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The challenges of urbanization
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The challenges of urbanization


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US history Ch.7 sec2

US history Ch.7 sec2

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. Ch.7 Section 2
    The Challenges of Urbanization
  • 2. Urban Opportunities
    Urbanization: growth of cities
    Resulted from the technological boom of 19th C.
    Most immigrants settled in cities because of lower living costs and more job opportunities
    Americanization Movement: designed to assimilate everyone into the dominant culture
    Programs provided to teach immigrants skills needed to become citizens (English Literacy, Gov’t) as well as cooking and social etiquette
  • 3. Migration from Country to City
    New farming technology meant less laborers were needed
    Many farmers moved to the city for work
    The majority were African Americans looking for jobs and an escape from violence
    Found segregation and discrimination
  • 4. Urban Problems
    Housing: Working class families lived in row-houses, immigrants moved into over crowed and unsanitary tenements
    NYC passed a law in 1879 that set standards for plumbing and ventilation in apartments
    Transportation: Mass transit was started (street cars and subways) and allowed workers to commute from outside the city
    Water: city residents had inadequate drinking water. Few homes had indoor plumbing
  • 5. Urban Problems Cont.
    Sanitation: Horse manure piled in the streets, sewage ran in open gutters, factory smoke filled the air, and there was no reliable trash pick-up
    Crime: with increased populations, thieves and pickpockets flourished. Most law enforcement was too small to keep up
    Fire: Most city dwellings were made of wood, candles and kerosene heaters were being used, and there was a water shortage.
    Nations first paid fire department est. in Ohio 1853
  • 6. Reforms
    Social Gospel Movement: preached salvation through service to the poor.
    Settlement Houses: community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area
    Provided educational, social, and cultural services
    Jane Addams founded Chicago’s Huss House with Ellen Gates Starr 1889
  • 7. New York Tenements
    Poorly kept buildings- dangerous and unsanitary
  • 8. New York Tenements
    Over Crowded
  • 9. New York City
    Over Population led to crowded streets and a rise in crime
  • 10. New York Tenement Rooms
    Small spaces with no privacy
  • 11. New York Tenement Rooms
    No storage or appliances
  • 12. New York Tenement Rooms
    Makeshift furniture and shared beds