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Early british colonies

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Ch. 1 sections 3-4

Ch. 1 sections 3-4

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  • 1. Early British Colonies
    Jamestown- Named for King James
    Built in a small, defensible peninsula
    Colonists hoped to find gold to satisfy their investors (people supporting the colony)
    Farming was neglected because they were so focused on finding gold.
    Soon they were plagued by disease from contaminated water, and hunger.
    John Smith forced colonists to farm and secured food and support from local natives.
    Smith was injured and left for England, but without his leadership the colony deteriorated into famine
    They were eventually saved by the arrival of new colonists and the discovery of tobacco crops
  • 2. Tobacco and its consequences
    Tobacco growers needed laborers
    Virginia company offered 50 acres to “adventurers” who would pay for their own or another's’ transportation from England. (Headright System)
    Indentured Servants: someone who agreed to a term of servitude in exchange for passage to America and food and shelter on arrival.
    First African slaves arrived in 1619
    Colonists became greedy and began to go to war with local Native Americans in order to drive them away
  • 3. Economic differences in Virginia
    By the 1670’s ¼ of free white men in Virginia were poor former indentured servants
    Nathaniel Bacon lead colonists on a march upon Jamestown in September 1676
    Had several grievances including the frontier’s lack of representation in Virginia’s House of Burgesses (the legislature)
    This is known as Bacon’s Rebellion
    The rebellion exposed restlessness of colony’s former indentured servants
  • 4. Puritans and “New England”
    Puritans: A religious group who eliminated all traces of Catholicism. Many fled to America to escape religious persecution.
    Believed they had a special covenant with God and they were to create a moral society.
    One group founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630
    Extended the right to vote to all adult male members of the Puritan church
    Politics and religion became intertwined
  • 5. King Philip’s War
    King Philip was the Wampanoag chief Metacom
    Philip organized his tribe and several others into an alliance to wipe out invaders in 1675
    Natives attacked and burned settlements throughout New England.
    Settlers responded by killing as many natives as possible, including friendly ones.
    War lasted for over a year until food shortages and disease forced Natives to surrender or flee
  • 6. The Middle Colonies
    1621 the Dutch found New Netherland and expanded the fur trade
    New Amsterdam (now NYC) became the capitol
    It was later taken over by the English in 1664
    William Penn was given a large piece of land by King Charles II which he called Pennsylvania.
    Penn was a Quaker: a Protestant sect that held services without formal ministers, had no “ranks” and opposed war.
  • 7. English Colonies
    13 Colonies founded to benefit England through trade
    Colonies provided raw materials not found in England
    Each colony had a governor appointed by the crown who was the highest authority
  • 8. The South and Plantations
    The South was made up of self-sufficient plantations- Cash Crops
    Plantations were worked by African Slaves
    African slaves managed to maintain some of their culture through music, dance, and storytelling
    They eventual began to rebel
  • 9. The Enlightenment
    A movement in which people believed in obtaining the truth through experimentation and reason – Benjamin Franklin
    Spread to colonies from Europe through books and pamphlets
    Spurred the idea of natural human rights –Thomas Jefferson
  • 10. The Great Awakening
    A movement to restore the intensity and dedication of the Puritan church (1730-50)
    Lead to outdoor revivals and challenged the authority of established churches
    Helped create the atmosphere that led to the American Revolution
  • 11. French and Indian War
    French colonies used Natives as partners in the fur trade
    The French built Fort Duquesne where the Virginia government had already granted land to planters
    Virginia sent a militia to evict the French starting the war
    French used their Native American allies to aid them in the war
    British victory in the war lead to loss of land and trade for Native Americans
    Pontiac lead Native Americans in capturing 8 British forts in the Ohio Valley leading to the Proclamation of 1763
    Established a line colonists were not allowed to cross