Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities 11.4 PART 2
Britain Theory was that bombing civilians would force peace Victim of the first sustained bombing in September 1940 German air force bombed London nightly Soon spread to many other British cities Londoners maintained high morale Set standard for the rest of Britain
Germany British began major bombing raids on German cities in 1942 Added to the food and fuel shortages Feared incendiary bombs which created firestorms that swept through cities Bombing of Dresden in 1945 may have killed as many as 100,000 inhabitants and refugees Failed to decrease morale or industrial capacity
Japan Japanese air force had almost been destroyed towards end of war Left them open to air raids By 1945 many industries and ¼ of homes had been destroyed Built of flimsy materials that were vulnerable to fire Truman decided to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945
Peace and a New War Allied victory led to a period of political tensions called the Cold War Ideological conflict between the US and the SU Division referred to as the “iron curtain” Tehran Conference- leaders of the big 3 met to decide the future course of the war Agreed on a British-American invasion through France as well as a partition of postwar Germany Yalta Conference- Big 3 met, established United Nations, and decided the fate of Europe after Germany’s defeat Stalin wanted a buffer of pro-soviet governments Roosevelt favored the idea of self-determination
Peace and a New War cont. The Potsdam Conference- Roosevelt had died and was succeeded by Truman making the conference difficult Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe which Stalin would not allow War Crimes Trials- in Summer of 1945 the allies held a trial of war leaders for committing aggressive war and crimes against humanity Nazi leaders were tried and condemned at Nuremberg.