The Death of Computationalism




杜國正
資訊工程學系
49521011
Computationalism

05/18/09   The Death of Computationalism   2
minds
               Ⅱ
 information-processing systems


05/18/09    The Death of Computationalism   3
information from world
                         (input)
                            ↓
                      brain + mind
 ...
brain = hardware
           mind = program


05/18/09       The Death of Computationalism   5
brain = hardware
           mind = program
                   (?)

05/18/09       The Death of Computationalism   6
Chinese Room
           [John Searle, 1980]

05/18/09         The Death of Computationalism   7
Chinese request
                            (input)
                               ↓
           a monolingual English-spea...
Understanding?

05/18/09       The Death of Computationalism   9
He is a good guy.




05/18/09     The Death of Computationalism   10
He is a good guy.
           → (PropN.) + (V.) + Indet. + (Adj. + N)
           → NP + V. + (Indet. + NP)
           → NP ...
Who is `he?'

                                   How does `he' look?

                    He is a good guy.

             ...
Syntax ≠ Semantics

05/18/09         The Death of Computationalism   13
05/18/09   The Death of Computationalism   14
05/18/09
           ?
           The Death of Computationalism   15
More formal version...
            [John Searle, 1990]

05/18/09          The Death of Computationalism   16
3 Axioms

05/18/09    The Death of Computationalism   17
   (A1) Programs are formal

    (A2) Minds have mental contents

    (A3) Syntax by itself is neither constitutive of
...
   (A1) Programs are formal (syntactic)
          Have ability to manipulate symbols (using syntax)
          But don't...
   (A2) Minds have mental contents (semantics)
          Our thoughts have meanings
          They represent things and...
   (A3) Syntax by itself is neither constitutive of
     nor sufficient for semantics
          Already showed by Chines...
   (A1) Programs are formal (syntactic)
    (A2) Minds have mental contents (semantics)
    (A3) Syntax by itself is ne...
Thus,

           mind ≠ program

05/18/09       The Death of Computationalism   23
Given another axiom:


    (A4) Brains cause minds
          basic modern scientific consensus




05/18/09             ...
Leads another conclusion:


    (C2) Any other system capable of causing
     minds would have to have causal powers (at
...
Further:
    (C1) and (C2)
     no programs can produce minds
     “equivlent casual powers” produce minds
    → (C3)
  ...
Thus,

           brain ≠ hardware
           … that uses programs to produce mind




05/18/09              The Death of ...
References:
 ➔   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computationalism
 ➔   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitivism_(psychology)
...
The End




05/18/09   The Death of Computationalism   29
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The Death of Computationalism

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A short talk at psychology class about John Searle arguments (1980, 1990) and why computationalism may be failed.

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The Death of Computationalism

  1. 1. The Death of Computationalism 杜國正 資訊工程學系 49521011
  2. 2. Computationalism 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 2
  3. 3. minds Ⅱ information-processing systems 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 3
  4. 4. information from world (input) ↓ brain + mind (hardware + program) ↓ mental state change, behavior, etc. (output) 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 4
  5. 5. brain = hardware mind = program 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 5
  6. 6. brain = hardware mind = program (?) 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 6
  7. 7. Chinese Room [John Searle, 1980] 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 7
  8. 8. Chinese request (input) ↓ a monolingual English-speaking man + a set of rules written in English (hardware + program) ↓ Chinese response (output) 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 8
  9. 9. Understanding? 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 9
  10. 10. He is a good guy. 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 10
  11. 11. He is a good guy. → (PropN.) + (V.) + Indet. + (Adj. + N) → NP + V. + (Indet. + NP) → NP + (V. + NP) → (NP + VP) →S 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 11
  12. 12. Who is `he?' How does `he' look? He is a good guy. What's the meaning of `good?' Is there any hidden message? 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 12
  13. 13. Syntax ≠ Semantics 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 13
  14. 14. 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 14
  15. 15. 05/18/09 ? The Death of Computationalism 15
  16. 16. More formal version... [John Searle, 1990] 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 16
  17. 17. 3 Axioms 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 17
  18. 18.  (A1) Programs are formal  (A2) Minds have mental contents  (A3) Syntax by itself is neither constitutive of nor sufficient for semantics 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 18
  19. 19.  (A1) Programs are formal (syntactic)  Have ability to manipulate symbols (using syntax)  But don't know what they mean 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 19
  20. 20.  (A2) Minds have mental contents (semantics)  Our thoughts have meanings  They represent things and we know what are they represent 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 20
  21. 21.  (A3) Syntax by itself is neither constitutive of nor sufficient for semantics  Already showed by Chinese Room thought exp. 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 21
  22. 22.  (A1) Programs are formal (syntactic)  (A2) Minds have mental contents (semantics)  (A3) Syntax by itself is neither constitutive of nor sufficient for semantics Leads conclusion  (C1) Programs are neither constitutive of nor sufficient for minds 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 22
  23. 23. Thus, mind ≠ program 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 23
  24. 24. Given another axiom:  (A4) Brains cause minds  basic modern scientific consensus 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 24
  25. 25. Leads another conclusion:  (C2) Any other system capable of causing minds would have to have causal powers (at least) equivlent to those of brains 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 25
  26. 26. Further:  (C1) and (C2) no programs can produce minds “equivlent casual powers” produce minds  → (C3) programs do not have those powers  → (C4) brains do not use programs to produce minds 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 26
  27. 27. Thus, brain ≠ hardware … that uses programs to produce mind 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 27
  28. 28. References: ➔ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computationalism ➔ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitivism_(psychology) ➔ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_room ➔ http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/chineser.htm 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 28
  29. 29. The End 05/18/09 The Death of Computationalism 29

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