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Future Forum 2013 - Kurt Schmidinger

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Il futuro dell'alimentazione. www.futureforum.it #esserenuovi

Il futuro dell'alimentazione. www.futureforum.it #esserenuovi

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  • 1. Future Food – nutrition (almost) without livestock? The consequences of the worldwide production of 65 billion farm animals per year on the environment and climate, global nutrition, animal welfare and human health – and possible alternatives! Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 2. Livestock / Consumption of animal products Global consequences – the major 4: Environment (incl. climate) World nutrition / world hunger Animal rights and animal welfare Human health Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 3. World hunger / environment Meat = lengthened food chain => requires 5-15 times more areas, plants, water etc. to feed humans (Exception: Pure pasture management of ruminants, which on the other hand requires huge areas, causes much of the methane-issues, furthermore only small share of global production). Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 4. World hunger / environment Input / Output: 1 out of 7 calories converted to meat, what happens with the rest? Metabolic losses inevitable (compare humans), Bread example, livestock first of all an efficient production of excrements, meat as „side product“, by far biggest waste of food globally, 1/3 of world harvest (cereals+soya) converted to excrements! Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 5. Environment: Climate, water, erosion, land consumption, ... « The livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. The findings of this report suggest that it should be a major policy focus when dealing with problems of land degradation, climate change and air pollution, water shortage and water pollution and loss of biodiversity. Livestock’s contribution to environmental problems is on a massive scale and its potential contribution to their solution is equally large. The impact is so significant that it needs to be addressed with urgency. Major redutions in impact could be achieved at reasonable cost » Livestock’s Long Shadow, FAO 2006 Land consumption, water consumption, water pollution, rainforest destruction Climate, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, air pollution Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 6. Environment: Climate change (1) According to the FAO, the livestock-sector is responsible for 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions – more than total worldwide traffic (aeroplanes, cars, trucks, trains, ...): < Methane (CH4): digestion of ruminants, … Nitrous Oxide (N2O): fertilizer, manure, … Carbon dioxide (CO2): fire clearing of rainforests etc. Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 7. Environment: Climate change (2) Interdisciplinary Study NL: Worldwide Reduction (definition see paper) of consumption of animal products saves 20 000 000 000 000 US$ (=50%) of climate stabilisation costs (Aim: GHG concentration levels 2050 same as today) - enough to build 130 million one-family houses at the cost of US$ 150 000 each - new houses for whole Europe! Reasons: 1. Saving of the CO2, N2O and CH4-emissions from livestock, < 2. Vastly reduced land consumption, partly regrowing forests, bushes => huge CO2-sink due to regrowing forests => climate protection “almost for free”! Link: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16573-eating-less-meat-could-cutclimate-costs.html Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 8. Environment: Rainforest destruction Fire clearance of rainforests Pastures for cattle Feed monocultures (85% of global soy harvest as animal feed) CO2-emissions due to fire clearances or later: agricultural areas prevent that woods can function as CO2-sink (CO2-“sponge”) Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 9. Environment: Excrements Manure – water pollution worldwide Enormous amounts, more than humans produce - no wonder as farm animal population > 25 billion (> 3 times number of humans) and “production” of 65 billion farm animals per year. Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 10. World hunger Of 7 billion humans 800 000 000 suffer from hunger, among these are 200 000 000 children. 25 000 people die from malnutrition each day. FAO-Report “Crop Prospects and Food Situation” 2008: 754 million tons of cereals are fed to farm animals each year (with a yield of 1:7 for calorie-conversion this is a loss of calculated 650 million tons of cereals for human nutrition) – soy, etc. not yet included Compare: Due to biofuel production (2nd biggest problem for loss of calories at croplands) we lose “only” 100 million tons of cereals for human nutrition Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 11. World hunger FAO-Report “Crop Prospects and Food Situation” 2008: 754 million tons of cereals are fed to farm animals each year (with a yield of 1:7 for calorie-conversion this is a loss of calculated 650 million tons of cereals for human nutrition). Soy, etc. not yet included. Compare: Due to biofuel production (2nd biggest problem for loss of calories at croplands) we lose “only” 100 million tons of cereals for human nutrition. Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 12. World hunger / environment The biomass of all farm animals exceeds the mass of all wild vertebrates on land by a factor of 20!! Source: V. Smil The Earth‘s Biosphere 25 billion alive at a moment 65 billion slaughtered per year Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 13. World hunger / environment Food waste during the production of animal based food Animal derived foods: Food chain with 3 (plant of 2 elements (plant human) => inefficient animal human) instead > 10 plant calories for 1 calorie of beef > 5 plant calories für 1 calorie of pork > 3 plant calories für 1 calorie of poultry ! ! 1/3 of world harvest (soy + cereals) converted to excrements (with an upward tendency) Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 14. World hunger / environment Meat = lengthened food chain => requires 5-15 times more areas, plants, water etc. to feed humans (Exception: Pure pasture management of ruminants, which on the other hand requires huge areas, causes much of the methane-issues, furthermore only small share of global production). Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 15. World hunger / environment Livestock and the cultivation of feed require: = almost 80% of total global agricultural land (cropland plus pastures) = 30% of total land surface of the earth = 2/3 OF ALL areas used by humans globally Source: FAO, 2006; Goodland R. et al,1999 Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 16. World hunger / environment Short food chain plant human could release enormous areas globally: Possibilities to use these: Regrowing vegetation could absorb huge amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere (see slides earlier, interdisciplinary study NL): Massive contribution to climate stabilisation Growing of maize for renewable plastic alternatives without causing a global food crisis Photovoltaics for energy production, maybe even biofuels would make sense again ... Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 17. Health: What means ... vegetarian: No meat, no fish, but milk and dairy products and eggs. vegan: no animal products at all, i.e. no meat, dairy, eggs, fish, ... further forms like raw food, macrobiotics, frutarism, ... Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 18. Maybe at least meat is healthy ... ? Vegan instead of ears! Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 19. Maybe at least meat is healthy ... ? Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 20. Health – veggies celebrate! And these are especially important advantages again especially for vegan diets: De facto all worldwide pandemics of the last decades (bird flu, swine flu, EHEC, BSE, ...) and of the future (...,...,...) from intensive livestock farms: Billions of animals packed together, bad housing, bad immune system, ... => without livestock avoidable! Antibiotic resistance from intensive livestock farms (“factory farming”) would be avoidable Bacterial food poisoning (salmonellosis, E Coli, etc.) mostly a problem with animal products => avoidable You get far less of these “evils”: Cholesterol, arachidonic acid, purines, saturated fatty acids, also free radicals/ox.stress, ... You get more of these “good things”: Vitamin C+E, fibres (whole meal) and phytochemiclas (fruits!, vegetables!, antioxidative effects etc.) Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 21. Health – “meat sicknesses” (1) The (high) consumption of animal products is linked to the following sicknesses: Cardiovascular diseases (Oxford Studies, 7th Day Adventists study, studies of the ADA, Uni Gießen, Bundesgesundheitsamt Berlin, u.v.m.) Colon Cancer (American Cancer Society, Univ. Oxford, Univ. San Diego, Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg), breast cancer (Harvard Medical School), prostate cancer (PCRM, Washington DC), gastric cancers (EPIC) Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 22. Health – “meat sicknesses” (2) Osteoporosis (!) (UC San Francisco, USDA-ARS) Multiple sclerosis (CHRU Grenoble) Gallstones Type 2 diabetes Obesity Allergies Rheumatoid Arthritis (UUH Oslo) Links to the papers www.futurefood.org Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock For the world Health Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 23. Animal welfare Most mother sows in Europe, China or the US live like that … and almost all fattening pigs like this Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 24. Animal welfare – “factory farming life” Films / Documentaries Documentaries 10-25 minutes: Meet your Meat (USA, but in many aspects similar conditions in Europe, too): http://www.meat.org/ Intensive pig farming, focus on Austria (German): http://www.tierrechtsfilme.at/langfilme/schweinehaltung_lucie/lucie .htm Force feeding of ducks and geese (forbidden in many countries, but imported almost everywhere): http://www.vierpfoten.org/website/output.php?id=1177&idcontent= 1909&language=2 Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 25. Animal welfare – “factory farming life” Films / Documentaries 95 minutes documentary: „Earthlings“: http://veg-tv.info/Earthlings Awarded comic (short) – The Meatrix: http://www.themeatrix.com/ Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 26. Livestock / consumption of animal products is the biggest ... on earth !! land consumer water consumer water contaminator contributor to rainforest destruction foodfood-waster cause of billionfold suffering of animals risk factor for food poisonings risk factor for global pandemics one of the biggest or the biggest ... on earth!! factor in loss of biodiversity cause for soil erosion risk factor for lifestyle diseases risk factor for antibiotic resistances is one of the biggest ... on earth!! climate killers air polluter Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 27. Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 28. What could lead to a collapse of the „factory farming“ practices? Human reason / ethics ???? Top-products as alternatives to animal products ?? Food shortages (climate?) / concurrency of non-food croplands (plastic alternatives made of maize, biofuels) ?? Antibiotic-resistances from intensive livestock facilities ??? Serious new pandemics from intensive livestock facilities ? Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 29. Success criteria? Flavour: Taste, aroma, smell, texture, satiety feeling, ... Price Marketing, target groups, advertising Health Shelf life / hygiene / logistic advantages Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 30. www.futurefood.org Alternatives to animal products “Vegetarian meat”: All raw materials to replace meat “Non dairy milk products”: All raw materials to replace dairy milk, cheese, joghurt etc. “Replace egg products”: All raw materials to replace egg products Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 31. Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 32. Vegetarian meat Wheat: Wheat gluten (seitan) Soy: Soya meat (TVP), tofu, tempeh, sprouted soybeans Sweet lupines Fresh mushrooms Fermented fungi, e.g. Quorn Algae Rice, peas Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 33. Some top brands veget. meat Tofurky (Turtle Islands Foods): Oregon, USA Sausages, roasts and others, based on tofu and wheat gluten, but also tempeh. Gardein (Garden Protein Int.): British Columbia, Canada "Chicken"-wings,-filets,-breasts und-stripes, skewers and more, Based on soy protein and wheat gluten. Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 34. Some top brands veget. meat Fry’s: South Africa Huge variety of vegetarian meat alternatives, based on soy protein and wheat protein. and many others Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 35. Plant based alternatives to dairy products Drinks (“milk”), yoghurts, cream, sour cream made from soy, oat, almond, rice, coco, quinoa, millet, spelt, barley, kamut. Often fortified with B2, B12, D2, calcium, A, B6, folic acid, E Ice cream from soy, rice, etc. “Cheese” from soy protein, pea protein, tofu, potato starch, rice starch, soy oil, other plant based fats and oils, nut butter, thickening agents, yeast, but also: tapioca- u. arrowroot flour, rapeseed oil, safflower oil, coconut oil, etc. Desserts, confectionaries, margarine ... Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 36. Plant based alternatives to egg products Alternatives to egg products for the industry: About 10 companies in the US, NL, UK and others. Made of gelling and thickening agents (alginate, carrageen, guar flour, locust bean gum, xanthan gum), soy lecithin, potato protein, potato starch, full soy beans, wheat gluten, corn syrup, sometimes also dairy(!) or egg(!!) ingredients see http://www.futurefood.org/eggproducts/index_en.php Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 37. Plant based alternatives to egg products At home: “Egg replacers” by Ener-G, Orgran or others (potato-, tapioca starch, CMC, citric acid, calcium carbonate) Or simply use soy flour, baking powder, mineral water, locust bean gum, agar-agar, soaked linseeds, etc. “Vegan fried egg”, “vegan yolk” by “The Vegg”: Yeast flakes, alginates, sulphur salt, β-carotene Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 38. Futuristic approaches Biofermenter: Peter Arras / AKT, Germany, take ruminants as model/guide food out of straw, harvest waste, etc. (all this would suddenly also be basis for human nutrition) In Vitro Meat: ”Real” meat without animals, produced out of cells in labs. Technological basic facts: Initial cells, culture medium incl. growth factors, bioreactors, etc. see http://www.futurefood.org/DissertationSchmidinger.pdf, chapt.12 Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 39. Futuristic approaches – in vitro meat Some protagonists: Henk Haagsman and Bernard Roelen (NL): Work continuously, search for basic understanding Mark Post (NL): Supported by Sergey Brin, presented the first in-vitro-meat burger of the world for 250.000 € in August 2013. Julie Gold (Sweden), US-NGO new-harvest.org and (in earlier times more active) Stig Omholt (Norway, with 1. in-vitro-meat symposium): Networking Gabor a. Andras Forgacs (USA): “Modern Meadow”, 3D-printer, Thiel-Foundation Vladimir Mironov and Nick Genovese (USA): PeTA, 3-D-printer, networking, mastermind Oron Catts & Ionat Zurr (AUS): Artists from Australia Willem van Eelen (NL): Pioneer, cultured meat patent Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 40. Tips: This Presentation: http://www.futurefood.org/basic_english.ppt Tips for canteen kitchens: Canteen kitchen project: www.gv-nachhaltig.de/ Regional veggie-gastronomy: Udine on www.happycow.net: “La Libellula”, Via Marsala 92 Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 41. We just have this one world … Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist
  • 42. Dr. Kurt Schmidinger Graduate in Geophysics & Doctor in Food Science Project Leader www.futurefood.org Tel. +43 / 676 / 33 22 107 Kurt.schmidinger@futurefood.org Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist

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