West Africa• Natural Resources Wanted: – Peanuts, timber, hides, and palm oil – Slave trade had virtually ended by the late 1800’s• British had settlements along the Gold Coast and in Sierra Leone• French controlled the largest part of W Africa• Germany controlled Togo, Cameroon, German SW Africa and German E Africa
Egypts Importance• Egypt: Freed from the Ottoman Empire by Muhammad Ali in 1805- brought Egypt into the modern world (public schools, industry)• Suez Canal: In Nile Valley, connected the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. Built by Ferdinand De Lesseps in 1869• British wanted control over canal for trade with India; made Egypt a British Protectorate in 1914
North Africa• British controlled Egypt, and by 1898 Sudan• French controlled Algeria, Tunisia and much of Morocco• Italy tried to take Ethiopia and failed (first European state to be defeated by African state). Later took Tipoli, now called Libya
Important People• David Livingston: starting in 1841 explored the uncharted regions of central Africa for 30 years• Henry Stanley: a young journalist sent to find Livingston after he disappeared – Explored the Congo and encouraged European settlement there
Central Africa• Belgium settled the Congo (King Leopold II)• France took territories north of the Congo• European states were concerned about Belgium controlling the vast territories of the Congo
East Africa• Major competition over East Africa between Britain and Germany – Some competition from Portugal and Belgium• Berlin Conference 1884-85: Recognized British and German claims to specific territories and gave Portugal Mozambique. – Adopted an agreement that described how a European nation could lay claim to an area of Africa.
South Africa• Cape Town settled by Dutch since 1600’s – Called Boers or Afrikaners – Taken by British after Napoleonic Wars• White population of South Africa was 200,000 by 1865