With turkey production, there has been a shift away from the Southeast and North Central regions of the USA towards the South Central region with no change in the West. The South Central region is the dominant region contributing data representing about 55% of all the turkeys covered in the previous surveys, followed by 29.2% from the Southeast region, 10.6% from the North Central region and 5.2% from the West. According to the USDA, actual production distribution was about 35% in the Southeast, 26% in the North Central and 10% in the West. South East = Atlantic Coast states, Pennsylvania South Central = Ohio, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas North Central = Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Michigan, Wisconsin West = California, Rocky Mountain States
France goose production involves the production of a delicacy referred to as foie gras. This pate is made from the livers of artifically fattened geese, and sometimes ducks. The product is exported to all parts of the world in several forms – a pate, sausage, a puree or as the plain cooked livers (foie gras au naturel). Foie gras [Fr.,=fat liver], livers of artificially fattened geese. Ducks and chickens are also sometimes used in the making of foie gras. The birds, kept in close coops to prevent exercise, are systematically fed to the limit of their capacity. Under this treatment the livers are brought to weigh 2 or 3 lb (1.0–1.5 kg) or more. Foie gras was prized by epicures in Egypt, Greece, and Rome, but the fattening of geese for their livers became a lost art during the Middle Ages except in Strasbourg. The industry was revived in the 18th cent. following the creation of pâté de foie gras by Jean Joseph Close (or Clause), a chef brought to Alsace by a French governor of the province. The pâté is made by cooking fresh livers, reducing them to a paste delicately seasoned with wine and aromatics and combining it with truffles and finely chopped veal. The making of foie gras has become a famous industry of Strasbourg and of Toulouse, France. The product is exported to all parts of the world in several forms—the esteemed pâté; foie gras au naturel, the plain cooked livers; a sausage; and a purée.
This photo just shows the process of force feeding for foie gras production. In this case it is a duck being force feed.
Commercial squab farms can be found in Europe, Australia and North America In the USA, a squab industry was established by the middle of the 19th century and still flourishes, particularly in the southern states. These are photos from a commercial squab complex in California.
Introduction to Animal Science POULTRY Lecture 3 Dr. Jacquie Jacob Modified by Tony Seykora
Weight = 2 lb Eggs/yr = 10-12 JUNGLE FOWLMEAT PRODUCTION PUREBRED EGG PRODUCTION
“Broiler”: Where did the name come from?• Term used to initial method of preparation – “… broilers was the American name for young birds from five to six weeks old, which are picked up, plucked and trussed, split open, and broiled much like a mackerel.”
U.S. CHICKEN MEAT INDUSTRY• An agribusiness giant – Sells $25 billion worth of product at the wholesale level – Generates $40 billion in retail sales
Broiler Production by State in 2008 Billions of Broilers2.Georgia 1.43.Arkansas 1.24.Alabama 1.119. Minnesota .04
U.S. BROILER INDUSTRY• Today most chicken meat is produced by vertically integrated companies – Companies own the hatcheries, feed mills, processing plants, marketing schemes and contract with broiler breeders (for production of the hatching eggs) and broiler growers (to raise out the broiler chicks)
Broilers are generally grown outby contract growers.
CHICKEN MEAT PRODUCTION• Dedicated meat chickens (broilers) were initially based on Barred Plymouth Rock and New Hampshire breeds • Later they also included Cornish and White Plymouth Rock
Pedigree flocks (Pure lines) Male Line Female Line #1 #2 #3 #4Great-Grandparents ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀Grandparents ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Expansion flocks (Inbreeding) ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Parents ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ Broiler chick
BROILER PRODUCTION• Marketed at 4-10 weeks of age – Cornish hens • 4 weeks of age and 2.85 lb – Fast food restaurants • 6 weeks of age and 4.1 lb – For grocery stores • 7.5 weeks of age and 6.0 lb – Deboned chicken for sandwiches, nuggets, etc • 8.5 weeks of age and 6.5 lb
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Growth of the U.S. broiler industry isdependent upon international trade (i.e.,exports)
Factors affecting ability to export• Politics• Disease status of exporting country – Avian Influenza – Exotic Newcastle disease
Total chicken meat production (metric tons in RTC equivalents) Rank Country 2001 Production 1 United States 14,210,000 2 China 9,401,000 3 Brazil 6,223,000 4 Mexico 1,898,000 5 Thailand 1,260,000 6 United Kingdom 1,258,000 7 Japan 1,180,000 8 France 1,100,000 9 Spain 1,012,000 10 Canada 943,000
PIGEONS• Originally kept for meat• Later selected for homing ability – used by ancient Greeks – used during the war• Also used for racing and game competition
Squab productionCommercial production in Europe, Australia and North America [Bokhari Squab Farm, California, USA]
Pigeons• Pigeons are not precocial (they are altricial) so are not typically hatched artificially (i.e., can’t buy day-old squab like you can buy day-old chicks) 2 days 10 days 20 days
Altricial vs. Precocial• Altricial – Species whose individuals are insufficiently developed at birth/hatching to see, move in a coordinated fashion and fend for themselves – Neonatal individuals require considerable parental care• Precocial – Species whose individuals are sufficiently developed at birth/hatching to see, move in a coordinated fashion and fend fairly well for themselves – Neonatal individuals require much less parental care
Pigeons• Squab taken when 25 to 30 days old and weighing ¾ to 1½ lb.
Commercial ostrich production South Africa and Israel supply meat, hide and feathers to European countries, Japan and North America Switzerland and Belgium are the biggest importers of ostrich meat Japan and the United States are the biggest importers of tanned ostrich hides
EmuDromaius novaehollandiae, family Dromaiidae
Commercial guinea fowl production Native flocks are found about villages and homes in parts of East and West Africa, and free-ranging flocks can be seen in many parts of India. During the slavery era, they were introduced from Africa to the Americas to be used for food.
Commercial guinea fowl production• Europe dominates industrial production – France, Italy, the Soviet Union, and Hungary all raise millions of guinea fowl under intensive conditions, just as they raise chickens - mainly to produce meat for luxury markets – Many of Europes chicken farmers and breeders, wishing to diversify, have switched to guinea fowl