World war i ch.8.1 2


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World war i ch.8.1 2

  1. 1. World War ICh.8 Sections 1-2
  2. 2. Causes of WWIThe Ammo Nationalism The Trigger The Explosion Imperialism Assassination of Archduke Francis WWI Ferdinand MilitarismAlliance System
  3. 3. Nationalism and Alliances• Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy• Triple Entente: France, Great Britain, and Russia – A series of crisis tested these alliances• Internal strife within countries because of industrialization• Militarization- the growth of mass armies heightened tensions
  4. 4. Outbreak of War 1914• Serbian problem- Serbia wanted to create a large, independent Slavic state in the Balkans – Russia and Austria-Hungary controlled Slavic nations• Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo in 1914 – Austria offered Serbia an ultimatum• Russia supported Serbia and began to mobilize• Germany supported Austria and declared war on Russia when they ignored Germany’s warning
  5. 5. The War Begins• 1914 Germany follows Schlieffen Plan and invades Belgium• Trench Warfare began in France near the Marne River – 3 kinds of trenches- front line, support, reserve – “no mans land” lay between enemy trenches• Led to a stalemate and the loss of thousands of lives
  6. 6. Illusions and Stalemate• Government propaganda influenced public opinion to support the war – Most believed the war would be over in a few weeks• Italy betrayed their allies and attacking Austria – Italy joined the Triple Entente making them the Allied powers• Germany defeated Serbia allowing them to go back on the offensive
  7. 7. The Great Slaughter 1916-17• Trench Warfare: they would at times try to “soften up” the other side with artillery and then send soldiers to attack with bayonets – Rarely worked because men running unprotected would be shot and killed• War of attrition- war based on wearing the other side down• Airplanes appeared on the battle front for the first time – At first used to spot enemy’s position, later used to attack using mounted guns
  8. 8. War Hits Home• British blockaded German coast to prevent weapons and supplies from getting through – The US was upset about the blockade because it limited freedom of the seas• Germany responded with a counter blockade by U-boats- they sunk any British or allied ship found in the waters around Britain with no warning – May 7, 1915 a U-boat sank the Lusitania killing over 100 innocent US citizens – US did not respond militarily, but instead convinced Germany to change its tactics
  9. 9. US Enters the War• Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare• Zimmerman Note: a telegram intercepted by the British proposing and alliance between Germany and Mexico, and stating that the Germans would support Mexico in recovering lost territory• The Russian Monarchy was overthrown and Russia withdrew from the war• US declared war on April 2, 1917
  10. 10. Total War• Total War- involves a complete mobilization of resources and people – Affected all citizens in warring countries – European countries set up planned economies• Governments manipulated public opinion through propaganda and exaggerated what other countries were doing• War created new roles for women- women had to take over mens jobs after they went to fight