Universal design business_symposium_tokyo_01rc

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Universal Design Business Symposium 2010 in Tokyo, Japan
Ravi Chhatpar, Strategy Director, frog Shanghai

I was recently a guest speaker at Nikkei's Universal Design Business Symposium, sponsored by Toyota, in Tokyo, Japan on June 18, 2010.

The theme of this forum was universal design, that is, "design that brings happiness to every corner of the earth," a more endearing description than the too often used "design for the 90%."

I drew on frog's experience with for-profit clients who often want tangible, measurable ROI from any innovation or design effort to suggest how social innovation efforts can have meaning and impact. Too often, we see examples of ideas that are feel like clever solutions to pressing social problems, but that fail in the field or that neglect to consider how to scale (e.g., the Hippo Roller). Alternatively, there are many examples of ideas that scale successfully but that are questionably clever to a designer's eyes (e.g., village rainwater collection systems).

I described frog's work on Project M (http://www.frogdesign.com/services/project-masiluleke.html), tackling South Africa's HIV problem, to define meaning and impact in social innovation. Beyond the home testing kit at the core of the solution, a mobile service platform was critical to sparking initial adoption and ensuring usage of the solution over time. Designing for awareness and advocacy in addition to usage is essential to creating meaning. Meanwhile, wearing a corporate strategy hat ensures questions of impact are adequately considered, as manufacturing, deployment, partnership strategy, quantitative validation, and long-term roadmaps are designed and executed.

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  • This slide show was very helpful. It made me understand more about how people re act and how to get people to take action. I learned so much and i am going to apply it to my business ventures. Its amazing how the things i learned from all your charts is really going to help me with all my goals. I cant thank you enough for sharing all this information.
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  • Le Corbusier developed 5 points of architecture which are considered by some as the universal design principles. these include:
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  • it’s a question we’re often asked
    it’s easy to judge in the for-profit world
  • 50.000 units sold on the first day, over 400.000 by the end of 1984Time magazine’s Product of the Year, Chosen for the Whitney Museum collection, New York
  • frog-designed Tupperware FlatOut! containers were named by Fortune magazine as one of the best 25 products of the year; awarded a Good Buy Award by the Good Housekeeping Institute; named "Product of the Year 2005" by the German Consumer Plastics Institute; and garnered an IDEA Award from BusinessWeek.
  • frog turned an initial investment of $50 million into a return of $130 million in three years for Disney, which entered the consumer electronics category for the first time.
  • 375% increase in data usage

  • for most of our clients, it’s very clear:
    meaning and impact mean $, and more specifically, roi
  • let’s look at one issue: water
  • hippo-roller
    roll 22 gallons of water
    120 rollers manufactured to produce 75 usable ones
    watertight rubber o-rings deterioriating


  • emily’s work
    separated, stacking design to improve transportation
    uv-stabilized polyethelene
    In the past 15 years, the Hippo Roller Water Project has distributed over 30,000 rollers, directly benefitting over 200,000 people
  • lifestraw - too expensive? too much iodine?
    behaviorally wrong - squatting
    overall seems to work, but criticism about whether it works too much as a one-off, point solution, distracting from bigger problems of clean water at home

    designers often like to celebrate a little too early.
  • the treadle pump -- a boring idea that had broad impact?
    used for irrigation in off-seasons, human-powered not diesel-powered
    million+ sold
    locally produced and distributed
  • Aakash Ganga, or River from the Sky, is a sustainable system that channels rooftop rainwater from every house in a village through gutters, and then pipes it to a network of multitier, underground reservoirs. Currently implemented in six drought-prone villages in the Churu District of Rajasthan, the system captures enough rainwater to meet the drinking needs of an entire village for 12 months.
    won the USD 100,000 Lemelson-MIT Award for Sustainability earlier this year. The system currently supplies some 10,000 people with fresh water, and the Government of Rajasthan has signed a letter of intent to implement Aakash Ganga in 50 villages to serve another 125,000 people.
    A100-village plan is being evaluated for implementation as a public-private-community partnership or social enterprise.

  • it’s often too conflicting voices:
    designer’s voice / right side: matters when needs are met and usage happens, they celebrate early
    business/practical voic / left side: matters when making a meaningful diff at scale
    of course both are right, let’s explore further: 1. needs / behavior change and 2. making a diff at scale

    use project masiluleke as an example
    south africa / world cup
    japan 1-0 cameroon
    sat against netherlands
  • but big problem
  • kzn = region of south africa = kwazulu-natal
    massive hiv problem - 40% of the population
    Here are the numbers – resources are just not going to catch up. Even with a change in leadership, the most advacned economy in africa,, incredible resource richness and free testing available in every hospital and clinic in the country
  • first step for designers - usability

  • basic idea -- in-home saliva testing
    huge advances from blood testing
    remove stigma of going to the clinic
  • clever packaging

  • let’s look at the for-profit world
    the designer’s first question is framed differently in the lens of business
  • good designer will look at this level automatically
  • modular packaging
    There is existing demand for self-testing solutions
    Self test kits are available at many pharmacies but cost $18.
    Healthcare workers routinely steal them from their clinics.
    None have been designed to appeal to South Africans specifically.
  • Communities can participate in assembling the kits, building local pride and a strong sense that they can help themselves.

  • how do you drive usability
    now we get into motivation and awareness


  • how do you drive usability
    now we get into motivation and awareness


  • how do you drive usability
    now we get into motivation and awareness


  • how do you drive usability
    now we get into motivation and awareness


  • designers don’t really understand motivation
    from “a behavioral model for persuasive design” by bj fogg
    motivation: sensation, anticipation, social cohesion
    ability: cd be training, but really simplicity as a function of your scarcest resource (time, money)

  • triggers:
    facilitators: high motivation, low ability (free testing at clinics)
    spark: high ability, low motivation (spam)
    signal: high ability, high motivation
    let’s think about signals: highly simple, low cost, with high motivational angles

  • mobile is the solution - 90% penetration
    the power of mobile in developing markets -- we believe deeply in this, we know how mobile can change behavior
    ‘Call-Me-Backs’ a type of free messaging that is unique to Africa and used primarily by low income people in poor communities.
    1-2 million messages going out everyday

  • but the mobile layer presents a challenge
    how do we operationalize this?
  • multiple service layers
    call centers - pro and hiv-positive contributors
    mobile layer
    MTN #2 operator has donated 5% of PCM’s, Call volume has tripled to more 5,000 / day,
    160,000 people have reached out so far, We are rotating different HIV / TB messaged and testing incentives

  • as we studied awareness, another issue came up
    awareness naturally fades over time
    hard to commit people to testing
  • solution - mobile again
    celebrity buddies (local and international)
    community participation
    align solution points over the spectrum of engagement

  • this really complete the customer journey for us
    designing for endorsement is needed to guarantee the scalability of usage

    now can we say the design has meaning?
    this has a complement when we put our business hat on

  • this really complete the customer journey for us
    designing for endorsement is needed to guarantee the scalability of usage

    now can we say the design has meaning?
    this has a complement when we put our business hat on

  • scalability of usage seems to suggest meaning
    does this design have meaning, all of what we’ve created?
    it seems like it...
  • scalability of usage seems to suggest meaning
    does this design have meaning, all of what we’ve created?
    it seems like it...
  • recall the 4 ingredients that seem to ensure operational success
  • even this much required partners:
    mtn: sms free bandwidth
    praekelt and iteach: call centers
    other parties: funding and pm
  • but we’re in the business of innovation -- how do we really achieve impact?
    can this apply to other parts of africa? china? etc.
  • can this extend beyond hiv. tb and malaria?
    more partners and funding are not enough.
  • to really achieve impact, we need to approach social innovation like the highest level of corporate strategy
    one of the lessons we see in the for-profit world: the role of quantitative eval, large-scale studies to prove a product is desirable
    what’s the analog in our case?

  • a large field-trial in conjunction with mass general hospital
    6000 participants
    quant validation
    then we can say this works and we have scientific data to prove it
    this gets more private funding, gov’t funding, partner support

  • in summary, meaning
    but to achieve meaning - we need to think about usage across the journey, from motivation to awareness to first use to repeated use to advocacy

  • and to achieve impact, we need to focus on the harder parts - manufacturing, operationalization, commercialization, scaling, validity


  • in closing, everyone has ideas, at frog we see thousands of them
    it’s easy to come up with ideas and make them beautiful
    so much attention is put on the cleverness of the idea, the beauty of it, it’s natural for us to gravitate to the sexy
    so many contests, conferences, articles, events that reward the sexiness and cleverness of the idea
    this takes more than designers - strategists, operators, managers, engineers, advocates, partners.
    it’s not the sexy part, but it’s what makes design matter.

  • Universal design business_symposium_tokyo_01rc

    1. Meaning and impact: Design that matters Universal Design Business Symposium 2010 Tokyo, Japan June 18, 2010 Ravi Chhatpar Strategy Director
    2. we are frog
    3. what does it mean for design to matter, to have meaning and impact?
    4. but what about social impact? how do we know when design matters?
    5. what does this tell us about design that matters?
    6. 10,000,000 120,000 1. OUTREACH 2. TESTING 3. TREATMENT 40% 10% 5% 2% 1% 4,000,000 400,000 500,000 200,000 120,000 People estimated HIV positive people People who have People currently in People still in HIV infected in KZN. who will develop been tested and treatment. 40% defaulttreatment after AIDS each year. know their status in 2 years. two years. (cumulative)
    7. USE
    8. Ensure the product is usable (and smart and beautiful) 23
    9. Product Development Design, develop and test a new product or service Ensure the product is usable (and smart and beautiful) 23
    10. Product Development Design, develop and test a new product or service 24
    11. Product Management Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a (PRD) new product or service Ensure the product can be manufactured given cost constraints 24
    12. is this enough?
    13. USE
    14. adoption action USE
    15. awareness exposure adoption action USE
    16. awareness exposure motivation adoption triggers action USE
    17. awareness exposure motivation adoption triggers action USE
    18. Product Management Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a (PRD) new product or service 32
    19. Product Marketing Set screening criteria for operational Product Management decisions (MRD) Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a (PRD) new product or service Ensure the product can be operationalized in the field 32
    20. 1 2 3 4 5 6
    21. awareness exposure motivation adoption triggers action USE
    22. awareness endorsement exposure recommend motivation adoption triggers action USE
    23. awareness endorsement exposure recommend motivation adoption triggers action USE meaning
    24. Product Marketing Set screening criteria for operational Product Management decisions (MRD) Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a (PRD) new product or service 37
    25. Biz Unit Strategy Build business plan, set operational requirements Product Marketing Set screening criteria for operational Product Management decisions (MRD) Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a (PRD) new product or service Ensure the product can scale 37
    26. Biz Unit Strategy Build business plan, set operational requirements Product Marketing Set screening criteria for operational Product Management decisions (MRD) Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a Commercialization & Launch (PRD) new product or service Build a marketing plan, rollout strategy, and launch plan Ensure the product can scale 37
    27. OFF-THE-SHELF DIAGNOSTICS 1 Rapid advances in low cost diagnostic tools that provide immediate feedback. MODULAR PACKAGING 2 Low cost packaging that can be easily adapted to the needs of different markets. LOCAL ASSEMBLY & DISTRIBUTION 3 Active participation by the community in assembling and distributing the solution. INTEGRATED MOBILE SERVICES 4 Integrated mobile platform to deliver support through ultra low cost messaging services.
    28. Biz Unit Strategy Build business plan, set operational requirements Product Marketing Set screening criteria for operational Product Management decisions (MRD) Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a Commercialization & Launch (PRD) new product or service Build a marketing plan, rollout strategy, and launch plan 42
    29. Corporate Strategy Set goals and objectives for innovation efforts Biz Unit Strategy Build business plan, set operational requirements Product Marketing Set screening criteria for operational Product Management decisions (MRD) Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a Commercialization & Launch (PRD) new product or service Build a marketing plan, rollout strategy, and launch plan Ensure the product has impact 42
    30. “The world’s biggest field trial of mobile health technology.” - The Economist, ‘Doctor in your Pocket’ “The most ambitious patient-centered mobile health initiative on record.” - Rockefeller Foundation “The vanguard of global public health.” - Global Health Center, MGH
    31. awareness endorsement exposure recommend motivation adoption triggers action USE meaning
    32. Corporate Strategy Set goals and objectives for innovation efforts Biz Unit Strategy Build business plan, set operational requirements Product Marketing Set screening criteria for operational Product Management decisions (MRD) Build a business case, set Product Development design requirements Design, develop and test a Commercialization & Launch (PRD) new product or service Build a marketing plan, rollout strategy, and launch plan impact 46

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