26 genetic diversity-m.j aranzana
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    26 genetic diversity-m.j aranzana 26 genetic diversity-m.j aranzana Presentation Transcript

    • Apple and peach genetic variability Maria José Aranzana
    • Phenotypic diversity
    • Genetic diversity  Genetic diversity is the heritable variability  Is the basis of selection and crop improvement  An important resource in plant breeding
    • www.biotechlearn.org.nz Genetic diversity should be safely conserved and efficiently used
    • Reduction of genetic variability: domestication and selection Wild Adaptation Domestication Selection The extent and distribution of genetic diversity depends on its evolution, past bottlenecks and human factors
    • Genetic diversity Nikolai Vavilov plants were not domesticated somewhere in the world at random but there are regions where the domestication started. The center of origin is also considered the center of diversity.
    • Centres of origin of food and agricultural areas J. Diamond (2002). Nature 418
    • Apple genetic variability by geographic origin
    • FruitBreedomics Study genetic and phenotypic diversity in peach and apple germplasm collections
    • FruitBreedomics Germplasm collections
    • UK; 2237 FR; 1054 BE; 1314 CZ; 256 IT; 421 SWE;195 Selection of accessions in germplasm collections UK 310 FR 274 BE 296 CZ 253 IT 232 SWE 195 5,477 accessions in germplasm collections 1,560 accessions with phenotypic observations APPLE Removing synonyms and triploids IT-RO; 943 IT-MI; 575 FR; 764 ISP; 303 CH; 300 2,885 accessions in germplasm collections 1,296 accessions with phenotypic observations Removing synonyms and selecting diversity PEACH IT-RO 178 IT-MI 140 FR 343 SP 353 CH 282
    • Phenotypic data in the FruitBreedomics database APPLE 37,818 informative data entries in the phenotypic database PEACH UK FR BE CZ IT FRIT-RO IT-MI SP CH 81,206 informative data entries in the phenotypic database
    • Molecular markers Traditionally, variability has been described visually, however, over the past few years molecular markers have been used  Allow a more efficient breeding by the use of genetic markers that ‘tag’ traits of interest that sometimes are difficult to select for
    • Study of peach genetic variability in FruitBreedomics germplasm collections
    •  1300 varieties genotyped with the 9K IPSC SNPs chip PEACH GENETIC VARIABILITY
    • PEACH GENETIC VARIABILITY Most representative K is 3: • Occidental breeding material (352 accessions) • Chinese / oriental material (58 accessions) • Occidental old / non breeding material (165 accessions) • Admixed accessions [Q < 0.8] (665 accessions) OCCIDENTAL ORIENTAL
    • CH03g12z4.0 Hi02c0725.0 HB11AG38.0 CHVf156.0 CH05g0877.0 LG01 CH02f061.0 CN49313924.0 CH02c0642.0 CH05e0351.0 CH03d0167.0 LG02 CH03e033.0 CH03g0724.0 Hi03d0643.0 GD1255.0 AU22365776.0 Ms14h0394.0 CH03g12y111.0 LG03 NZ05g080.0 CH04e022.0 Hi23g0218.0 CH05d0232.0 Hi07b0255.0 CH02c02b73.0 LG04 Hi09b045.0 Hi04a0820.0 CH03a0934.0 CH05e0645.0 Hi04d0269.0 CH05f0681.0 CH02a0890.0 CH04e03108.0 LG05 HB09TC9.0 CH03d0723.0 CH03d1240.0 CH05a0578.0 LG06 CN4447945.0 Hi03a1026.0 CH04e0535.0 Ms06c0954.0 Hi05b0974.0 LG07 CH01c0618.0 CH01f0933.0 CH01h1052.0 Hi23g1262.0 LG08 NH0029a12.0 CH01f03b24.0 Hi05e0742.0 CH01h0259.0 CN44454269.0 CH05d0873.0 LG09 CH03g12z4.0 Hi02c0725.0 HB11AG38.0 CHVf156.0 CH05g0877.0 LG01 CH03g12z4.0 Hi02c0725.0 HB11AG38.0 CHVf156.0 CH05g0877.0 LG01 CH02f061.0 CN49313924.0 CH02c0642.0 CH05e0351.0 CH03d0167.0 LG02 CH02f061.0 CN49313924.0 CH02c0642.0 CH05e0351.0 CH03d0167.0 LG02 CH03e033.0 CH03g0724.0 Hi03d0643.0 GD1255.0 AU22365776.0 Ms14h0394.0 CH03g12y111.0 LG03 CH03e033.0 CH03g0724.0 Hi03d0643.0 GD1255.0 AU22365776.0 Ms14h0394.0 CH03g12y111.0 LG03 NZ05g080.0 CH04e022.0 Hi23g0218.0 CH05d0232.0 Hi07b0255.0 CH02c02b73.0 LG04 NZ05g080.0 CH04e022.0 Hi23g0218.0 CH05d0232.0 Hi07b0255.0 CH02c02b73.0 LG04 Hi09b045.0 Hi04a0820.0 CH03a0934.0 CH05e0645.0 Hi04d0269.0 CH05f0681.0 CH02a0890.0 CH04e03108.0 LG05 Hi09b045.0 Hi04a0820.0 CH03a0934.0 CH05e0645.0 Hi04d0269.0 CH05f0681.0 CH02a0890.0 CH04e03108.0 LG05 HB09TC9.0 CH03d0723.0 CH03d1240.0 CH05a0578.0 LG06 HB09TC9.0 CH03d0723.0 CH03d1240.0 CH05a0578.0 LG06 CN4447945.0 Hi03a1026.0 CH04e0535.0 Ms06c0954.0 Hi05b0974.0 LG07 CN4447945.0 Hi03a1026.0 CH04e0535.0 Ms06c0954.0 Hi05b0974.0 LG07 CH01c0618.0 CH01f0933.0 CH01h1052.0 Hi23g1262.0 LG08 CH01c0618.0 CH01f0933.0 CH01h1052.0 Hi23g1262.0 LG08 NH0029a12.0 CH01f03b24.0 Hi05e0742.0 CH01h0259.0 CN44454269.0 CH05d0873.0 LG09 NH0029a12.0 CH01f03b24.0 Hi05e0742.0 CH01h0259.0 CN44454269.0 CH05d0873.0 LG09 CH04c06z13.0 CH02b0714.0 CH02c1140.0 CH03d1150.0 CH04g09y64.0 CH02b03b81.0 Ms06g03104.0 LG10 CH04h020.0 Hi07d11x10.0 CH02d0831.0 CH04a1246.0 Hi16d0255.0 CH04g0773.0 LG11 CH05d0413.0 NZ28f0429.0 CH01g1245.0 CH04d0251.0 CH01f0255.0 CH03c0261.0 Hi07f0176.0 CH01d03z89.0 LG12 CH05h054.0 Hi04g0518.0 GD14740.0 NH009b70.0 LG13 CH05g07-10.0 CH01g0510.0 CH04c0719.0 U7894842.0 LG14 NZ02b018.0 CH03b0611.0 Hi03g0623.0 CH01d0837.0 Hi04c0555.0 CH02d1177.0 CH02c09110.0 LG15 CH02a038.0 CH05c0614.0 Hi04e0430.0 CH05a0447.0 CH04f1076.0 LG16 CH04c06y0.0 AT00017412.0 CH01h0125.0 Hi03c0535.0 Hi02f1255.0 Hi05c0674.0 CH05d0891.0 Hi07h02100.0 LG17 CH04c06z13.0 CH02b0714.0 CH02c1140.0 CH03d1150.0 CH04g09y64.0 CH02b03b81.0 Ms06g03104.0 LG10 CH04c06z13.0 CH02b0714.0 CH02c1140.0 CH03d1150.0 CH04g09y64.0 CH02b03b81.0 Ms06g03104.0 LG10 CH04h020.0 Hi07d11x10.0 CH02d0831.0 CH04a1246.0 Hi16d0255.0 CH04g0773.0 LG11 CH04h020.0 Hi07d11x10.0 CH02d0831.0 CH04a1246.0 Hi16d0255.0 CH04g0773.0 LG11 CH05d0413.0 NZ28f0429.0 CH01g1245.0 CH04d0251.0 CH01f0255.0 CH03c0261.0 Hi07f0176.0 CH01d03z89.0 LG12 CH05d0413.0 NZ28f0429.0 CH01g1245.0 CH04d0251.0 CH01f0255.0 CH03c0261.0 Hi07f0176.0 CH01d03z89.0 LG12 CH05h054.0 Hi04g0518.0 GD14740.0 NH009b70.0 LG13 CH05h054.0 Hi04g0518.0 GD14740.0 NH009b70.0 LG13 CH05g07-10.0 CH01g0510.0 CH04c0719.0 U7894842.0 LG14 CH05g07-10.0 CH01g0510.0 CH04c0719.0 U7894842.0 LG14 NZ02b018.0 CH03b0611.0 Hi03g0623.0 CH01d0837.0 Hi04c0555.0 CH02d1177.0 CH02c09110.0 LG15 NZ02b018.0 CH03b0611.0 Hi03g0623.0 CH01d0837.0 Hi04c0555.0 CH02d1177.0 CH02c09110.0 LG15 CH02a038.0 CH05c0614.0 Hi04e0430.0 CH05a0447.0 CH04f1076.0 LG16 CH02a038.0 CH05c0614.0 Hi04e0430.0 CH05a0447.0 CH04f1076.0 LG16 CH04c06y0.0 AT00017412.0 CH01h0125.0 Hi03c0535.0 Hi02f1255.0 Hi05c0674.0 CH05d0891.0 Hi07h02100.0 LG17 APPLE GENETIC VARIABILITY 1,500 apple accessions Genotyped with 12 SSR markers Apple genetic linkage map
    • Results: apple genetic variability and population structure Nb of genotypes Nb of accessions Belgium 190 209 CZ 120 132 France 225 225 Italy 167 184 Sweden 158 160 UK 271 271 2 countries 78 171 3 countries 20 72 4 countries 12 58 1241 1482 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 100103106109 Duplicates - diploids Belgium Czech_Republic France Italy Sweden United_Kingdom Diploids
    • Results: apple genetic variability and population structure Diversity – Partner’s collection
    • CONCLUSIONS  Is the bases of selection and crop improvement  Evolution, past bottlenecks and human factors have reduced dramatically the genetic variability in cultivated plants  Genetic diversity should be safely conserved and efficiently used  In FruitBreedomics we have set peach and apple Core Collections  Phenotypic data into a database  Genetic variability studies on these CC will help to preserve variability and will allow a more efficient breeding