0
Building a National Ontology
Infrastructure
Matias Frosterus, Mirja Anttila,
Mikko Lappalainen, Susanna Nykyri,
Tuomas Pal...
This presentation
 Overview of the ONKI project
 Linked ontology approach
 Trilingual ontology

THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF...
ONKI project
 A joint project of the National Library of Finland, the Ministry of
Finance and the Ministry of Education a...
ONKI project
 What does the ONKI project offer?





Publication of ontologies
Using ontologies in applications throu...
ONKI project
 Based on the FinnONTO research project, which ran in Aalto
University and the University of Helsinki 2003-2...
Finto ontology service:
Ontology publication
Guidelines
and support

ONKI
Light

Browsing

Users:

Ontology
developers

Ge...
The second part
 Linked ontology approach

THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
Linked ontology approach
 What we have:
 Silos
 Expert-made thesauri
 A large amount of data and annotations

Thesauru...
Linked ontology approach
 What we want:
 Eliminate the silos
 Harmonize the annotations

Thesaurus

Thesaurus

Metadata...
Linked ontology approach
 How?
 Ontologies are much easier to link together than thesauri
 Concepts as opposed to terms...
Linked ontology approach
 The problem:

Ontology

Ontology

Ontology

Ontology

Ontology

…
Metadata

Metadata

Metadata
...
Linked ontology approach
 The problem:
 A lot of work!
I have
an
update!

Ontology

Ontology

Ontology

Ontology

Ontolo...
Linked ontology approach
 The approach:
 Limit the links between
the ontologies

Domain
Ontology

Domain
Ontology

Gener...
Linked ontology approach
 In practice:
KOKO
YSO

JUHO

TERO

LIITO

AFO

MAO
…

Metadata

Metadata

Metadata

Metadata

M...
Linked ontology approach: KOKO
Ontology

Domain

Concepts

YSO

General upper ontology

24 800

MAO

Museum artifacts

6 8...
Challenges to be tackled
 Propagating the changes in the upper general ontology to the
domain ontologies
 Locating the o...
The third part
 Trilingual ontology

THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
Ontology design
 The relations between concepts can be designed in several
ways
 What affects these choices?
 Corpora
...
Trilingual ontology
 In practice
 YSO: General Finnish Upper Ontology
 ”Finnish” as a culture
 Finland has two officia...
YSO
 Topmost hierarchy is inspired by DOLCE
 Offers the general concepts needed for annotation in many
domains
 Complem...
Language affects the hierarchy
 Finnish word ’siirto’ means transfer
siirto
skos:broader
maansiirto

hiustensiirto

voima...
Language affects the hierarchy
 Finnish word ’siirto’ means transfer
transfer
skos:broader
earthmoving

hair transplantat...
Language affects the hierarchy
 Finnish has a single concept for rivers
 Swedish has three
 Älv = Scandinavian river si...
Culture before language
 Looking beyond the language
 Realizing that language does affect the way we perceive the
world
...
The development of YSO
 Mapping to other ontologies
 Mapping to LCSH is underway

 Building the guidelines for the deve...
Thank you!
matias.frosterus@helsinki.fi
onki-posti@helsinki.fi

THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
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Building a National Ontology Infrastructure - a presentation at SWIB2013

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Describes Finland's national effort at building an ontology service, describes the linked ontology approach as well as musings on the difficulties of developing multilingual ontologies.

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Transcript of "Building a National Ontology Infrastructure - a presentation at SWIB2013"

  1. 1. Building a National Ontology Infrastructure Matias Frosterus, Mirja Anttila, Mikko Lappalainen, Susanna Nykyri, Tuomas Palonen, Sini Pessala SWIB 2013 THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  2. 2. This presentation  Overview of the ONKI project  Linked ontology approach  Trilingual ontology THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  3. 3. ONKI project  A joint project of the National Library of Finland, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Education and Culture  The aim is to build a reliable, centralized, national ontology service named Finto THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  4. 4. ONKI project  What does the ONKI project offer?     Publication of ontologies Using ontologies in applications through various interfaces The development of the General Finnish Upper Ontology YSO Coordination of ontology work on national scale  Improving interoperability across the spectrum by harmonizing annotations THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  5. 5. ONKI project  Based on the FinnONTO research project, which ran in Aalto University and the University of Helsinki 2003-2012  Focus on light-weight SKOS ontologies intended for annotations  Powered by ONKI Light  Open source  https://code.google.com/p/onki-light/ THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  6. 6. Finto ontology service: Ontology publication Guidelines and support ONKI Light Browsing Users: Ontology developers General Upper Ontology Interfaces Annotators Application Developers End users THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  7. 7. The second part  Linked ontology approach THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  8. 8. Linked ontology approach  What we have:  Silos  Expert-made thesauri  A large amount of data and annotations Thesaurus Thesaurus … Metadata Metadata Data Data silo silo THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  9. 9. Linked ontology approach  What we want:  Eliminate the silos  Harmonize the annotations Thesaurus Thesaurus Metadata Metadata Data Data THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  10. 10. Linked ontology approach  How?  Ontologies are much easier to link together than thesauri  Concepts as opposed to terms  Explicit relations Ontology Ontology Metadata Metadata Data Data THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  11. 11. Linked ontology approach  The problem: Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology … Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Data Data Data Data Data THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  12. 12. Linked ontology approach  The problem:  A lot of work! I have an update! Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology … Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Data Data Data Data Data I must react! Me too! Me too! Me too! THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  13. 13. Linked ontology approach  The approach:  Limit the links between the ontologies Domain Ontology Domain Ontology General Upper Ontology Domain Ontology Domain Ontology Domain Ontology … Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Data Data Data Data Data THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  14. 14. Linked ontology approach  In practice: KOKO YSO JUHO TERO LIITO AFO MAO … Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Metadata Data Data Data Data Data THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  15. 15. Linked ontology approach: KOKO Ontology Domain Concepts YSO General upper ontology 24 800 MAO Museum artifacts 6 800 MUSO Music 1 000 TAO Design 3 000 TERO Health 6 500 VALO Photography 2 000 AFO Agriculture 7 000 JUHO Government 6 300 KAUNO Literature 5 000 KTO Linguistics 900 KITO Literary research 850 KULO Cultural research 1 500 LIITO Economics 3 000 MERO Seafaring 1 300 PUHO Military 2 000
  16. 16. Challenges to be tackled  Propagating the changes in the upper general ontology to the domain ontologies  Locating the overlapping concepts between the domain ontologies  Not always simple  Labels might be misleading  Ontological structure can help  Coordinating the use and development of ontologies on a national level THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  17. 17. The third part  Trilingual ontology THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  18. 18. Ontology design  The relations between concepts can be designed in several ways  What affects these choices?  Corpora  Language  Culture THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  19. 19. Trilingual ontology  In practice  YSO: General Finnish Upper Ontology  ”Finnish” as a culture  Finland has two official languages: Finnish and Swedish  Very different from one another  Lingua franca: English THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  20. 20. YSO  Topmost hierarchy is inspired by DOLCE  Offers the general concepts needed for annotation in many domains  Complemented with a number of domain ontologies for specific use cases  Based on the General Finnish Thesaurus YSA  Used and developed for decades in the annotation of all Finnish non-fiction literature THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  21. 21. Language affects the hierarchy  Finnish word ’siirto’ means transfer siirto skos:broader maansiirto hiustensiirto voimansiirto THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  22. 22. Language affects the hierarchy  Finnish word ’siirto’ means transfer transfer skos:broader earthmoving hair transplantation power transmission THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  23. 23. Language affects the hierarchy  Finnish has a single concept for rivers  Swedish has three  Älv = Scandinavian river situated north of Göta älv (a specific river)  Å = Scandinavian river situated south of Göta älv  Flod = non-Scandinavian river  A distinction not used in Finland THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  24. 24. Culture before language  Looking beyond the language  Realizing that language does affect the way we perceive the world  Building an ontology for a specific cultural sphere  Key to the harmonization of different annotations in different domains THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  25. 25. The development of YSO  Mapping to other ontologies  Mapping to LCSH is underway  Building the guidelines for the development  How to choose the correct approach when language clash leads to concept clash? THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
  26. 26. Thank you! matias.frosterus@helsinki.fi onki-posti@helsinki.fi THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF FINLAND – Library Network Services
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