Great Britain<br />Singapore: founded by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles and was a stopping point on the way to China<br />Burma: wanted to use Burma to protect its possessions in India and gain a land route to China<br />
France<br />Vietnam: French forced them to accept French protection in order to keep British from monopolizing trade<br />Eventually controlled Saigon and Mekong River Delta and then slowly gained control over the rest of the country<br />Indochina: Later gained control over Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and Loaswhich they combined into a new Union of French Indochina <br />
The United States<br />Inherited the Philippines from Spain after winning the Spanish-American War in 1898<br />President McKinely made it a colony because he wanted to “civilize” other countries.<br />The Philippines also gave them a jumping off point for trade with china<br />
Indirect Rule<br />Local rulers maintained their authority by cooperating with their foreign rulers. <br />It made government cheaper because less officials had to be trained<br />Allowed local culture to continue; did not interfere with the customs of the people<br />
Direct Rule<br />When local elites are replaced with officials from the colonial power<br />Used only when colonial rule was strongly opposed<br />
Colonial Economies<br />Led to a plantation agriculture because colonial powers wanted to export more goods<br />Native people worked for low wages in bad conditions so that foreign investors could make more money<br />Colonial rule did lead to the beginning of a modern economic system<br />Colonial governments built railroads, highways and other structures<br />
Thailand<br />The only remaining free state from Southeast Asia<br />Rulers promoted western learning and maintained friendly relations with major European powers<br />
Resistance to colonial rule<br />Eventually the generation raised with western style education in the new urban-middle class created by colonization began to revolt<br />Europeans created their own worst nightmare<br />
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