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Labor unions emerge

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US History Ch.6 Section 4

US History Ch.6 Section 4

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  • 1. Ch. 6 Section 3 cont
    Labor Unions Emerge
  • 2. Sherman Antitrust Act
    1890- Made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries
    Was very hard to enforce because the act was not well written and companies found loop holes
    Eventually the government gave up
  • 3. Business Boom Bypasses the South
    The South was still recovering from the civil war and had no capital to invest
    The North controlled most of the industry and the railroads
    South remained agricultural an suffered from high transportation costs and high tariffs on raw materials
  • 4. Labor Unions
    Workers joined together to try to improve their lot
    Workers had long hours in very dangerous conditions
    No sick pay, compensation for injury, etc
    In 1882 an average of 675 were killed at work a week
    Number of women and children working in factories increased (Sweat shops)
  • 5. Early Organization
    First national organization was National Labor Union (NLU) 1866 by William H. Sylvis
    Persuaded congress to legalize and 8 hour work day for government workers
    Colored National Labor Union (CNLU) was created because some NLU chapters would not accept African Americans
    Knights of Labor 1869- open to all workers no matter race, gender, or skill.
    “an injury to one is the concern of all”
    Advocated 8 hour work days and equal pay for men and women
  • 6. Craft Unionism
    Included workers form one or more trades
    American Federation of Labor (AFL)
    Focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management
    Used strikes as a major tactic
  • 7. Industrial Unionism
    Felt that unions should include all laborers in an industry- skilled or unskilled
    American Railway Union (ARU)
    Included unskilled laborers as well as engineers
    Used strikes to gain higher wages
  • 8. Socialism and the IWW
    Socialism: an economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth
    Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)- Wobblies
    Included miners, lumberers, and cannery and dock workers
    Welcomed African American workers
  • 9. Other Unions
    Sugar Beet and Farm Laborers’ Union of Oxnard- Japanese and Mexican workers of Ventura county
    State Federation of Labor- Chinese and Japanese miners who wanted the same wages and treatment as other miners
  • 10. Strikes Turn Violent
    Great Strike of 1877: Worker of B&O railroad protested wage cuts. Strike spread and all railroad traffic for 50,000 miles was stopped. President Hayes sent troops in to end the strike
    Haymarket Affair: May 4, 1877 3,000 people gathered at Haymarket Square in Chicago to protest police brutality. Someone threw a bomb into the police line, and police opened fire.
    Caused some to turn against the labor movement
  • 11. Violent Strikes Cont.
    Homestead Strike: Carnegie Steel workers called a strike after wages were cut. “Scabs” were hired, but workers forced them out and kept the plant closed. 3 detectives and 9 workers died.
    Pullman Company Strike: with the economic depression Pullman laid off 3,000 workers and cut wages in half without decreasing workers rent. ARU boycotted Pullman’s trains when he would not negotiate.
    Turned violent when strikebreakers were hired
    President Cleveland sent in federal troops to end strike
    Many strikers were fired or blacklisted
  • 12. Women Organize
    Mary Harris Jones (Mother Jones)- organized the United Mine Workers of America (UMW)
    Led 80 mill children with hideous injuries on a march to the home of President Roosevelt.
    Led to the passage of child labor laws
    Pauline Newman (16 years old) organized International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU)
    Organized a strike of 20,000 seamstresses
  • 13. Pressure Against Unions
    Employers forbade union meetings
    Forced employees to sign “yellow-dog contracts” swearing they would not join a union
    Turned Sherman Act against labor, saying strikes would harm interstate trade