Introduction to Animal Science           POULTRY             Lecture 3         Dr. Jacquie Jacob      Modified by Tony Sey...
Weight = 2 lb         Eggs/yr = 10-12                           JUNGLE FOWLMEAT PRODUCTION                          PUREBR...
CHICKENS  (Gallus domesticus)BROILER INDUSTRY
“Broiler”:   Where did the name come from?• Term used to initial method of  preparation  – “… broilers was the American na...
U.S. CHICKEN MEAT INDUSTRY• An agribusiness giant  – Sells $25 billion worth of product at the    wholesale level  – Gener...
Broiler Production by State in 2008                  Billions of Broilers2.Georgia          1.43.Arkansas         1.24.Ala...
Broiler Production in 2007
U.S. BROILER INDUSTRY• Today most chicken meat is produced by  vertically integrated companies  – Companies own the hatche...
Broilers are generally grown outby contract growers.
CHICKEN MEAT PRODUCTION• Dedicated meat chickens (broilers) were  initially based on Barred Plymouth Rock  and New Hampshi...
Pedigree flocks (Pure lines)      Male Line             Female Line                                 #1       #2           ...
BROILER INDUSTRY             HistoryYear Weight Feed efficiency Age marketed      (lbs) (lbs feed/lb gain) (weeks)1935 2.8...
BROILER PRODUCTION• Marketed at 4-10 weeks of age  – Cornish hens     • 4 weeks of age and 2.85 lb  – Fast food restaurant...
Boneless Skinless Chicken Breast FilletsIndividually wrapped, marinated and hand-trimmed for the ultimate in nutrition(99-...
BROILER HOUSES         Evaporative cooling pads
Mechanic loading ofbroilers and turkeys
Growth of the U.S. broiler industry isdependent upon international trade (i.e.,exports)
Factors affecting ability to export• Politics• Disease status of exporting country  – Avian Influenza  – Exotic Newcastle ...
Total chicken meat production        (metric tons in RTC equivalents) Rank        Country            2001 Production  1   ...
Other chicken meat breeds:          Silkies
Silkie chickens• Believed to be medicinal by Asian population• Black skin, black meat, black bones• Five toes
TURKEYS (Meleagris gallopavo)TURKEY INDUSTRY
Wild turkey indigenous to the ‘New World’
TURKEYS     Turkeys brought back to America by colonists        Turkeys taken to Spain by Spanish explorersAztecs domestic...
TURKEYS• Kept commercially for meat production
National Institute of Food and Agriculture                                GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN RBC 1966          Modern ...
2007 Turkey Production
2009 state Turkey Production                   Millions 1. Minnesota       45.5 2. North Carolina 37.5 3. Arkansas        ...
Turkey production: Range production
Turkey production:   Confinement
Turkey Industry• Increasing emphasis on value-added products                      Quarter breast:                      Ove...
Turkey products  Ground turkey        Hot dogs    Luncheon meats         BaconRoast in its own bag     Sausage            ...
Turkey productsGizzards                     Turkey Fries                             = Male gonads
OTHERPOULTRY SPECIES
DUCKS            (Anas platyrhynchos)Descended from the wild         mallard(except for the Muscovy          duck)
Male sex-feather                   MALLARD
WILD MALLARDMEAT PRODUCTION                       EXHIBITION                  EGG PRODUCTIONRouen    Pekin                ...
MUSCOVY DUCK                      Cairina moschata     •   Has a body like a duck     •   Nests, attacks predators, and hi...
MUSCOVY DUCKS• Originated in South America• Because of tropical origin, has lower  body fat content
Mule duckMuscovy male x Mallard female
Moulard duckMuscovy male x Pekin female
Foie grasIn some commercial plants, ducks or geese are fattened bya special process resulting in a considerable enlargemen...
Foie gras production
Duck egg productsBalut: Eggs incubated until just before the embryos  form feathers                          Balut
GEESE(Anser anser)
GEESE• Domestic breeds of     • Domestic breeds of  western origin: from     eastern origins: from  the Greylag goose     ...
Meat      Foie grasFeathers   Down
Embden                          Toulouse           - the two most popular breeds in the U.S.Chinese geese comein two color...
PIGEONSfrom the Rock Dove (Columba livia)
PIGEONS• Originally kept for meat• Later selected for homing ability  – used by ancient Greeks  – used during the war• Als...
Squab productionCommercial production in Europe, Australia and North America                [Bokhari Squab Farm, Californi...
Pigeons• Pigeons are not precocial (they are altricial) so  are not typically hatched artificially (i.e., can’t  buy day-o...
Altricial vs. Precocial• Altricial – Species whose individuals are  insufficiently developed at birth/hatching to see,  mo...
Pigeons• Squab taken when 25 to 30 days old and  weighing ¾ to 1½ lb.
RATITES• Ostriches (Asia, Europe, Africa)• Emus (Australia)• Rheas (South America)
OstrichStruthio camelus, family StruthionidaeFemale                             Male
Ostrich industry
Commercial ostrich production South Africa and Israel supply  meat, hide and feathers to  European countries, Japan and  ...
EmuDromaius novaehollandiae, family Dromaiidae
Emu industry
Commercial emu production         • Australia         • Canada
Rheafamily Rheidae (two species)
Rhea industry
Commercial rhea production      Small industry in:         – Canada         – U.K.
Game birds• For release in hunting preserves• For meat production• For egg production (depending on species)
PheasantAlso known as the Ring-necked Pheasant.
The Ring-necked Pheasant is native toRussia. It has been introduced all overthe world as a game bird.
PartridgeIn the pheasant family, intermediate in sizebetween pheasants and quail. Not native toU.S.
Quail• Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix)  – divergently selected for egg production    and meat yield• Bobwhite quail (Co...
Japanese quail                 Bobwhite quail
Guinea fowl
Commercial guinea fowl production Native flocks are found about villages  and homes in parts of East and West  Africa, an...
Commercial guinea fowl production• Europe dominates industrial production  – France, Italy, the Soviet Union, and Hungary ...
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  • With turkey production, there has been a shift away from the Southeast and North Central regions of the USA towards the South Central region with no change in the West. The South Central region is the dominant region contributing data representing about 55% of all the turkeys covered in the previous surveys, followed by 29.2% from the Southeast region, 10.6% from the North Central region and 5.2% from the West. According to the USDA, actual production distribution was about 35% in the Southeast, 26% in the North Central and 10% in the West. South East = Atlantic Coast states, Pennsylvania South Central = Ohio, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas North Central = Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Michigan, Wisconsin West = California, Rocky Mountain States
  • France goose production involves the production of a delicacy referred to as foie gras. This pate is made from the livers of artifically fattened geese, and sometimes ducks. The product is exported to all parts of the world in several forms – a pate, sausage, a puree or as the plain cooked livers (foie gras au naturel). Foie gras [Fr.,=fat liver], livers of artificially fattened geese. Ducks and chickens are also sometimes used in the making of foie gras. The birds, kept in close coops to prevent exercise, are systematically fed to the limit of their capacity. Under this treatment the livers are brought to weigh 2 or 3 lb (1.0–1.5 kg) or more. Foie gras was prized by epicures in Egypt, Greece, and Rome, but the fattening of geese for their livers became a lost art during the Middle Ages except in Strasbourg. The industry was revived in the 18th cent. following the creation of pâté de foie gras by Jean Joseph Close (or Clause), a chef brought to Alsace by a French governor of the province. The pâté is made by cooking fresh livers, reducing them to a paste delicately seasoned with wine and aromatics and combining it with truffles and finely chopped veal. The making of foie gras has become a famous industry of Strasbourg and of Toulouse, France. The product is exported to all parts of the world in several forms—the esteemed pâté; foie gras au naturel, the plain cooked livers; a sausage; and a purée.
  • This photo just shows the process of force feeding for foie gras production. In this case it is a duck being force feed.
  • Commercial squab farms can be found in Europe, Australia and North America In the USA, a squab industry was established by the middle of the 19th century and still flourishes, particularly in the southern states. These are photos from a commercial squab complex in California.
  • Poultry3 2010

    1. 1. Introduction to Animal Science POULTRY Lecture 3 Dr. Jacquie Jacob Modified by Tony Seykora
    2. 2. Weight = 2 lb Eggs/yr = 10-12 JUNGLE FOWLMEAT PRODUCTION PUREBRED EGG PRODUCTION
    3. 3. CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus)BROILER INDUSTRY
    4. 4. “Broiler”: Where did the name come from?• Term used to initial method of preparation – “… broilers was the American name for young birds from five to six weeks old, which are picked up, plucked and trussed, split open, and broiled much like a mackerel.”
    5. 5. U.S. CHICKEN MEAT INDUSTRY• An agribusiness giant – Sells $25 billion worth of product at the wholesale level – Generates $40 billion in retail sales
    6. 6. Broiler Production by State in 2008 Billions of Broilers2.Georgia 1.43.Arkansas 1.24.Alabama 1.119. Minnesota .04
    7. 7. Broiler Production in 2007
    8. 8. U.S. BROILER INDUSTRY• Today most chicken meat is produced by vertically integrated companies – Companies own the hatcheries, feed mills, processing plants, marketing schemes and contract with broiler breeders (for production of the hatching eggs) and broiler growers (to raise out the broiler chicks)
    9. 9. Broilers are generally grown outby contract growers.
    10. 10. CHICKEN MEAT PRODUCTION• Dedicated meat chickens (broilers) were initially based on Barred Plymouth Rock and New Hampshire breeds • Later they also included Cornish and White Plymouth Rock
    11. 11. Pedigree flocks (Pure lines) Male Line Female Line #1 #2 #3 #4Great-Grandparents ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀Grandparents ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Expansion flocks (Inbreeding) ♂ x ♀ ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ ♂ +♀Parents ♂ x ♀ ♂ +♀ Broiler chick
    12. 12. BROILER INDUSTRY HistoryYear Weight Feed efficiency Age marketed (lbs) (lbs feed/lb gain) (weeks)1935 2.80 4.4 16.01950 3.00 3.5 11.01975 3.75 2.0 8.01994 4.65 1.9 6.5
    13. 13. BROILER PRODUCTION• Marketed at 4-10 weeks of age – Cornish hens • 4 weeks of age and 2.85 lb – Fast food restaurants • 6 weeks of age and 4.1 lb – For grocery stores • 7.5 weeks of age and 6.0 lb – Deboned chicken for sandwiches, nuggets, etc • 8.5 weeks of age and 6.5 lb
    14. 14. Boneless Skinless Chicken Breast FilletsIndividually wrapped, marinated and hand-trimmed for the ultimate in nutrition(99-percent fat-free), flavor and convenience.Stuffed Chicken BreastsA truly special meal without the effort. Fresh, flavorful and ready to cook, in fiveoutstanding varieties. Go from fridge to extraordinary entrée in 25 to 30 minutes.Premium Selects KabobsReady-to-cook, skewered and lightly breaded boneless, skinless breast tenders.Just add fresh veggies for great grilling.Chili Lime MarinadesBoneless, skinless breasts marinated with chili peppers and the fresh zest of lime.Perfect on the grill or to spice up your favorite chicken salad recipe.
    15. 15. BROILER HOUSES Evaporative cooling pads
    16. 16. Mechanic loading ofbroilers and turkeys
    17. 17. Growth of the U.S. broiler industry isdependent upon international trade (i.e.,exports)
    18. 18. Factors affecting ability to export• Politics• Disease status of exporting country – Avian Influenza – Exotic Newcastle disease
    19. 19. Total chicken meat production (metric tons in RTC equivalents) Rank Country 2001 Production 1 United States 14,210,000 2 China 9,401,000 3 Brazil 6,223,000 4 Mexico 1,898,000 5 Thailand 1,260,000 6 United Kingdom 1,258,000 7 Japan 1,180,000 8 France 1,100,000 9 Spain 1,012,000 10 Canada 943,000
    20. 20. Other chicken meat breeds: Silkies
    21. 21. Silkie chickens• Believed to be medicinal by Asian population• Black skin, black meat, black bones• Five toes
    22. 22. TURKEYS (Meleagris gallopavo)TURKEY INDUSTRY
    23. 23. Wild turkey indigenous to the ‘New World’
    24. 24. TURKEYS Turkeys brought back to America by colonists Turkeys taken to Spain by Spanish explorersAztecs domesticate the turkey
    25. 25. TURKEYS• Kept commercially for meat production
    26. 26. National Institute of Food and Agriculture GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN RBC 1966 Modern 2003 Turkeys 112 days Havenstein and Qureshi et al, 2004 196 days
    27. 27. 2007 Turkey Production
    28. 28. 2009 state Turkey Production Millions 1. Minnesota 45.5 2. North Carolina 37.5 3. Arkansas 28.0
    29. 29. Turkey production: Range production
    30. 30. Turkey production: Confinement
    31. 31. Turkey Industry• Increasing emphasis on value-added products Quarter breast: Oven Roasted, Hickory Smoked, Honey Cured, Fat Free Rotisserie, Mesquite Flavored and Fat Free Garlic Pepper flavored Turkey ham: Processed from boneless tenderized turkey thigh meat
    32. 32. Turkey products Ground turkey Hot dogs Luncheon meats BaconRoast in its own bag Sausage Meatballs Pastrami
    33. 33. Turkey productsGizzards Turkey Fries = Male gonads
    34. 34. OTHERPOULTRY SPECIES
    35. 35. DUCKS (Anas platyrhynchos)Descended from the wild mallard(except for the Muscovy duck)
    36. 36. Male sex-feather MALLARD
    37. 37. WILD MALLARDMEAT PRODUCTION EXHIBITION EGG PRODUCTIONRouen Pekin Crested Khaki Indian Campbell Runner
    38. 38. MUSCOVY DUCK Cairina moschata • Has a body like a duck • Nests, attacks predators, and hisses like a goose • Roosts like a chicken • Has a plump breast like a turkeyNo male sex-feather
    39. 39. MUSCOVY DUCKS• Originated in South America• Because of tropical origin, has lower body fat content
    40. 40. Mule duckMuscovy male x Mallard female
    41. 41. Moulard duckMuscovy male x Pekin female
    42. 42. Foie grasIn some commercial plants, ducks or geese are fattened bya special process resulting in a considerable enlargement oftheir livers, which are sold as a delicacy, pâté de foie gras.
    43. 43. Foie gras production
    44. 44. Duck egg productsBalut: Eggs incubated until just before the embryos form feathers Balut
    45. 45. GEESE(Anser anser)
    46. 46. GEESE• Domestic breeds of • Domestic breeds of western origin: from eastern origins: from the Greylag goose the Swan goose??
    47. 47. Meat Foie grasFeathers Down
    48. 48. Embden Toulouse - the two most popular breeds in the U.S.Chinese geese comein two colors –white and grey.
    49. 49. PIGEONSfrom the Rock Dove (Columba livia)
    50. 50. PIGEONS• Originally kept for meat• Later selected for homing ability – used by ancient Greeks – used during the war• Also used for racing and game competition
    51. 51. Squab productionCommercial production in Europe, Australia and North America [Bokhari Squab Farm, California, USA]
    52. 52. Pigeons• Pigeons are not precocial (they are altricial) so are not typically hatched artificially (i.e., can’t buy day-old squab like you can buy day-old chicks) 2 days 10 days 20 days
    53. 53. Altricial vs. Precocial• Altricial – Species whose individuals are insufficiently developed at birth/hatching to see, move in a coordinated fashion and fend for themselves – Neonatal individuals require considerable parental care• Precocial – Species whose individuals are sufficiently developed at birth/hatching to see, move in a coordinated fashion and fend fairly well for themselves – Neonatal individuals require much less parental care
    54. 54. Pigeons• Squab taken when 25 to 30 days old and weighing ¾ to 1½ lb.
    55. 55. RATITES• Ostriches (Asia, Europe, Africa)• Emus (Australia)• Rheas (South America)
    56. 56. OstrichStruthio camelus, family StruthionidaeFemale Male
    57. 57. Ostrich industry
    58. 58. Commercial ostrich production South Africa and Israel supply meat, hide and feathers to European countries, Japan and North America Switzerland and Belgium are the biggest importers of ostrich meat Japan and the United States are the biggest importers of tanned ostrich hides
    59. 59. EmuDromaius novaehollandiae, family Dromaiidae
    60. 60. Emu industry
    61. 61. Commercial emu production • Australia • Canada
    62. 62. Rheafamily Rheidae (two species)
    63. 63. Rhea industry
    64. 64. Commercial rhea production Small industry in: – Canada – U.K.
    65. 65. Game birds• For release in hunting preserves• For meat production• For egg production (depending on species)
    66. 66. PheasantAlso known as the Ring-necked Pheasant.
    67. 67. The Ring-necked Pheasant is native toRussia. It has been introduced all overthe world as a game bird.
    68. 68. PartridgeIn the pheasant family, intermediate in sizebetween pheasants and quail. Not native toU.S.
    69. 69. Quail• Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) – divergently selected for egg production and meat yield• Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) – for meat production – for release in game preserves
    70. 70. Japanese quail Bobwhite quail
    71. 71. Guinea fowl
    72. 72. Commercial guinea fowl production Native flocks are found about villages and homes in parts of East and West Africa, and free-ranging flocks can be seen in many parts of India. During the slavery era, they were introduced from Africa to the Americas to be used for food.
    73. 73. Commercial guinea fowl production• Europe dominates industrial production – France, Italy, the Soviet Union, and Hungary all raise millions of guinea fowl under intensive conditions, just as they raise chickens - mainly to produce meat for luxury markets – Many of Europes chicken farmers and breeders, wishing to diversify, have switched to guinea fowl
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