FruitBreedomics 1st Stakeholder Day meeting 20120207 RBIPH apple breedingPresentation Transcript
Apple breeding in Holovousy Jan Blazek Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy Ltd. Holovousy 1 508 01 Horice, Czech Republic firstname.lastname@example.org
History of the institute started1951 in this place
Milestoness of the institute• Research institute for Pomology was established at Holovousy in 1951• It was transferred under Czechoslovak Academy of Science in 1956.• In 1977 it was included as independent enterprise into horticultural company Sempra Praha (Seeds of Prague)• In 1997 this institute was transferred into present share holding company with 51 % ownership of Sempra Praha
Location of Holovousy
Location of Holovousy• A small village Holovousy is located in East Bohemia region about 100 km eastwards from Prague• The nearest town named Horice is about 4 km aside• The altitude of the place is 320 m a.s.l.• The mean year rainfall is 660 mm
Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy Ltd.• Total no. of employers: 75• Research workers: 20• Technicians: 27• Total land acreage: 90 ha• Total orchard acreage: 60 ha• Glasshouses and other• covered areas: 1,5 ha
Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy Ltd. - 5 departments• Economics• Germ plasma (cultivar collections of fruit species)• Genetics and breeding• Plant protection• Growing technologies of fruit crops
Fruit species involved in breeding programme of RBIP Holovousy:• Apples – decisively the most important• Sweet cherries• Plums• Apricots – only for local conditions• Pears – more or less in silence now
Apple breeding in RBIP Holovousy• This program started in the middle sixties of the last century Present extent:• Glasshouse and nurseries - 1,2 ha• Seedlings in fruiting stage - 5,9 ha• Pre-selected seedlings in the second and third levels of testing trials – 1,8 ha• Number of trees in fruiting stage - 22 695
Resistance to scab is the main objective of our selections at earliest stage of seedlings
Tolerance to powdery mildew is the secondobjective of our selections at early stage of seedlings
Apple breeding: present one year extent (mean numbers from 2000-2011)• No. of parental cross combinations: .............................62• Total number of pollinated flowers:............................8957• Number of pollinated flowers in main crosses ....up to 500• No. of pollinated flowers in the first (test) crosses: 30- 50• Total number of seeds obtained from the crosses.....15 786• No. of young seedlings after pre-selection (scab): ......3 732• No. of two years old seedlings for budding on M 9:…..1 340
Apple seedlings in the screen house
Apple seedlings in the screen house
Apple breeding: main objectives of the selection• Resistance or tolerance to diseases• Fruit quality• Fruit attractiveness• Fruit storage potential• Productivity and regularity of the yields• Tree performance (growth habit)• Columnar growth habit
New apple cultivars developed in RBIP Holovousy Period No. of registered new cultivars before 1995 5 1996 - 2000 8 2001 -2005 15 since 2006 13 still in the state variety trials 14
Summer apple Julia
Julia (HL 461)Parents: Quinte x DiscoveryTree growth: compact like, rather mediumTime of flowering: earlyTime of ripening: end of JulyTime of consuming: 2 weeksProductivity: early and highDiseases: tolerant both to scab and mildewOther properties: resistant to bruising of fruit.
Summer apple Julia
Summer apple Miodar
Summer apple MiodarOrigin: Mio x QuinteTime of ripening: one week after ´Julia´Medium level of resistance to diseases and highproductivity.Very attractive fruits of medium or large size andquite regular mostly globose shape.80% of its surface covered by washed bright pinkred over-color.Fruiting is precocious, trees bear high and mostlyregular yields.
Summer apple Mivibe
MivibeOrigin: Mio x Vista BellaTime of ripening: middle of AugustAttractive fruits, high inner quality.Trees are partly resistant to diseases.Yields are early, medium high and quite regular.Fruit has rather large sizeNearly all its surface is covered by bright redover-colour distributed mostly as a washedblush
AngoldParents: A 28/39 (Antonovka o.p.) x Golden D.Time of ripening: one week before Golden Del.Fruit size large, attractiveFlesh cream, crisp, juicy, taste harmonic sub-acid to sweetTime of consuming: December – FebruaryTree growth: middle vigorous with a tendency to self fruit thinningProductivity: early and highDiseases: resistant to scab (welcome alternative to Vf type), slightly susceptible to mildewRemarks: very suitable for ecological systems of apple production especially for colder regions
RubinstepParents: Clivia x RubínTime of harvest: two weeks before Golden Del.Fruit: attractive, middle size (150-200 g), flat globose (obloied), orange redFlesh yellowish, very crisp, juicy, taste excellent , sweetTime of consuming: November - FebruaryTree: vigour below medium, habit upright to spreadingProductivity: very early, moderate to high, regularDiseases: medium to less susceptible both to scab andpowdery mildewRemarks: apple with remarkable high fruit quality. It is more suitable for colder regions of apple growing with respect to prolonged storage potential of fruits
FragranceParents: ´Florina´ x ´Jarka´.Time of harvest: similar or shortly after Golden DeliciousFruit: attractive, middle size (170-220 g), round or globular conical regular shape, mostly red blush on thegreater part of fruit surfaceFlesh cream, crisp, taste is excellent, pleasantly flavoured, sub-acidly sweetTime of consuming: February - MayTree: vigour medium, standard growth habitYields: precocious, productive and regularDiseases: It is resistant to scab. Incidence of powderymildew is low.Remarks: Fruits are tolerant to storage disorders anddiseases
FelicitaParents: ´Jonadel´ x ´Rubín´Time of harvest: one weak before or at the same time like Golden DeliciousFruit: attractive, above mean size (180-230 g), conical regular shape, pattern of over color weaklydefined flush with stripes.Flesh cream, crisp medium firm and juicy. Taste is predominately sweet, with a pleasant flavor, very good.Time of consuming: December - MarchTree: vigor medium, spreading growth habitYields: precocious, productive and regularDiseases: very low susceptibility to scab and powdery mildew
RuclaParents: Clivia x RubínTime of harvest: one week before Golden Del.Fruit: attractive, middle size (150-200 g), globose toglobose conical, purple redFlesh cream, very crisp, juicy, taste excellentTime of consuming: February-AprilTree: vigour medium, habit spreading to droopingProductivity: early, medium level, regularDiseases: medium to less susceptible both to scaband powdery mildewRemarks: apple with remarkable high fruit quality. It is more suitable for colder regions of applegrowing with respect to prolonged storage potentialof fruits
MeteorParents: Megumi x MelroseTime of harvest: similar or shortly after Golden DeliciousFruit: attractive, large (over 200 g), round or globular conicalregular shape, purple red, blushed or striped nearly the wholesurfaceFlesh is cream, firm and juicy and the texture is fine. The taste is sub-acid sweet, pleasantly flavored, excellent.Storage life: Outstanding mostly till AugustTrees are medium vigorous, medium susceptible to scab andmildew. They start bearing relatively late and are medium butregular productiveRemarks: Fruit thinning is mostly not necessary and shares of f fancy and extra fancy classes in picked fruits are high. Fruits are resistant to storage diseases.
Columnar tree growth habit : Slendera
SlenderaParents: Florina x TelamonTime of harvest: similar to Golden DeliciousFruit: medium size (120 - 175 g), globular conical regular and little ribbed shape, red, striped or partlyblushed on the main surfaceFlesh is white, medium firm. The taste is sub-acid sweet, overall good.Storage life: December – FebruaryTrees: columnar growth habit, vigorous, resistant to scab and mildew. Fruiting is very precocious but with strong tendency to biennial fruiting habitRemarks: Fruit thinning or other methods of limited flower pollination are necessary to be used forregular cropping of trees.