The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War ch.11 section 4
THE MOBILIZATION OF PEOPLES WWII was a total war The bombing of civilians made the home front more dangerous Impact on civilians was much higher than other wars More women working More civilians killed (20 million) − Many civilians who were killed were children
THE SOVIET UNION Widespread industrial mobilization of the nation “battle of machines” Emphasis on military goods caused food and housing shortages Women were used both in industry and fighting Leningrad- 900 days of siege. Inhabitants got so desperate for food that they ate dogs, cats and mice. 1.5 million people died in the city
THE UNITED STATES The US was not fighting in its own territory Became the arsenal for the allies − Built 6 ships a day and 96,000 airplanes a year Widespread migration- men and women moving to join the military or to work in new factories Over 1 million African Americans moved out of the South for industrial jobs Increased racial tensions and led to riots Japanese Americans were put in internment camps 110,000 put in camps, 65% of whom were US born
GERMANY Hitler refused to mobilize economy at the start of the war Began increasing armament production in 1942 Mobilized too late to save Germany Views towards women changed over the course of the war Worked to keep women out of jobs before Women began to be welcomed in the workplace slowly − Numbers still increased only very slightly
JAPAN Highly mobilized society Planning board controlled prices, wages, labor and resources Kamikaze (“divine wind”)- suicide pilots Japan did not want to mobilize women General Hideki Tojo believed weakening the family system would weaken the country Brought in Korean and Chinese laborers to help with labor shortages
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