of soil NO3- -N 1 ppm = 6 kg N/ha 10 ppm = 60 kg N/ha 20 ppm = 120 kg N/ha
  • 35. N (kg/ha) 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 Darchini Folli Gasparri Soil N Miserocchi Balella Grazianifarm Melandri Applied N Ragazzini Fruit thinning Calderoni Bubani Calderoni Mongardi Montanari Frega Zaffagnini
  • 36. Compost, by-productsRicycled organic waste
  • 37. Heat NH3 CO2 H2OMix of organic O2 O2 Compostcompounds(weight = 100) (weight < 50)Organic matter Stabilized O. M.Carbohydrates, proteins, fats (easily degradable) partially humifiedCellulose, hemicelluloses (degradable) MineralsLignin (slowly degradable)Minerals WaterWater MicroorganismsMicroorganisms
  • 38. Organic fertilizer composition COW COMPOST MANURED.W. (%) 33 82O.M. (%) 42 47N (% p.s.) 1.6 2.4C (% p.s.) 27 23C/N 17 10Total P (% p.s.) 2.0 0.6Total K (% p.s.) 2.4 0.9
  • 39. 3 2.5Total N (‰) 2 1.5 1 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Soil OM (%) Control Mineral CM spring Compost spring Compost 5 Compost 10
  • 40. TREE YIELD (kg)TREATMENT 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 totalControl 31.8 46.3 56.4 b 38.0 b 25.7 b 69.7 44.5 49.9 353.3 bMineral 32.4 48.1 68.8 a 51.4 a 27.6 b 62.5 42.6 54.1 384.3 abCow Manure 33.6 45.9 63.7 ab 39.8 b 32.5 ab 61.1 47.8 56.3 380.7 abCompost spring 32.9 50.2 60.2 ab 41.5 b 32.8 ab 62.6 49.7 53.2 383.0 abCompost 5 32.1 51.5 60.4 ab 40.2 b 25.6 b 62.5 47.7 54.1 370.6 abCompost 10 31.9 50.5 66.6 a 43.5 b 37.8 a 64.7 49.2 59.1 403.4 aSignificance n.s. n.s. ** * *** n.s. n.s. n.s. *
  • 41. Bitter pit recorrence• Genetic suskeptibility: Braeburn, Jonagold, Fuji, Stark D• Low crop load•Early or late harvest• Nutrient antagonism: Ca vs K, Mg e NH4+• Adverse environmental conditions for root growth (low temp., soil moisture, drought stress, nutrient deficiency)• High tree vigor (winter pruning, water and N high availability)
  • 42. Ca: 157 ppm Ca: 233K: 8232 K: 7751K/Ca: 54 K/Ca: 34 Bitter pit in Fuji
  • 43. N, K and K released by leaves 120N, K & Ca remaining(% of initial content) 100 80 N 60 Ca 40 K 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 weeks Tagliavini et al., 2007
  • 44. Ca and bitter pit 50 40% fruit bitter pit 30 20 10 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ca (mg/100 g FW) (Perring & Preston, 1974)
  • 45. Flower pollination and fruit Can. seeds/ Ca Mg K fruit (ppm) (ppm) (%) 0-1 174 284 0,68 2-3 208 278 0,66 4-5 215 279 0,65 >5 223 280 0,66 ( Bramlage et al., 1990)
  • 46. Fruit Ca accumulation 12 Stage Recommended sprays one 10 8Ca (mg/fruit) 6 Gala Spartan 4 Fuji 2 0 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 June July August September October Neilsen et al., 2001
  • 47. CaCl2 penetration in Golden D. fruit 45 120 100 80Penetration (%) 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Days after full bloom (Schlegel e Schöenherr, 2002)
  • 48. fertilizer POD Solubility weight (%) (g l-1) (g mol-1)CaCl2 . 6 H2O 33 2790 219Ca(NO3)2 . 4 H2O 56 6600 236NH4NO3 63 1183 80KH2PO4 95 33 136KNO3 95 133 101 Schönherr, 2002
  • 49. At bud breack root uptake may be impaired and N storage not sufficient
  • 50. Leaf age 16 * 14 *NDF uptake (mg m-2) 12 * * 10 8 6 Apical 4 Basal 2 0 1 5 24 48 120 Ore
  • 51. 19% www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de
  • 52. Mg deficiency
  • 53. Courtesy of Dr. Tagliavini
  • 54. Pear Mg MnFertilizer (mg kg-1 ss) (mg kg-1 ss)Control 0.34b 70aSulphate (0.48g/l) 0.38a 864cComplexed 0.38a 716bSignificance *** *N. Treatments 4 0.33 469 7 0.38 631Significance *** *
  • 55. Fertigation allows the optimal fertilizer distribution
  • 56. Fertigation benefits: Nutrient application in the soil with the highest root density Minimize the risk of deficiency or excess Increase mobility of nutrient such as K, P, Mg High nutrient efficiency = low rate = low leaching rate (NO3-N)  Low costs  Low environmental impact
  • 57. Clay soil loam soil sandy soilpepperfriends.com netafimitalia.com
  • 58. Fast and constant yield• The restricted volume of soil wet by drip affect tree physiology• High number of secondary roots and root tips with an increase of absorbing surface and root:soil interface• Higher nutrient and water uptake efficiency• Increse synthesis of endogenous hormons like Cytokinines and Gibberellins that promote flower differentiation (Bravdo, 2000).
  • 59. Critical points fertilizer: pure, soluble and mixable pH: 5.5-7, higher pH = Ca and Mg salt precipitation Concentration of the solution <2‰ Sulphates react with Ca2+ to make gypsum (CaSO4), that precipitate micronutrients (Fe & Zn) precipitate with phosphates and carbonates
  • 60. Water solubility
  • 61. Fertilizer mixability
  • 62. Apple fertigation (kg/ha) N P K MgAPRIL 2 2.8 1.0 0MAY 6 8.4 3.0 0JUNE 15 2.3 8.2 5.9JULY 15 4.9 24.3 3.0AUGUST 10 4.8 32.0 1.1SEPTEMBER 8 1.8 31.5 0total 56 25 100 10
  • 63. Conclusions• Apple trees have low N requirement• High K requiremenet• Fertigation increases nutrientefficiency• Foliar sprays (N, Ca, Mg, K) canincrease nutrient efficiency• Application of high quality compostedorganic material is recommendable
  • 64. N-NO3- (kg/ha) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 21-May 03-Jun 18-Jun 02-Jul 16-Jul 30-Jul 13-Aug 27-AugDate kg 51.7 10-Sep 24-Sep 08-Oct 22-Oct Nitrate Leaching in 1996 05-Nov 19-Nov 03-Dec 17-Dec
  • 65. Leaf applied N partitioning Leaves Fruits Shoot Twigs TotalDW (g) 12.2 41.3 10.7 - 3.5 1.64 0.44 0.1 2.25 N (mg/organ)15 0.08 73 19 5 100 N (%)15 3
  • 66. SalinitySecndary salinization, application of salts with irrigationFertigation increases E.C., that must be <1,8dS/m