15 m. lewandowski inhort

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15 m. lewandowski inhort

  1. 1. MARIUSZ LEWANDOWSKI FRUIT BREEDING DEPARTMENT DIVISION OF POMOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF HORTICULTURE NEW APPLE CLONES/CULTIVARS RELEASED AT THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF HORTICULTURE, SKIERNIEWICE, POLAND
  2. 2. APPLE PRODUCTION IN POLAND 1992-2012 thousand ton years
  3. 3. FRUIT CROPS BRED IN POLAND TREE FRUITS SMALL FRUITS • Apple • Pear • Plum • Sour cherry • Sweet cherry • Peach • Apricot • Rootstocks (for apple and plum) • Strawberry • Raspberry • Blackcurrant • Gooseberry • Blueberry • Blackberry • Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia)
  4. 4. MAIN BREEDING DIRECTIONS Breeding for resistance to diseases (scab, mildew, fire blight) Breeding for high fruit quality Breeding for good adaptation to climatic and soil conditions
  5. 5.  The experiment was established in the fall of 2003 on a medium quality soil in the Pomological Orchard in Skierniewice, Central Poland.  Cultivars: • ‘Ligolina’ • ‘Jonagold’ (standard)  Rootstocks: • M.9 (from a wild apple Malus paradisica, dwarf) • M.26 (M.16 x M.9, semidwarf) • P 14 (originates from open pollination of M.9, semidwarf) • P 60 (cross between A 2 x B 9, semidwarf)  The experiment was established in the randomized block design in four replications with three trees per plot (spacing 1.5 m x 4 m). MATERIALS AND METHODS ‘Ligolina’ ‘Jonagold’
  6. 6. ORIGIN AND DESCRIPTION OF ‘LIGOLINA’  The cross which gave us ‘Ligolina’ was made in 1963 from the cross between ‘Linda’ and ‘Golden Delicious’.  This cultivar was selected at number XIX-133-D1 in 1972 and registered into the Polish National List of Fruit Plant Varieties in 2005.  ‘Ligolina’ cv. is protected on the European Union territory by Plant Breeder’s Right which was granted by the President of CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office in Angers, France) with effect from the date of the decision (Decision of 23th January 2012, UE 31389).  Trees grow moderately vigorously and have a spindle-shaped crown.  This is winter cultivar, harvest ripening – in the first half of October.  Cultivar is highly resistant to scab and mildew, susceptible to fire blight, winterhardy.  ‘Ligolina’ apples are medium big to big, smaller than fruits of ‘Ligol’. Their shape is oval-conical. Skin is hard, smooth, shiny, without rust, covered with red blush. The background colour of fruit is yellow. Flesh is dark-cream coloured, very juicy, firm, sweet-sourish, moderately aromatic, very tasty, does not darken. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  7. 7. RESULTS Cultivar TCSA [cm2] 8 year after planting (2011) M.9 M.26 P 14 P 60 Jonagold – control 28.8 b * 31.1 b 32.7 b 29.9 b Ligolina 26.7 a 29.2 a 30.8 a 27.5 a Vigour of trees estimated as trunk cross-sectional area [TCSA] * Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P=0,05  Measurement of the growth vigor of trees shows that all cultivars had the most vigorous growth when they were cultivated on P 14 rootstocks, and the weakest growth vigor of trees was noted when the cultivars were grown on M.9 rootstock. Independently of the rootstock used the trees of the cultivar 'Ligolina' grew less in comparison with the standard variety 'Jonagold'.
  8. 8. RESULTS Yield/tree in kg and fruit weight (g) * Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P=0,05  Results concerning productivity (average for 2005-2011) showed the high yield from cv. 'Ligolina‘. Independently of the rootstock used, this cultivar produced the high yield of fruit per one tree (21.4 kg on M.9, 18.3 kg on M.26, 15.6 kg on P 14 and 15.1 kg on P 60), which means that this cultivar has the high productive potential. Cv. ‘Ligolina’ also produced large fruits (from 219 g on P 60 up to 230 g on M.26), like the standard cultivar 'Jonagold'. Cultivar Yield/tree [kg] Fruit weight [g] M.9 M.26 P 14 P 60 M.9 M.26 P 14 P 60 Jonagold – control 17.1 a* 15.2 a 14.8 a 15.0 a 212 a 220 a 211 a 209 a Ligolina 21.4 b 18.3 b 15.6 a 15.1 a 225 b 230 b 221 b 219 b
  9. 9. CONCLUSIONS  ‘Ligolina’ cv. was as productive as ‘Jonagold’ cv. and produced the highest yields on M.9 rootstock.  The largest fruits were harvested when ‘Ligolina’ cv. was cultivated on M.26 rootstock.
  10. 10.  The experiment was established in the spring of 2011 on a medium quality soil in the Pomological Orchard in Skierniewice, Central Poland.  Clones/Cultivars: • ‘J-9805-02’ (‘Braeburn’ x ‘Pinova’) • ‘J-9805-03’ (‘Braeburn’ x ‘Pinova’) • ‘Pinova’ (standard)  Rootstocks: • M.9 (from a wild apple Malus paradisica, dwarf) • M.26 (M.16 x M.9, semidwarf) • P 14 (originates from open pollination of M.9, semidwarf) • P 67 (cross between A 2 x P 2, semidwarf)  The experiment was established in the randomized block design in four replications with three trees per plot (spacing 1.5 m x 3 m). MATERIALS AND METHODS ‘Pinova’ ‘J-9805-03’
  11. 11. ORIGIN AND DESCRIPTION OF ‘J-9805-03’ (‘Braeburn’ x ‘Pinova’)  The cross which gave us ‘J-9805-03’ was made in 1998 from the cross between ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Pinova’.  This cultivar was selected in 2005 and submitted for testing in COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing in Słupia Wielka, Poland) in 2012.  Trees grow moderately vigorously and have a spindle-shaped crown.  This is winter cultivar, harvest ripening – in the second half of September.  Cultivar is highly resistant to scab and mildew, moderately susceptible to fire blight, winterhardy.  ‘J-9805-03’ apples are medium big to big. Their shape is oval-conical. Skin is smooth, shiny, without rust, covered with pink blush. The background colour of fruit is yellow. Flesh is cream coloured, very juicy, firm, sweet, moderately aromatic, very tasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  12. 12. RESULTS Cultivar TCSA [cm2] 2 year after planting (2012) M.9 P 67 M.26 P 14 Pinova – control 10.7 10.8 11.3 11.9 J-9805-02 10.3 10.7 11.0 11.4 J-9805-03 9.7 9.9 10.5 11.0 Vigour of trees estimated as trunk cross-sectional area [TCSA]  Measurement of the growth vigor of trees shows that all cultivars had the most vigorous growth when they were cultivated on P 14 rootstocks, and the weakest growth vigor of trees was noted when the cultivars were grown on M.9 rootstock. Independently of the rootstock used the trees of the clone ‘J-9805-03’ grew less in comparison with the standard variety ‘Pinova’.
  13. 13. RESULTS Yield/tree in kg and fruit weight (g)  Independently of the rootstock used, in the second year of cultivation, clone ‘J- 9805-03' produced the yield of fruit per one tree: 1.4 kg on M.9, 1.2 kg on M.26 and 1.0 kg on P 67 and P 14. This clone also produced large fruits (from 220 g on P 67 and P 14 up to 235 g on M.9), like the standard cultivar ‘Pinova’. Cultivar Yield/tree [kg] Fruit weight [g] M.9 P 67 M.26 P 14 M.9 P 67 M.26 P 14 Pinova 1,5 1,0 1,2 1,1 225 215 225 215 J-9805-02 1,2 1,0 1,1 1,0 235 220 230 225 J-9805-03 1,4 1,0 1,2 1,0 235 220 230 220
  14. 14. CONCLUSIONS  ‘J-9805-03’ is as productive as ‘Pinova’ cv. and produced the highest yield on M.9 rootstock.  The largest fruits are harvested when ‘J-9805-03’ is cultivated on M.9 rootstock.  The experiment will be continued in the coming years.
  15. 15. J-2004-03 – ‘FREE REDSTAR’ x J 79
  16. 16. J-2004-19 – ‘GOLD MILENIUM’ x ‘ARIWA’
  17. 17. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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