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Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)
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Friends of the UNB Woodlot - 2nd Presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee, City of Fredericton (April 06, 2012)

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Friends of the UNB Woodlot made a presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee on April 06, 2012 this week. …

Friends of the UNB Woodlot made a presentation to the Public Safety and Environment Committee on April 06, 2012 this week.

Shale gas is an issue for Fredericton residents. It is an issue with the parents of children with asthma. It is an issue for a growing number of residents who read the health reports now coming out about the certainty of air pollution from shale gas operations, especially for residents living in a low-lying valley such as Fredericton. And it is an issue with the family physicians of New Brunswick who recently called on the Province for a moratorium.

We now know that the danger of air pollution is equal to the danger of water pollution. Unless you cover our city in a dome, air pollution from shale gas development that impact human health is a certainty. Known carcinogens & asthma-causing smog from shale gas wells, compressor stations, and pipelines will travel downwind over long distances and settle in low-lying valleys such as Fredericton.

Our presentation to City Council on April 10, 2012 stressed at the very beginning that our health concerns were about the shale gas development areas that surround Fredericton. The message to City Council was that with a formal ban using our zoning by-law, Fredericton City Council could push for a similar move by the Province. Fredericton has a Municipal Plan in place, and under the Community Planning Act of New Brunswick, our city has the right to make a zoning by-law or amendment against any high-impact industrial activity such as shale gas operations.

We are disappointed that our present Mayor and Council refused to take a leadership role in asking the Province for a ban or moratorium on shale gas. Our present Mayor and Council are pro-shale gas and our city is surrounded by shale gas exploration areas 10+kilometres in all directions.

In order to impose a ban on shale gas, we first need to reverse the vote already taken by the City of Fredericton. The public has been deliberately misled that the City of Fredericton has not taken a formal stand on shale gas. In fact, Fredericton voted against the shale gas moratorium resolution at the Union of the Municipalities of New Brunswick meeting last September 2011, a meeting attended by Mayor Brad Woodside and Councillor Stephen Chase. This resolution was put forward by the Town of Sackville for the Union to lobby the Province for a moratorium on shale gas but the resolution was narrowly defeated 22-to-18.

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  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
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  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
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  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
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  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
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  • The main issues covered in this presentation are the following:\n\n(1) aquifer mapping and our understanding of groundwater flow systems in New Brunswick is very limited;\n\n(2) weak wetland protection policies throughout the province of New Brunswick;\n\n(3) no province-wide, watershed-based source protection of our drinking water;\n\n(4) fracking will require the removal of 100s millions of gallons of fresh water from our natural water cycle;\n\n(5) fracking will widen natural fractures and create new fractures in, and between, shallow and deep aquifers; and\n\n(6) release of radioactive fracking sand and toxic fracking water into deep underground drilling wells.\n\n“And my question to municipal and provincial government representatives,” says Mark D’Arcy. “How can you safely allow shale gas testing and drilling to take place if you don't have accurate aquifer/groundwater mapping in New Brunswick?”\n\n \n\n
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  • \n Exploitation is so rapid that in less than 6 months in one county, 10 new well pads were built on the banks of the Colorado River, the source of agricultural and drinking water for 25 million people downstream. Spacing has dropped from one well pad per 240 acres to one per 10 acres. From the air it appears as a spreading, cancer-like network of dirt roads over vast acreage, contributing to desertification.\n\n
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Air Pollution from Shale GasDevelopment “is a Certainty” - the Evidence for a Ban April 03, 2012 Mark D’Arcy, Friends of the UNB Woodlot Presentation to the Public Safety & Environment Committee, City of Fredericton
    • 2. My  name  is  Mark  D’Arcy  and  I  am  with  the  group  Friends  of  the  UNB  Woodlot.    We  appreciate  this  opportunity  to  make  a  presentation  to  the  Public  Safety  &  Environment  Committee  on  the  dangers  poised  by  air  pollution  if  shale  gas  development  is  allowed  to  proceed  in  the  large  regions  outside  Fredericton.    We  have  been  active  on  the  University  of  New  Brunswick  Woodlot  issue  since  2007.    The  UNB  Woodlot  represents  a  microcosm  of  several  key  environmental  issues  facing  our  city  and  also  has  been  a  real  litmus  test  of  the  environmental  protection  policies  in  our  province.      
    • 3. Air Pollution is not just a Public Health issue but a critical economic issue for Fredericton: “Attracting investment, entrepreneurs, and talented professionals and skilled trades people is based largely on the quality of life and amenities a community has to offer, and excellent healthcare is at the top of the list. When potential newcomers to the community hear that it can take 2-3 years to make a doctor’s patient list, we start to look a lot less appealing.” “Fredericton  Chamber  of  Commerce  Says  Doctor  Shortage  Still  a  Pressing  Issue”, Andrew  Steeves,  President,  Fredericton  Chamber  of  Commerce,  March  23,  2012   http://www.frederictonchamber.ca/content/250205                                                                                  
    • 4. Presentation Outline1. Sources of air pollution from shale gas operations2. Toxic chemicals identified to date in this air pollution3. Emerging health effects from this air pollution4. Obligations to the public - “precautionary principle”5. Recommendations6. Alternative economic development policies
    • 5. 1. Sources of air pollution from shale gas operations
    • 6. Data  has  recently  come  out  from  government,  university  research,  and  municipalities  which  show  that  air  pollution  from  shale  gas  development  has  worse  health  effects  than  the  water  pollution.  Parts  of  once  pristine,  rural  Wyoming  have  smog  levels  equal  to  Los  Angeles.    Even  for  residents  that  live  far  away  from  shale  gas  operations,  the  following  has  become  a  common  statement  about  these  affected  communities:                      "Water  pollution  is  a  possibility,                                                                  air  pollution  is  a  certainty."                                                                                                              (google  Dr.  Theo  Colburn)
    • 7. Sources of air pollution associated with shale gas operations1. Intentional venting and flaring of natural gas2. Diesel emissions from truck traffic3. Diesel emissions from drilling pads4. Gas processing at compressor stations5. Spilled fluids6. Storage tank emissions
    • 8. A  major  source  of  air  pollution  is  certainly  all  the  activity  around  well  drilling,  hydraulic  fracturing,  and  completions  of  shale  gas  wells:  1.    Fracking  ,luid  chemicals2.    Drilling  ,luid  chemicals3.    Naturally  occurring  chemicals  (in  shale  formations)            -­‐  benzene,  arsenic          -­‐  heavy  metals  (e.g.  cadmium,  chromium,  lead)            -­‐  radioactive  elements  (e.g.  barium,  lead-­‐210,  radium,  strontium,  thorium,  uranium),  which  are  signatures  of  this  shale  rock  geology. New  York  State  Department  of  Environmental  Conservation  (2011).  NYS  SGEIS  revised  draft,  Section  5  -­‐   http://www.dec.ny.gov/energy/75370.html   Committee  on  Energy  and  Commerce,  U.S.  House  of  Representatives  (2011).  "Chemicals  used  in   Hydraulic  Fracturing",  April  2011  -­‐  http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/index.php? q=news/committee-­‐democrats-­‐release-­‐new-­‐report-­‐detailing-­‐hydraulic-­‐fracturing-­‐products
    • 9. However,  the  processing  and  distribution  of  the  natural  gas  is  another  major  source  of  air  pollution.    Processing  plants  and  pipelines  often  contain  large  numbers  of  pneumatic  valves.    These  valves  are  under  pressure  and  leak  small  quantities  of  natural  gas.  “Although  some  processing  is  done  at  the  wellhead,  gas  processing  plants  miles  away  further  remove  any  liquids  from  the  gas  to  create  pipeline  quality  gas.    Gathering  systems  may  need  ?ield  compressors  to  move  gas  to  processing  plants,  and  larger  compressor  stations  generally  are  sited  every  40  to  100  miles  to  move  gas  along  the  pipeline  and  generally  contain  some  type  of  liquid  separator.”  
    • 10. Text Source:  based  on  [SUMI  2008])
    • 11. Source:  based  on  [SUMI  2008])
    • 12. Residents  near  fracking  operations  have  documented  strong  petroleum-­‐like  odours,  diesel  and  chemical  smells.    These  smells  are  coming  from  the  toxic  air  pollution  from  shale  gas  operations  on  the  well  site,  1000s  of  truck  trips  to  and  from  each  well,  and  the  gas  distribution  system  moving  the  gas  through  the  pipelines.
    • 13. Fredericton  is  in  a  valley  and  will  become  a  sink  for  heavier-­‐than-­‐air  toxins  that  travel  long  distances  from  shale  gas  wells  and  compressor  stations.Summer  winds  are  longwise  SSW  to  NNE.    Winter  winds  are  longwise  ENE  to  SSW.  These  are  the  two  most  predominant  winds  in  NB.    “Smog  lines”  can  travel  for  up  to  300  kilometres.  
    • 14. http://www.gnb.ca/0078/Promo/NaturalGas/ObtainingOilGasRights-e.asp
    • 15. The  Department  of  Natural  Resources  map  showing  shale  gas  test  drilling  licenses  speaks  for  itself.    These  licenses  cover  a  10-­kilometre  radius  around  Fredericton,  and  includes  the  UNB  Woodlot  and  most  other  areas  of  the  City  of  Fredericton  and  surrounding  communities.  
    • 16. UNBWoodlot http://www.gnb.ca/0078/Promo/NaturalGas/ObtainingOilGasRights-e.asp
    • 17. 2. Toxic chemicals identified to date in this air pollution
    • 18. Volatile Organic Compounds1. Benzene, a known carcinogen2. Acryloniltrile, a human carcinogen3. Methylene chloride, a human carcinogen4. Ethylbenzene, a human carcinogen5. Xylene
    • 19. Volatile Organic Compounds6. 4-ethyltoluene7. 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene8. 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene9. Ethylbenzene, a human carcinogen
    • 20. Other Toxic Compounds in the Air1. Carbon disulfide, neurotoxins2. Naphthalene, a blood poison3. Pyridines, potential carcinogens
    • 21. Combustion products & ground-level ozone1. Carbon monoxide2. Nitrogen oxide3. Sulfur dioxide4. Volatile organic compounds (e.g. PAHs, BTEX, formaldehyde)5. Small airborne particulates6. Metals
    • 22. Greenhouse Gases - Methane & CO21. Methane, 20X more potent GHG than CO22. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • 23. Air Pollution from Trucks is one of worst impacts of shale gas development: Each well fracked equates to 1000s of truck trips to and from the well. “Each well = 1,800 to 2,600 truck drive-bys 8 well pad site = 14,400 to 20,800 drive-bys” YouTube:    FRACK  TRUCK  CONVOYS   (Frack  truck  impacts  on  towns  and  roads,  and  includes  DEC  estimates  of  truckloads  per  well,   Jeffrey  Reynolds  and  James  “Chip”  Northrup,  uploaded  February  03,  2011) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F93rDR3AOhw&feature=share                                                                                  
    • 24. Ground-­level  ozone  is  a  primary  ingredient  of  smog.  Higher  temperatures  increase  ground-­level  ozone  production,  thus  climate  change  will  intensify  urban  smog.“In  addition  to  the  land  and  water  contamination  issues,  at  each  stage  of  production  and  delivery,  tons  of  toxic  volatile  compounds,  including  benzene,  toluene,  ethylbenzene,  xylene,  etc.,  and  fugitive  natural  gas  (methane),  escape  and  mix  with  nitrogen  oxides  from  the  exhaust  of  diesel-­driven,  mobile  and  stationary  equipment  to  produce  ground-­level  ozone.    Ozone  combined  with  particulate  matter  less  than  2.5  microns  produces  smog  (haze).    Gas  Eield  produced  ozone  has  created  a  serious  air  pollution  problem  similar  to  that  found  in  large  urban  areas,  and  can  spread  up  to  200  miles  beyond  the  immediate  region  where  gas  is  being  produced.  Ozone  not  only  causes  irreversible  damage  to  the  lungs,  it  is  equally  damaging  to  conifers,  aspen,  forage,  alfalfa,  and  other  crops  commonly  grown  in  the  West.”  
    • 25. Smog from oil and gas operations is now major source in Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas: Oil and gas operations in the Dallas-Fort Worth region emit more smog-causing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than all cars, trucks, buses and other mobile sources in the area combined. Dallas-­‐Fort  Worth  Attainment  Demonstration   SIP  Revision  for  the  1997  Eight-­‐hour  Ozone  Standard  Nonattainment  Area                                                                                     Project  Number  2010-­‐022-­‐SIP-­‐NR Texas  Commission  on  Environmental  Quality  (TCEQ)   December  7,  2011 http://m.tceq.texas.gov/airquality/sip/dfw_revisions.html  
    • 26. 3. Emerging health effects from this air pollution
    • 27. Only  recently  have  New  Brunswickers  learned  about  the  serious  threats  to  our  air  quality  from  shale  gas  development.      In  the  Fall  of  2011,  three  key  speakers  came  to  our  province:              -­‐  Dr.  Anthony  Ingraffea  from  Cornell  University    spoke  in  Moncton  and  Fredericton;            -­‐  Calvin  Tillman  (former  Mayor  of  Dish,  Texas)  spoke  in  Memramcook,  Richibucto,  Fredericton,  Minto/Chipman,  and  Woodstock;    and              -­‐  Jessica  Ernst  (Rosebud,  Alberta)  spoke  in  Memramcook.    You  can  Google  their  presentations  on  YouTube.    
    • 28. They  painted  a  picture  of  a  very  new  technology  and  industry  that  is  under-­‐regulated,  contaminates  air  and  water  with  human  carcinogens,  industrializes  our  farming,  hunting  &  nishing  areas,  ruins  our  roads  and  bridges,  and  does  not  deliver  on  promised  local  jobs.    In  fact,  their  concerns  are  supported  by  the  new  assessment  by  the  U.S.  Secretary  of  Energy.    Their  second  and  ninal  90-­‐day  draft  report  was  issued  by  a  federal  panel  on  shale  gas  drilling:
    • 29. The Office of the U.S. Secretary of Energy issued this report on November 18, 2011: "current regulations are potentially insufficient to protect health and the environment." REPORT  -­‐  SHALE  GAS  PRODUCTION  SUBCOMMITTEE  2nd  90-­‐DAY  REPORT   (issued  by  a  federal  panel  on  shale  gas  drilling,   Secretary  of  Energy,  Nov.  18,  2011) http://www.shalegas.energy.gov/resources/111011_90_day_report.pdf                                                                                  
    • 30. Air  pollution  from  truck  trafnic  and  diesel  generators  can  cause  impaired  lung  function,  shortness  of  breath,  wheezing,  asthma  attacks  and  premature  death.    Children  and  the  elderly  are  especially  vulnerable.        
    • 31. Ozone is associated with premature death and believed to promote cancer "Ozone can travel up to 200 miles beyond the gas production area (Colborn, et al., 2011). While not a direct carcinogen, ozone exposure is strongly associated with premature death and is believed to promote the development of metastases, thus making cancer more lethal (Breslin, 1995; Fann et al., 2011). Exposure to traffic exhaust and petroleum fumes further potentiates tumor formation and increase cancer risk (Hanas et al., 2010)."                                                                                  
    • 32. Acute symptoms of residents associated with odors from shale gas operations1. Severe headaches2. Nosebleeds, persistent and heavy, much different thanthe average nose bleed a human carcinogen3. Full body rash
    • 33. Childhood cancers linked to air pollution from combustion processes "Childhood cancers/leukemia births are closely associated with high atmospheric emissions from combustion processes, mainly oil based, and from organic evaporation. Demonstrated associations with 1,3 - butadiene, dioxins, and benz(a)pyrene, but possibly others as well, are probably causal. Such toxic emissions may account for a majority of all cases. " Knox, E.G. 2005. “Childhood cancers and atmospheric carcinogens,” Journal of Epidemio. Community Health. 2005:59:101-105. p. 101,   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1733004/                                                                                  
    • 34. Lung, breast, and bladder cancers linked to air pollution “Fracking pollutes the air with known and suspected human carcinogens. Air pollutants from fracking take the form of diesel exhaust (from trucks, pumps, condensers, earthmoving machines, and other heavy equipment) along with volatile organic compounds, including benzene(released from the wellheads themselves) and formaldehyde (produced by compressor station engines). Exposure tothese air pollutants have been demonstrably linked to lung, breast, and bladder cancers (Brody et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009).
    • 35. We now know that shale gas development blanketsdistant communities downwind with known carcinogens & asthma-causing smog.
    • 36. Childhood asthma associated with shale gas sites in the U.S. State of Texas Texas  hospital  records    in  six  counties  with  some  of  the   I heaviest  shale  gas  drilling,  including  the  Barnett  Shale   region,  found  that  "children  in  the  community  ages  6-­9   are  three  times  more  likely  to  have  asthma  than  the   average  for  that  age  group  in  the  State  of  Texas."   Baylor  University’s  results  published  in  2009  showed   that  childhood  asthma  rates  in  the  Tarrant  County  area   of  the  Barnett  Shale  were  more  than  double  the  national   average.
    • 37. Cancers associated with oil and gas sites in the U.S. State of Colorado“Using  US  EPA  risk  assessment  tools  to  examine  carcinogenic  effects  of  air  quality  at  oil  and  gas  sites,  researchers  in  Colorado  found  excess  cancer  risks  from  air  pollution  alone  (from  5  to  58  additional  cancers  per  million).  At  86  percent  of  these  sites,  the  human  carcinogen  benzene  was  found  at  hazardous  levels.  Airborne  concentrations  of  other  carcinogens  were  also  elevated  (Witter  et  al.,  2008).”
    • 38. One  canary  in  the  coalmine  for  shale  gas  development  may  be  breast  cancer.    Although  the  breast  cancer  rate  is  dropping    in  many  parts  of  Texas,  the  incidence  of  breast  cancer  is  rising  in  parts  where  the  shale  gas  industry  exists.  “According  to  the  Texas  Commission  on  Environmental  Qualitys  2010  inventory  of  gas  production  equipment  in  the  24  counties  of  the  Barnett  Shale,  the  same  six  counties  with  rising  rates  of  invasive  breast  cancer  also  have  the  highest  count  of  compressors,  separators,  tanks  and  other  above-­ground  points  of  emissions.”Looking  at  the  map  of  254  counties  in  Texas,  “You  will  notice  that  the  counties  in  which  you  have  heavier  drilling  activity  perfectly  matches  the  jump  in  breast  cancer  rates.”
    • 39. http://www.damascuscitizensforsustainability.org/2011/09/breast-cancer-rates-jump-in-the-barnett-shale/ Breast Cancer Rates Jump in the Barnett Shale September 3, 2011
    • 40. And  new  research  out  in  March  2012  shows  that  a  dose  response  which  is  signinicant  because  it  is  associated  with  a  high  correlation  of  the  health  effect  to  the  source  of  the  toxin.    Their  report  includes  health  data  of  those  living  about  a  half-­‐mile  from  the  shale  gas  wells,  together  with  air  pollution  data  collected  for  three  (3)  years:
    • 41. Colorado School of Public Health released results from their 3-year study on March 19, 2012: "We also calculated higher cancer risks for residents living nearer to the wells as compared to those residing further [away]. Benzene is the major contributor to lifetime excess cancer risk from both scenarios." (in  an  upcoming  edition  of  Science  of  the  Total  Environment,   Dr.  Lisa  McKenzie,  lead  author) http://ecowatch.org/2012/study-­‐shows-­‐air-­‐emissions-­‐near-­‐fracking-­‐sites-­‐may-­‐impact-­‐health/                                                                                  
    • 42. The  ninal  and  the  single-­‐largest  health  threat  is  climate  change.    Our  atmosphere  is  now  moving  past  400ppm  and  our  children  will  see  CO2  levels  move  past  550ppm  by  2050.      The  latest  climate  models  (March  2012)  predict  that  temperatures  could  rise  by  3*C  by  2050,  and  6*C  by  2010,  based  on  mid-­‐range  emissions.      For  the  future  health  and  security  of  our  children  and  grandchildren,  the  data  from  climate  change  scientists,  including  NASA’s  James  Hansen,  prove  that  we  must  leave  coal  and  unconventionals  such  as  shale  gas  in  the  ground.  
    • 43. Faith Birol, Chief Economist for the International Energy Agency (IEA): “When I look at this data, the trend is perfectly in linewith a temperature increase of 6 degrees Celsius [11°F],which would have devastating consequences for theplanet.” “Even school children know this will have catastrophicimplications for all of us.”
    • 44. 4. Obligations to the public - “precautionary principle” Public health and safety
    • 45. “Home  Rules”Two  higher  court  decisions  in  the  United  States  have  recently  ruled  that  municipalities  have  the  right  to  ban  high-­‐impact  industrial  activity  such  as  shale  gas  operations.    To  date,  154  municipalities  in  New  York  State  have  passed  a  ban  or  moratorium(or  in  the  process  of  doing  so).    90%  of  these  cities  and  towns  are  located  on  the  Marcellus  Shale.      
    • 46. Fundamental obligations to follow the precautionary principleThe Physicians, Scientists and Engineers for HealthyEnergy recommended a U.S. national moratoriumon fracking until human health impacts areresearched. Physicians  Scientists  &  Engineers  for  Healthy  Energy http://www.psehealthyenergy.org/
    • 47. Under the Municipalities Act, it clearly states their obligations:“36(2.1)    A  councillor  of  a  municipality  shall        (a)  consider  the  welfare  and  interests  of  the  entire  municipality  when  making  decisions(b)  bring  to  the  attention  of  council  matters  thatmay  promote  the  welfare  or  interests  of    the  municipality,”                                                                                                                                                (page  65)                                                                                                                                            http://www.canlii.org/en/nb/laws/stat/rsnb-­‐1973-­‐c-­‐m-­‐22/ latest/rsnb-­‐1973-­‐c-­‐m-­‐22.html
    • 48. Fundamental obligations to protect public health and safety- duty to protect citizens from unnecessary &easily avoidable health risks- duty to protect our air from contamination- duty to start a monitoring program for volatileorganic compounds (VOCs) in Fredericton
    • 49. 5. Recommendations:Ban Shale Gas Development in UNB Woodlot and City; Resolution for a Ban to UMNB and Province; Implement Air Monitoring of VOCs.
    • 50. Recommendations:To ask our individual Councillors for a publicdebate and vote by Council:(1) to ban high-impact industrial land use, including shalegas development, from the Fredericton city limits;
    • 51. Cities in New Brunswick have the power to regulate theirown zoning by-law. Each city have their own unique landuse controls, which makes sense when you consider thatcities actually look different from one another. TheProvince of New Brunswick does not take a cookie-cutterapproach to controlling land use. My own house is in aresidential block zoned TP-3A, a zone unique toFredericton and not found elsewhere in New Brunswick.Fredericton updated its own Municipal Plan in 2007 andthis plan was approved by the Province. Under theCommunity Planning Act, our city has the autonomy tomake their plan work using various land use instruments.In addition to the Zoning By-law, Fredericton has controlover its subdivision by-law, building by-law, deferredwidening by-law, & controlled access street by-law.
    • 52. Recommendations:To ask our individual Councillors for a publicdebate and vote by Council:(1) to ban high-impact industrial land use, including shalegas development, from the Fredericton city limits;(2) to adopt resolution asking the Union of theMunicipalities of New Brunswick (UMNB), and theProvincial Government, to ban shale gas developmentfrom the province; and
    • 53. Recommendations:To ask our individual Councillors for a publicdebate and vote by Council:(1) to ban high-impact industrial land use, including shalegas development, from the Fredericton city limits;(2) to adopt resolution asking the Union of theMunicipalities of New Brunswick (UMNB), and theProvincial Government, to ban shale gas developmentfrom the province; and (3) to implement air monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Fredericton.
    • 54. BASELINE  &  ONGOING  AIR  MONITORING  OF  VOCsSampling:    VOCs  are  monitored  using  a  6  L  stainless  steel  electropolished  (SUMMA)  canister.  Air  samples  are  collected  by  drawing  air  into  the  canister  at  a  constant  rate  (10  to  15  mL/min)  for  a  24-­‐hour  time  period.Analysis:    The  SUMMA  canisters  are  sent  to  Ottawa  and  tested  for  over  150  hydrocarbon  species  (e.g.  Environment  Canada  Environmental  Technology  Centre).
    • 55. 6. Alternative economic development strategies
    • 56. Recommendations: These initiatives will create substantially more long-term jobs AND improve our quality of life:1.    Invest  in  a  strong  education  system  (early  learning  to  trade  colleges  and  universities).  2.    Establish  Low-­‐Carbon  Infrastructure  Investment  Funds  owned  by  Pension  Funds.  3.    Community  forest  ownership.  4.    Implement  policies  for  the  manufacture  of  community  value-­‐added  forest  products  for  NBers  first  (e.g.  wood  fibre  insulation  for  energy-­‐saving  building  retrofits  and  construction).5.  Implement  a  strong  industrialization  policy  across  all  levels  of  government.  6.  Implement  community  economic  development  investment  funds  (e.g.  CEDIFs).  7.  Reverse  personal  and  corporate  tax  reductions.  8.  Establish  ninancial  instruments  for  renewable  energy  in  cities.  9.  Develop  an  international  tourist  industry  -­‐  biking,  cross-­‐county  skiing,  river  tours  etc.  Make  New  Brunswick  the  “Costa  Rica  of  the  North”.10.    Implement  strong  policies  to  encourage  local  food  production.11.    Phase  out  subsidies  to  oil  and  gas  companies.  12.    Implement  a  modest  carbon  tax  (e.g.  $10/ton  CO2).  
    • 57. Some recommended presentations:    (1)  Jan.  10  Statehouse  Fracking  Protest  Part  2.mov  (powerful  &  moving  10-­‐minute  speech  by  Ohio  woman  on  shale  gas  and  her  serious  health  problems)http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=6hB33D105ak(2)  Dr  Anthony  Ingraffea  in  Moncton  NB  Part  1  of  3  (Dr.  Ingraffea  is  an  engineering  professor/researcher  at  Cornell  University,  one  of  the  founding  fathers  of  hydraulic  fracturing  technology,  and  an  expert  on  well  casing  integrity.)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sD7koag4QqE&feature=related(3)  "Finishing"  a  gas  well  in  Dimock,  PA  (huge  air  emissions  coming  from  well)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRkEmyofXwM&list=UU7Eph33czawYR2ZKZrexS0Q&index=11&feature=plcp(4)  Be...  Without  Water?  (New  Brunswick  documentary  about  how  local  communities  are  treated  by  gas  industry,  42:58)http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=aK0NMTMXHSw
    • 58. Some important quotations:“If  you  were  looking  for  a  way  to  poison  the  drinking  water  supply,  you  couldn’t  ?ind  a  more  chillingly  effective  and  thorough  method  of  doing  so  than  with  Hydraulic  Fracturing”    (Dr.  Paul  Hetzler,  NY  Dept  of  Environmental  Conservation)“We  can’t  afford  multi-­million-­dollar  water  pollution  cleanups  or  earthquakes  that  could  pose  risks  to  homes  and  health.”  (Dusty  Horwitt,  Senior  Counsel  and  chief  natural  resources  analyst  at  Environmental  Working  Group,  U.S.  Geological  Survey,  in  April  2012  study,  published  by  the  Seismological  Society  of  America)"The  situation  were  creating  for  young  people  and  future  generations  is  that  were  handing  them  a  climate  system  which  is  potentially  out  of  their  control.    Were  in  an  emergency:  you  can  see  whats  on  the  horizon  over  the  next  few  decades  with  the  effects  it  will  have  on  ecosystems,  sea  level  and  species  extinction."  (Dr.  James  Hansen,  Director  of  NASAs  Goddard  Institute  for  Space  Studies,  April  2012  lecture  at  Edinburgh  International  Science  Festival  )
    • 59. Friends of the UNB Woodlot unbwoodlot.org Brochures & Form Letters: http://www.slideshare.net/friendsoftheunbwoodlot (or simply Google ‘slideshare’ ‘unb woodlot’) Contact Information:E-mail:  friendsoftheUNBwoodlot@gmail.comWebsite maintained by Fredericton Chapter of Conservation Council:  www.unbwoodlot.orgFacebook: "I dont want the UNB woodlot turned into Big-Box Strip Malls" YouTube:  search for "UNB Woodlot"Website:  www.smartgrowthUNB.ca

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