1.DEFINE MANAGEMENT ? It is the process of involving Planning,Organising, Staffing, Directing and Controllinghuman efforts to achieve stated objectives in anorganization.According to Koontz “Management is the art ofgetting things done through and with people informally organised group.”
2.DISTINGUISH BETWEENADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT ? Top Administration (policy formulation) Organisational levels Management (policy execution) Lower Functions in organisation Figure: Administrative and managerial functions
BASIS OF ADMINISTRATIO MANAGEMENTDIFFERENCE N1.Level in Top level Middle and lowerorganisation level2.Major focus Policy Policy execution for formulation and objective objective achievement determination3.Nature of Determinative Executivefunctions4.Scope of functions Broad and Narrow and conceptual conceptual5.Factors affecting Mostly external Mostly internaldecisions6.Employer- Entrepreneurs Employeesemployee relation and owners7.Qualities required Administrative Technical
3.LIST THE FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT ? Five fundamental functions of management1. PLANNING :- deciding -what to do,when to do and how to do.2. ORGANISING :- departmentation of activities and delegation of authority & responsibility.3. STAFFING :- manning of the various position in an organiation.4 . DIRECTING :- directing subordinates for organisational objective.5. CONTROLLING :- Controlling means the measurement and correction of performance of activities of subordinates
EXPLAIN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT ?Different levels of management shown in following PictorialRepresentation:
Administrative or Top Level Responsible for providing the overall direction of an organization Develop goals and strategies for entire organization Spend most of their time planning and leading Communicate with key stakeholders— stockholders, unions, governmental agencies, etc., company policies Use of multicultural and strategic action competencies to lead firm is crucial
Executive or Middle Level Responsible for setting objectives that are consistent with top management’s goals and translating them into specific goals and plans for first-line managers to implement Responsible for coordinating activities of first-line managers Establish target dates for products/services to be delivered Need to coordinate with others for resources Ability to develop others is important Rely on communication, teamwork, and planning and administration competencies to achieve goals
Supervisory or Lower Level Directly responsible for production of goods or services Employees who report to first-line managers do the organization’s work Spend little time with top managers in large organizations Technical expertise is important Rely on planning and administration, self- management, teamwork, and communication competencies to get work done
WHAT IS MBO ? The term Management By Objectives (MBO) or ManagementBy Results(MBR) was coined by Peter Drucker in 1954. MBO is focuses sharply on the objectives or results achievedwith in a specified period. MBO emphasises participative management, an approachwhich provide high motivation to individuals in anorganisation
MBO is defined as a comprehensive managerial systemthat integrates many key managerial activities in asystematic manner ,consciously directed towards theeffective achievement of organisational objectives.
WHAT IS SWOT ANALYSIS ? SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used toevaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses,Opportunities, and Threatsinvolved in a project or in a business venture. This technique is invented by Albert Humphrey ▪ Strengths : characteristics of the business, or project team that give it an advantage over others. ▪ Weaknesses : are characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to others.
▪ Opportunities : external chances to improveperformance in the environment. ▪ Threats : external elements in the environment thatcould cause trouble for the business or project. The strengths and weaknesses are purely internal andthe opportunities and threats are purely external to theorganization.
DISTINGUISH FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANISATION ?Formal organisation :- They are deliberately designed toachieve some particular objectives. It refers to the structure of welldefined jobs, each bearing a definite authority, responsibility andaccountability.Informal organisation :- They refer to the natural groupingof people on the basis of some similarity in an organisation like-likes, dislikes, gender etc.. These associations are not specified inthe blueprint of the formal organisation.
Basis of comparison Formal organisation Informal organisationFormation / Origin Planned and Spontaneous, socio- deliberate psychological forcesPurpose Well-set goals Social interactionStructure Well structured UnstructuredNature Official UnofficialSize Generally large SmallAuthority Delegated Any oneCommunication Formal channel Informal channelGuidelines for Rules and procedures Group normsbehaviourAbolition At completion of Any time goals
EXPLAIN STAFFING FUNCTION IN MANAGEMMENT ? Staffing involves manning the various position in an organization. According to McFarland : “ Staffing is the function by which managers build an organisation through the recruitment,selection,and development of individuals as capable employees”. Placing right type of people at right position and at right time inthe organisation. Staffing involves: Manpower Recruitment, selection and placement Training and development Remuneration Performance appraisal Promotions and transfer
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY ? Basis Authority ResponsibilityMeaning It is the legitimate power of It is the obligation of the the manager to command his subordinate to complete subordinates. the assigned work.Origin It arises due to the position of It arises due to superior- superior. subordinate relationship.Flow It flows from top to bottom. It flows from bottom to top.Period It has longer period as It gets completed with compared to responsibility. the completion of the task so has the shorter period.Nature Authority is power. Responsibility is the duty.Delegation Authority can be delegated to Responsibility cannot be others. delegated.
EXPLAIN VISION AND MISSION OF AN ORGANISATION ?MISSION Mission is the statement of the role by which anorganisation intends to serve it’s stakeholders.It describeswhy an organisation is operating and thus provides aframework within which strategies are formulated. The mission statement is formulated for it’s customers andclients.VISION A vision statement identifies where the organisation wantsOr intend to be in future or where it should be to the bestneeds of the stakeholders.A vision statement for the organisation and it’s employer’s. The difference between a mission statement and a visionstatement is that a mission statement focuses on a company’spresent state while a vision statement focuses on a company’sfuture.
WRITE A NOTE ON SPAN OF CONTROL ? Span of control is also known as span of supervision or span ofmanagement. Depicts number of employees that can be handled andcontrolled by a single manager. Two types are available : ▪ Wide span of control In which a manager can supervise and control effectively a large group of persons at one time. ▪ Narrow span of control A manager can supervises a selected number of employees at one time. Factors influencing span of control ▪ Managerial abilities : it concerns where managers are capable, qualified and experienced.Hence wide span is suitable
▪ Competence of subordinates : Where subordinates are capable and competent and their understanding levels are proper. Hence wide span is suitable. ▪ Nature of work If work is repetitive nature wide span of supervision is helpful. If work requires mental skills,tight control and supervision ,narrow span is suitable. ▪ Delegation of authority When work is delegated to lower levels in efficent way, confusions are less.Here also wide span of control is suitable. ▪ Degree of decentralisation Decentralisation is done in order to achieve specialisation in which authority is shared by many people. Again wide span of control is needed.
DISCUSS THE EVOLUTION OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT ? Scientific management is a classical approach. Father of scientific management is Frederick Winslow Taylor. It is designed to focused on improving operational efficency at shop floor level. Taylor has defined scientific management as follows: “Scientific management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way.” ELEMENTS AND TOOLS OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 1. Separation of Planning and Doing ▪ Planning should be left to the supervisor and the worker focused only on operational work. 2. Functional Foremanship ▪ Taylor advocated appointment of 8 foremen, 4 at the planning level & other 4 at implementation level. ▪ All of them give direction to workers on different aspects of work. ▪ It is against unity of command principle.
WORKSHOP MANAGER PLANNING IN CHARGE PRODUCTION IN CHARGE Disci Instructio Repair Inspec SpeedROUTE Time & Gang plinar n card boss tor bossCLERK cost boss ian clerk Worker
3. Job Analysis ▪ To find out the best way of doing things,which requires less movements, time and cost . ▪ Determined by Time-Motion-Fatigue study. Time study- time required to complete a movement. Motion study-check which parts involved in doing job. Fatigue study-amount and frequency of rest required in completing work.4. Standardisation ▪ Standardisation made in respect of :-instruments and tools,period of work,amount of work,working conditions,cost of productions etc.5. Scientific Selection and Training of Workers ▪ Workers must be selected on the basis of their education,work experience,aptitude,physical strength etc. ▪ provide adequate training for making them efficent.6. Financial Incentives ▪ Introduce Differential Piece Rate System to motivate workers for providing maximum effort. ▪ one who completes the work who got higher rate and one who doesn’t complete gets lower rate.
7. Economy ▪ Adequate consideration is also given to economy and profit. ▪ Achieved by making resources more productive and eliminating the wastages. 8. Mental revolution ▪ Scientific management depends on mutual co- operation of management and workers. ▪ a complete mental revolution is needed between workers and management for their proper working. PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 1. Replacing Rule of Thumb with Science ▪ Scientific method emphasize on precision and rule of thumb emphasize on estimation. ▪ Scientific management measures various aspects of work precisely and not on the basis of mere estimates. 2. Harmony in Group Action ▪ Unity is needed in group action rather than discord.
▪ There must be mutual give and take situation and proper understanding is needed to achieve more profit. 3. Co-operation ▪ Scientific management needs co-operation rather than isolation. ▪ Co-operation between management and workers developed through mutual understanding and a change in thinking.4. Maximum Output ▪ Advice them to increase the surplus(means share profit with workers),So that mass production and more revenue will be occurred.5.Development of Workers ▪ Workers should be developed to the fullest extent for their own and company‟s prosperity. ▪ adequate training made the workers fit into the new requirement of an organisation.
GIVE AN ACCOUNT OF EVOLUTION OF SCIENTIFICMANAGEMENT BY GIVING CONTRIBUTION OF ANY 3PIONEERS IN THE FIELD?Other persons who worked to develop scientificmanagement were:- 1. Henry Gantt ● Develop graphic methods of depicting plans and making possible managerial control. ● Emphasized on the importance of time as well as ost in planning and controlling work. ● Led to the development of GANTT CHART. ● Forerunner of modern PERT(Performance, evaluation and review technique) technique. 2. Frank and Lillian Giberth ● Find out „ one best way of doing‟ under the given set of realities. ● Also tried to look out at the problems of workers from social and psychological point of view.
3.Carl George Berth ● He works with Taylor and later he developed his contribution. ● Develop many mathematical techniques and formulas to made Taylor’s idea’s into practice.
Discuss the evolution of scientificmanagement .What are the contributions ofPeter Drucker? Contributions of Peter Drucker ● Because of the background ofpsychology,sociology,law and journalism ,hiscontributions covers various approaches ofmanagement.● According to Peter F. Drucker, " Scientificmanagement is the organized study of work, theanalysis of work into its simplest element and thesystematic improvement of the workers".
WHAT IS PLANNING ? EXPLAIN VARIOUS TYPES OFPLANS ? PLANNING ● Planning is a process involves future course of action,that is,why an action,what action,how to take action and when to take action. why of action implies the end result to be achieved. what of action implies activities to be undertaken. how and when generate various policies, programmes, procedures etc. ● According to Terry : “Planning is the selection and relating of facts and making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualisation and formalisation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired result”. ● It involves the determination of objectives and selecting the best course of action which will lead to the achievement of the predetermined objectives. ● Planning is the preparatory step for actions and helps in bridging the gap between the present and the future.
TYPES OF PLANS ● A plan is a commitment of resources to a particular course of action believed necessary to achieve specific results. ● Planning process results into several individual plans which are bound together for consistent operation. ● Plans are classified into ways: 1. Standing and Single-use plans. 2. Strategic and Operational plan STANDING AND SINGLE-USE PLAN ▪ Standing plans provide guidelines for further course of action and are used over a period of time. ▪ These plans operate long time unless there is a change in plans. ▪ Examples:-organisational mission and long term objectives,strategies,policies,procedures and rules. ▪ Single-use plans only relevant for a specified period of time. ▪ After the specified time this plan is generated for next period. ▪ Example:-projects,budgets,quotas,targets etc.
▪ Single-use plan derived from standing plans. Strategic and Operational plans ▪ Strategic plans defined as long term course of action for an organisation. ▪ It includes determination of organisational objectives for long time period,major policies and strategies. ▪ Operational plans are used to implement strategies,both major and minor. ▪ Examples of major operational plans are projects,budgets ▪ Examples of minor plans are in the form of quotas and targets to be achieved within a specified period. ▪ Procedures are rules provide guidelines to put plans into action.● The organisational plans are interlinked and arranged in hierarchy in which low order plan contributes to the achievement of the objectives of higher order plans.
Mission or purpose Objectives Strategies Policies Procedures and rules Programmes and projects Budgets Quotas and targetsFig : Hierarchy of organisational plans
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS OFMANAGEMENT ? DISCUSS EACH ONE OF THEM INDETAIL ? Five fundamental functions of management 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Staffing 4. Directing 5. Controlling
OrganizingOrganizing as a process involves:Identification of activitiesClassification of grouping of activitiesClassifying the authorityCo-ordination between authority andresponsibility
StaffingStaffing involves: Manpower Recruitment, selection andplacement Training and development Remuneration Performance appraisal Promotions and transfer
DirectingDirection has following elements: Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication
ControllingControlling has following steps:1. Establishment of standard performance2. Measurement of actual performance3. Comparison of actual performance with the standard performance4. Corrective action
EXPLAIN DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANISATION STRUCTURE ? Systematic arrangement of people working for the organisation. It is the relationship among various activities and positions. It provides an appropriate framework for authority and responsibility relationship. Organisation structure is generally shown on a organisation chart.
Designed to achieve specific goals Fixing responsibility Establishment of authority Promotes division of labor and leads to specialization
The classification of organisation structure is based on the way various activities are grouped to create departments and units, and prescribing their relationship in the organisation. Types of organisation structures:-a. Lineb. Line and Staffc. Functionald. Divisionale. Projectf. Free-formg. Virtual
It is the simplest structure. Purely based on superior subordinate relationship. There must be a single head to command. An executive can delegate authority. Also known as scalar, military or vertical structure.
Fig:1 Board of director Managing Director General Manager Works Manager Supervisor1 Supervisor2 Workers Workers
Simplicity Discipline Prompt Decision Orderly Communication Easy Supervision and Control Economical Overall Development of Managers
Lack of specialization Absence of Conceptual Thinking Autocratic Approach Problems of Coordination Lack of Groundwork for Subordinates Training
It is pattern in which staff specialists adviseline managers to perform their duties. i.e;advise is provided to linemanagers by staff personal who aregenerally specialists in their field.
Fig:2 Secretary Board of Director Legal Advisor Sales Managing Account Director Personne General Purchase l managerDesign Engineers Work Manager Industrial Engineers, Store Officials Supervisor1 Supervisor2 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W5
Planned Specialization Quality Decisions Prospect for Personal Growth Training ground for personnelDISADVANTAGES Lack of Well defined Authority. Line and Staff Conflicts. High Production Cost.
It is adopted when business grows and expands same line of business. It is widely used in medium and large orgsnisations having limited number of products. It is created by grouping the activities on the basis of functions required for achievement of organasational objectives. All functions are classified into basic, secondary, supporting functions according to their nature and importance.
Fig:3 Board of Director Production Production Finance Marketing Personnel Sales Distribution PromotionsStore Purchas ManufacturingPacking e Advertisement Discoun Rebate t Television Print Retail Whol Media esale
High degree of specialisation Order and clarity High degree of control and co-ordination DISADVANTAGES Slow decision making Inter departmental conflicts
Growth through geographic and product diversification necessitates the adoption of divisional structure. Organisation is divided into several fairly autonomous units and has its own resources and it operates independently. It also known as product structure or profit de-centralisation.
Fig:4 Board of Director Corporate Planning Legal Services Research Finance &Development Consumer Division Chemical Electrical Division DivisionProduction ManufacturingFinance Personnel
Each product or customer is able to get specialized. It emphasises on product or end result. Performance measure is easier. Higher level of managerial motivation.DISADVANTAGES It is quite costly. Lack of managerial personal when a new division isopened.
In the project organisation structure, divisions are created only for the life time of a project. It is organic-adaptive in nature.Two forms:- Pure project structure Matrix organisation structure
In the project organisation structure, divisions are created only for the life time of a project. It is organic-adaptive in nature.Two forms:- Pure project structure Matrix organisation structure
It is suitable for taking smaller number of large projects with long duration so that separate division for can be created for each each project. It is one-time task and is definable in terms of single, specific goal. There is high degree of independence among the task. It is infrequent, unique and unfamiliar to the organisation
Fig:5.1 Pure project organisation structure General Manager Project 1 Project 2 Contract EngineeQualit Schedul Administr ring QC CA EP S y ing ation PurchasContro e l
It allows maximum use of specialized knowledge. It enables the organisation to adapt to environmental demands. Maximum utilization of resources.DISADVANTAGES Lack of clarity among members about their roles in the organisation. Insecurity and uncertainty among people in the organisation Project manager faces numerous problems.
It is suitable for taking large number of smaller projects and activities of varies projects can be accomplished through temporary departments. It is essentially a violation of unity of command. It is the realization of two dimensional structure. It is the combination of pure project structure and functional structure .
It focuses resources on a single project and should be completed within a specified time. It emphasis on professional competence by elaborating authority of knowledge. It improves motivation.DISADVANTAGES There is always a power struggle. If matrix structure is not followed properly, there is a delay in decision making . At the initial level it becomes quite costly.
It is a rapidly changing,adaptive,temporary system organised around problems to be solved by group of relatively strangers with diverse professional skills. A rigid time span or duration is non-existent. Roles performed in teams are interchangeable. It is suitable for those industries which have to work in highly dynamic environment. E.g;Task Force,Team,Committees
It is to generate synergy through temporary alliances. Virtual corporation is a temporary network of independent companies suppliers,customers,even erstwhile rivals linked by information technology to share skills,costs,and access to one another’s markets. It will have neither central office nor organisation chart. It will have no hierarchy, no vertical integration.
Technology Opportunism Excellence Trust No borders
EXPLAIN WHETHER MANAGEMENT IS AN ART OR SCIENCE IN DETAIL ? Learning of science involves assimilation of principles and artinvolves its continuous practice. Science is a body of systematized knowledge accumulated andaccepted with reference to the understanding of general truthsconcerning a particular phenomenon ,subject,or object of study. Features : ▪ Universally acceptance principles Represent basic truth about a particular field of enquiry. ▪ Experimentation & Observation Derived through scientific investigation and researching. ▪ Cause & Effect Relationship Its lay down cause and effect relationship between various variables. ▪ Test of Validity & Predictability It can be tested at any time or any number of times,each time the test will give the same result.
The meaning of art is related with the bringing of a desiredresult through the application skills. Features : ▪ Practical Knowledge Important to know practical application of theoreticalprinciples ▪ Personal Skill Each one has his own style and approach toward his job ▪ Creativity It aims at producing something that never exist before. ▪ Perfection through practice Practice makes a man perfect for handling the jobs ▪ Goal-Oriented Every art is result oriented as it seeks to achieve concreteresults To be a successful manager,a person requires the knowledge ofmanagement principles and also the skills of how the knowledgecan be utilised.
Comparison between science and art as management SCIENCE ART Advances by knowledge Advances by practice Proves Feels Predicts Guesses Defines Describes Measures Opine Impresses Expresses Itcan be seen that management uses bothscientific knowledge and art in managing anorganisation.