Nationalism 10.1 2


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Nationalism 10.1 2

  1. 1. Nationalism in the Middle East CH.10 SECTION 1
  2. 2. The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire included Turks, parts of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and N Africa Nationalism caused the empire to weaken  Each ethnic groups wanted independence Many Ottoman territories were lost
  3. 3. Impact of WWI Ottoman government sided with Germany in the war Britain supported Arab nationalists  T.E. Lawrence “Lawrence of Arabia” Arabia declared its independence from Ottoman rule in 1916 British troops seized Palestine
  4. 4. Armenian Genocide Christian Armenians were a minority in the Ottoman Empire They pushed for reforms- the government accused them of supporting Russia  Used this as an excuse to kill or exile all Armenians During deportations 1915-1918 1.5 million Armenians were killed  Victims of genocide
  5. 5. The Problem of Palestine Jews and Arabs were in conflict over Palestine Growing anti-Semitism before WWI caused many more Jews to migrate to Palestine Balfour Declaration- British expressed support for Palestine as a home for Jews (to win support during WWI)  Added that they should not undermine rights of non-Jews living there As more Jews fled to Palestine leading up to WWII, tensions continued to grow
  6. 6. Nationalism in Africa and Asia CH.10 SECTION 2
  7. 7. Movements towards independence in Africa Africans fought in WWI with British and French armies in hopes of gaining freedom  European leaders were not ready to give them up In 1920’s more Africans became aware of western ideas and sought reform Reform movements occurred all over Africa By the 1930’s African leaders were calling for independence
  8. 8. New Leaders W.E.B. DuBois: an African American educated at Harvard who led the movement in the US for equal rights Marcus Garvey: a Jamaican who urged black Americans to move back to Africa because of the need for African unity  Pan-Africanism Leaders and movements appeared in individual African nations- all worked to end colonial rule in Africa
  9. 9. The Movement for Indian Independence Mohandas Gandhi: an active leader in the movement for Indian self-rule before WWI People began to refer to him as India’s “Great Soul” (Mahatma) Gandhi pushed for nonviolence  Believed hate could only be overcome by love  Encouraged people to make their own cotton/salt/etc instead of buying British goods
  10. 10. Protest and Reform Gandhi organized mass protests using civil disobedience- refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust Protests led to violence- British troops killed hundreds of unarmed protesters in Amritsar 1935 Government of India Act passed expanding the role of Indians in the governing process
  11. 11. Nationalism and Revolution in Asia Spread of Communism:  The success of the Bolshevik revolution made Marxism looked appealing  Ideas were spread through Communist International (Comintern)  Trained revolutionaries from many countries then sent them home to promote revolution  Communist Parties existed all over Asia in 1920’s  Most failed to get enough support  Successful in Vietnam and China