Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5







Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

EBAY EBAY Document Transcript

  • eBayFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from E bay)This article is about the business. For the "Weird Al" Yankovic song, see eBay (song). eBay Inc Type Public (NASDAQ: EBAY) S&P 500 Component Founded September 3, 1995 Founder Pierre Omidyar and Michael Dean Johnson Headquarters San Jose, California, U.S. Area served Worldwide Key people Pierre Omidyar (Chairman) John Donahoe (CEO) Industry Auctions Products Online auction hosting,Electronic commerce,Shopping mall PayPal, Skype, Gumtree, Kijiji(Now eBayClassifieds), Revenue US$9.156 billion (2010)[1] Operating US$2.053 billion (2010)[1]
  • income Net income US$1.801 billion (2010)[1] Employees 15,500 (Q1 2008) Slogan "Connecting buyers and sellers globally." "Come to think of it, eBay." "What ever it is, you can get it on eBay." "Shop victoriously!" "From collectibles to cars, buy and sell all kinds of items on eBay" "Buy it, sell it, love it" Website www.ebay.com IPv6 support No Alexa rank 22 (February 2011)[2] Type of site Online auction Registration Required to buy and sell Available in Multilingual Screenshot[show]eBay Inc. is an American Internet company that manages eBay.com, an online auction andshopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a broad variety of goods and servicesworldwide. Founded in 1995, eBay is one of the notable success stories of the dot-com bubble; it is now amulti-billion dollar business with operations localized in over thirty countries.[3][not in citation given] eBay expandedfrom its original "set-time" auction format to include "Buy It Now" standard shopping; shopping by UPC, ISBN,or other kind of SKU (via Half.com); online classified advertisements (via Kijiji or eBay Classifieds); online eventticket trading (via StubHub); online money transfers (viaPayPal[4]) and other services. Contents [hide]1 Origins and history
  • 2 Items o 2.1 PayPal-only categories o 2.2 eBay Express o 2.3 Selling Manager Applications o 2.4 eBay specialty sites3 Auction types4 Bidding o 4.1 Auction-style listings  4.1.1 Example of bidding on an auction-style listing o 4.2 Seller ratings5 Profit and transactions6 Acquisitions7 Economics8 Controversy and criticism9 Prohibited or restricted items10 Unusual sale items11 Charity auctions12 Environmental record13 Skype14 Craigslist15 See also16 References17 Further reading18 External linksedit]Origins and history[
  • eBay headquarters in San JoseThe online auction website was founded as AuctionWeb in San Jose, California, on September 3, 1995,by French-born Iranian computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as part of a larger personal site that included,among other things, Omidyars own tongue-in-cheek tribute to the Ebolavirus.[5] One of the first items sold oneBay was a broken laser pointer for $14.83. Astonished, Omidyar contacted the winning bidder to ask if heunderstood that the laser pointer was broken. In his responding email, the buyer explained: "Im a collector ofbroken laser pointers."[6] The frequently repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyars fiancéetrade Pezcandy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager in 1997 to interest the media. Thiswas revealed in Adam Cohens 2002 book, The Perfect Store,[5] and confirmed by eBay.Chris Agarpao was hired as eBays first employee and Jeffrey Skoll was hired as the first president of thecompany in early 1996. In November 1996, eBay entered into its first third-party licensing deal, with a companycalled Electronic Travel Auction to use SmartMarket Technology to sell plane tickets and other travel products.Growth was phenomenal; in January 1997 the site hosted 2,000,000 auctions, compared with 250,000 duringthe whole of 1996.[7] The company officially changed the name of its service from AuctionWeb to eBay inSeptember 1997. Originally, the site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group, Omidyars consulting firm.Omidyar had tried to register the domain name echobay.com, but found it already taken by the Echo BayMines, a gold mining company,[8] so he shortened it to his second choice, eBay.com.[9] (Echobay.com is nowowned by Echobay Partners, Ltd., a private equity firm based in Nevis.)In 1997, the company received $6.7 million in funding from the venture capital firm Benchmark Capital.[10]Meg Whitman was hired as eBay President and CEO in March 1998. At the time, the company had 30employees[11] half a million users and revenues of $4.7 million in the United States.[12] eBay went public onSeptember 21, 1998,[13] and both Omidyar and Skoll became instant billionaires. eBays target share price of$18 was all but ignored as the price went to $53.50 on the first day of trading.[14]As the company expanded product categories beyond collectibles into almost any saleable item, business grewquickly.[6] In February 2002, the company purchased IBazar, a similar European auction web site founded in1995 and then bought PayPal on October 14, 2002.In early 2008, the company had expanded worldwide, counted hundreds of millions of registered users,15,000+ employees and revenues of almost $7.7 billion.[12]After nearly ten years at eBay, Whitman made thedecision to enter politics. On January 23, 2008 the company announced that Whitman would step down onMarch 31, 2008 and John Donahoe was selected to become President and CEO.[15] Whitman remained on theBoard of Directors and continued to advise Donahoe through 2008. In late 2009, eBay completed the saleof Skype for $2.75 billion, but will still own 30% equity in the company.[16]
  • In July 2010, eBay was sued for $3.8 billion by XPRT Ventures which accused eBay of stealing informationshared in confidence by the inventors on XPRTs own patents, and incorporated it into features in its ownpayment systems, such as PayPal Pay Later and PayPal Buyer Credit.[17]December 20, 2010, EBay Inc. says it will acquire a German online shopping club - brand4friends for 150million Euro ($197 million) to strengthen the company fashion business in Europe. It is subject to regulatoryapproval and expected to close it in the Q1 2011.[18]edit]Items[Millions of collectibles, decor, appliances, computers, furnishings, equipment, vehicles, and othermiscellaneous items are listed, bought, or sold daily on eBay. In 2006, eBay launched its Business & Industrialcategory, breaking into the industrial surplus business. Generally, anything can be auctioned on the site as longas it is not illegal and does not violate the eBay Prohibited and Restricted Items policy.[19] Servicesand intangibles can be sold, too. Large international companies, such as IBM, sell their newest products andoffer services on eBay using competitive auctions and fixed-priced storefronts. Separate eBay sites such aseBay US and eBay UK allow the users to trade using the local currency. Software developers can createapplications that integrate with eBay through the eBay API by joining the eBay Developers Program. [20] In June2005, there were more than 15,000 members in the eBay Developers Program, comprising a broad range ofcompanies creating software applications to support eBay buyers and sellers as well as eBay Affiliates.Controversy has arisen over certain items put up for bid. For instance, in late 1999, a man offered one ofhis kidneys for auction on eBay, attempting to profit from the potentially lucrative (and, in the United States,illegal) market for transplantable human organs. On other occasions, people and even entire towns have beenlisted, often as a joke or to garner free publicity. In general, the company removes auctions that violateits terms of service agreement.[edit]PayPal-only categories eBay North First Street satellite office campus (home to PayPal)
  • Beginning in August 2007, eBay required listings in "Video Games" and "Health & Beauty" to accept itspayment system PayPal and sellers could only accept PayPal for payments in the category "Video Games:Consoles".[21]Starting January 10, 2008, eBay said sellers can only accept PayPal as payment for thecategories "Computing > Software", "Consumer Electronics > MP3 Players", "Wholesale & Job Lots > Mobile &Home Phones", and "Business, Office & Industrial > Industrial Supply / MRO".[22] eBay announced that startingin March 2008, eBay had added to this requirement that all sellers with fewer than 100 feedbacks must offerPayPal and no merchant account may be used as an alternative.[23][24] This is in addition to the requirement thatall sellers from the United Kingdom have to offer PayPal.[25]Further, and as noted below, it was a requirement to offer Paypal on all listings in Australia and the UK. Inresponse to concerns expressed by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, however, eBayhas since removed the policy on the ebay.com.au website requiring sellers to offer PayPal as a paymentoption.[citation needed][edit]eBay Express eBay Express logoIn April 2006, eBay opened its new eBay Express site, which is designed to work like a standard Internetshopping site for consumers with United States addresses. It closed in 2008. Selected eBay items weremirrored on eBay Express, where buyers shop using a shopping cart to purchase from multiple sellers. The UKversion was launched to eBay members in mid-October 2006 but on January 29, 2008 eBay announced itsintention to close the site.[26] The German version, eBay Express Germany,[27] was also opened in 2006 andclosed in 2008.[edit]Selling Manager ApplicationsAt the 2008 eBay Developers Conference, eBay announced the Selling Manager Applications program (SMApps).[28] The program allows approved developers to integrate their applications directly into the eBay.cominterface.[29] The applications created by developers are available for subscription by eBay members who alsosubscribe to Selling Manager.[edit]eBay specialty siteseBay maintains a number of specialty sites. eBay Pulse, for example, provides information about popularsearch terms, trends, and most-watched items. Other ebay Community Content includes the DiscussionBoards, Groups, Answer Center, Chat Rooms, and Reviews & Guides. eBay has a robust mobile offering,
  • including SMS alerts, a WAP site, Java ME clients, an Android OS application and an Apple iPhone applicationavailable in certain markets.Best of eBay is a specialty site for finding the most-unusual items on the eBay site. Users can vote on andnominate listings that they find.edit]Auction types[eBay.com offers several types of auctions.  Auction-style listings allow the seller to offer one or more items for sale for a specified number of days. The seller can establish a reserve price.  Fixed price format allows the seller to offer one or more items for sale at a Buy It Now price. Buyers who agree to pay that price win the auction immediately without submitting a bid.  Fixed price format with best offer allows the seller to accept best offers. If a buyer submits a best offer, the seller either rejects or accepts the best offer. If the best offer is not satisfactory, a seller may submit a counter offer to the buyer. Best offer is not available for auction style listings. In addition, best offer is not available in every category. Sellers also meet specific requirements in order to sell with best offer.edit]Bidding[[edit]Auction-style listingsBidding on eBays auction-style listings is called proxy bidding and is essentially equivalent to a Vickreyauction, with the following exceptions.  The winning bidder pays the second-highest bid plus one bid increment amount (i.e., some small predefined amount relative to the bid size), instead of simply the second-highest bid. However, since the bid increment amounts are relatively insignificant compared to the bid size, they are not considered from a strategic standpoint.[30]  The current winning bid is not sealed, but instead is always displayed. However, at any given moment, the highest bidders bid is not necessarily displayed, since this amount may be higher than the amount required to win the auction.
  • Sample eBay page layout (as announced on June 15, 2009)[edit]Example of bidding on an auction-style listing This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2010)Suppose bidding for an item placed by Anne starts at $1.00 and that the bid increment amount in this pricerange is $.25. Eric bids $3.00 for the item, and since no one else has bid yet, eBay displays that the currentwinner is Eric, with a bid of $1.00, and that the minimum allowable bid is $1.25, which is equal to one biddingincrement above the winning bid. Suppose then that Bob bids $2.00 for the item. Since Eric has already bidmore than Bob, eBay will display that the current winner is Eric, with a bid of $2.25, which equals the second-highest bid ($2.00) plus the bid increment amount ($.25). Again, eBay will also display that the minimumallowable bid is $2.50, one bid increment above the winning bid. Suppose that Bob bids again, this time at$2.75. Again, since Erics bid is higher than Bobs, eBay will display that the current winning bidder is Eric, witha bid of $3.00, which is equal to the second-highest bid ($2.75) plus the bid increment ($.25). eBay will alsodisplay that the minimum allowable bid is $3.25, one bidding increment above the current winning bid. SupposeBob bids one more time, at $10.00. Since Bobs bid is now higher than Erics, eBay will display that the currentwinning bidder is Bob, with a bid of $3.25, which is equal to the second-highest bid ($3.00) plus the bid
  • increment ($.25). If Bob were to win the auction, he would have to pay the amount equal to the winning bid($3.25), even though his previous bid was much larger than that.[edit]Seller ratingsIn 2007, eBay began using detailed seller ratings with four different categories. When leaving feedback, buyersare asked to rate the seller in each of these categories with a score of one to five stars, with five being thehighest rating and one the lowest. Unlike the overall feedback rating, these ratings are anonymous; neithersellers nor other users learn how individual buyers rated the seller. The listings of sellers with a rating of 4.3 orbelow in any of the four rating categories appear lower in search results. Power Sellers are required to havescores in each category above 4.5.[31][32][33][34][35]In a reversal of roles, on January 24, 2010 Auctionbytes.com held an open survey in which sellers couldeffectively rate eBay itself, as well as competing auction and marketplace sites. [36] In the survey, users wereasked to rank 15 sites based on five criteria:  Profitability  Customer Service  Communication  Ease of Use  RecommendationAfter the results were published, eBay had finished 13th overall,[37] edged out by established sites suchas Amazon and Craigslist, as well as lesser-known upstarts like Atomic Mall and Ruby Lane. In individualcategory rankings, eBay was rated the worst of all the 15 sites on Customer Service and Communication, andaverage on Ease of Use. A number of respondents said they would have given eBay a rating of ten 3 to 5 yearsago. eBay was rated twelfth out of fifteen in the Recommended Selling Venue category.edit]Profit and transactions[ This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and addingreferences. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on thetalk page. (November 2007)eBay generates revenue from various fees. The eBay fee system is quite complex; there are fees to list aproduct and fees when the product sells (Final Value Fee), plus several optional adornment fees, all based onvarious factors and scales. The U.S.-based eBay.com takes $0.10 to $4 (based on the opening price) for abasic listing without any adornments and 8.75% (12% for some categories, e.g. Clothing & Accessories) of thefinal price (as of May 2009). The UK based ebay.co.uk[38] takes from GBP £0.15 to a maximum rate of GBP £3per £100 for an ordinary listing and from 0.75 percent to 10% (writing as of June 2009) percent of the final
  • price. Reduced FVFs are available to business registered customers. In addition, eBay ownsthe PayPal payment system which has fees of its own.Under current U.S. law, a state cannot require sellers located outside the state to collect a sales tax, makingdeals more attractive to buyers. Although some state laws require purchasers to pay sales tax to their ownstates on out-of-state purchases, it is not a common practice. However, most sellers that operate as a full timebusiness do follow state tax regulations on their eBay transactions.[39][40] However for the tax called Valueadded tax (VAT), eBay requires sellers to include the VAT fees in their listing price and not as an add-on andthus eBay profits by collecting fees based on what governments tax for VAT.[41]The companys current business strategy includes increasing international trade.[42][43] eBay has alreadyexpanded to over two dozen countries including China and India. The only places where expansion failed wereTaiwan and Japan, where Yahoo! had a head start, and New Zealand where TradeMe, owned bythe Fairfaxmedia group is the dominant online auction website.A more recent strategy involves the company increasingly leveraging the relationship between the eBayauction site and PayPal: The impact of driving buyers and sellers to use PayPal means not only does eBay turnbuyers into clients (as a pure auction venue its clients used to be predominantly sellers) but for each newPayPal registration it achieves via the eBay auction site it also earns offsite revenue when the resulting PayPalaccount is used in non-eBay transactions. In its Q1 2008 results, total payment volume via PayPal increased17 percent, but off the eBay auction site it was up 61 percent.[44]For most listing categories, eBay sellers are permitted to offer a variety of payment systems suchas Paypal, Paymate, ProPay, and Moneybookers.[45]eBay runs an affiliate program under the name eBay Partner Network.[46] eBay affiliate marketers wereoriginally paid a percentage of the eBay sellers transaction fees, with commissions ranging from 50% to 75%of the fees paid for an item purchased. In October 2009, eBay changed to an affiliate payout system that it callsQuality Click Pricing, in which affiliates are paid an amount determined by an undisclosed algorithm. The totalearnings amount is then divided by the number of clicks the affiliate sent to eBay and is reported as EarningsPer Click, or EPC.edit]Acquisitions[Main article: List of acquisitions by eBayedit]Economics[As eBay is a huge, publicly visible market, it has created a great deal of interest from economists, who haveused it to analyze many aspects of buying and selling behavior, auction formats, etc., and compare these withprevious theoretical and empirical findings.
  • edit]Controversy and criticism[Main article: Criticism of eBayeBay has its share of controversy, including cases of fraud, its policy of requiring sellers to use PayPal, andconcerns over forgeries and intellectual property violations in auction items.edit]Prohibited or restricted items[In its earliest days, eBay was essentially unregulated. However, as the site grew, it became necessary torestrict or forbid auctions for various items. Note that some of the restrictions relate to eBay.com (the U.S. site),while other restrictions apply to specific European sites (such as Nazi paraphernalia). Regional laws andregulations may apply to the seller or the buyer. Generally, if the sale or ownership of an item is regulated orprohibited by one or more states, eBay will not permit its listing. Among the hundred or so banned or restrictedcategories:  Tobacco (tobacco-related items and collectibles are accepted.)[47]  Alcohol (alcohol-related collectibles, including sealed containers, as well as some wine sales by licensed sellers are allowed)[48]  Drugs and drug paraphernalia[49]  Nazi paraphernalia[50]  Bootleg recordings[51]  Firearms and ammunition,[52] including any parts that could be used to assemble a firearm as well as (as of July 30, 2007) any firearm part that is required for the firing of a gun, including bullet tips, brass casings and shells, barrels, slides, cylinders, magazines, firing pins, trigger assemblies, etc. Crossbows and various types of knives are also forbidden.  Police and emergency service vehicular warning equipment such as red or blue lights and sirens (antique or collectible items are exempt)  Used underwear (see Panty fetishism) and dirty used clothing[53]  Forged, illegal, stolen, or confidential documents, which include passports, social security cards, drivers licences, voter registration cards, birth certificates, school documents, medical records, financial information, government license plates, government classified information, or CarFax documents. Any item which is used to modify documents is also restricted.[54]  Human parts and remains (with an exception for skeletons and skulls for scientific study, provided they are not Native American in origin)[55]
  •  Live animals (with certain exceptions)[56]  Certain copyrighted works or trademarked items.[57]  Lottery tickets, sweepstakes tickets, or any other gambling items.[58]  Military hardware such as working weapons or explosives.  Sexually oriented adult material, which must be listed in the "Adult Only" category,[59] notwithstanding certain items prohibited:[59]  Child pornography  Materials deemed obscene, including bestiality, necrophilia, rape, coprophilia, and incest  Used sex toys  Services including any sexual activity  Links to sites that contain prohibited items  Adult products that are delivered digitally  Virtual items from massively multiplayer online games, restrictions which vary by country[60][61]  Ivory products[56]  Knives, other than cutlery, are prohibited in the UK following media pressure about the sale of items assessed by police to be "illegal"[62]  Many other items are either wholly prohibited or restricted in some manner.[63]edit]Unusual sale items[  In May 2006, the remains of U.S. Fort Montgomery, a stone fortification in upstate New York built in 1844, were put up for auction on eBay. The first auction ended on June 5, 2006, with a winning bid of $5,000,310. However, the sale was not completed, and the fort and lands surrounding it remain for sale and have been relisted on the site several times since.[64][65]  In February 2004, a scrapped F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet was listed on eBay by Mike Landa, of Landa and Associates, with a starting bid of $1,000,000. He was the legal owner of the plane after purchasing it from a scrap yard and also offered to have the plane restored for flying condition for a Buy It Now price of $9,000,000. Landa also told potential buyers that maintenance of the plane would cost roughly $40,000 a month for just 2 to 3 hours of flying time. The FBI told Landa that he could only sell the plane to an American citizen
  • residing in the United States, and that the plane must not leave U.S. airspace. The auction ended without a sale.[66] In January 2003, Thatch Cay, the last privately held and undeveloped U.S. Virgin Island, was listed for auction by Idealight International. The minimum bid was $3,000,000.00 and closed 16 January 2003.[67] In December 2005, a brussels sprout cooked on Christmas Day was listed by "crazypavingpreacher" (Andrew Henderson of Darlington, England). It sold for £99.50 on 4 January 2006. The sprout had been frozen and was sent by first class post in insulated packaging to the buyer, "5077phil". The listing was reported in the Daily Star, making the front page (and was followed by a series of "copycat" listings of various vegetables). The proceeds of the sale were donated toTearfund, a major Christian relief and development agency working in the third world. This sprout was the first cooked brussels sprout to be sold on eBay.[68] In January 2006, a British man named Leigh Knight sold an unwanted brussels sprout left over from his Christmas dinner for £1550 in aid of cancerresearch.[69][70] In May 2006, a Chinese businessman named Zhang Cheng bought a former Czech Air Force MiG-21 fighter jet from a seller in the United States for $24,730. The seller, "inkgirle", refused to ship it. It is not known whether he was refunded.[71][72] In June 2005, the wife of Tim Shaw, a British radio DJ on Kerrang! 105.2, sold Tims Lotus Esprit sports car with a Buy It Now price of 50 pence after she heard him flirting with model Jodie Marsh on air. The car was sold within 5 minutes, and it was requested that the buyer pick it up the same day.[73] In May 2005, a Volkswagen Golf that had previously been registered to Joseph Ratzinger (then a cardinal, who had since been elected pope and chose theregnal name Benedict XVI on April 19, 2005) was sold on eBays German site for €188,938.88 ($277,171.12 USD). The winning bid was made by theGoldenPalace.com online casino, known for their outrageous eBay purchases.[74]
  •  A seaworthy 16,000-ton aircraft carrier, formerly the British HMS Vengeance, was listed early in 2004. The auction was removed when eBay determined that the vessel qualified as ordnance, even though all weapons systems had been removed.[75] Water that was said to have been left in a cup Elvis Presley once drank from was sold for $455. The few tablespoons came from a plastic cup Presley sipped at a concert in North Carolina in 1977.[76] Coventry University student Bill Bennett got £1.20 for a single cornflake.[77] A man from Brisbane, Australia, attempted to sell New Zealand at a starting price of $0.01AUD. The price had risen to $3,000 before eBay closed the auction.[78] An Australian newspaper reported in December 2004 that a single piece of the Kelloggs breakfast cereal Nutri-Grain sold on eBay for AUD 1,035 because it happened to bear a slight resemblance to the character E.T. from the Steven Spielberg movie. Apparently the seller went on to make even more money in relation to the sale for his appearance on a nationally televised current affairs program.[79] One of the tunnel boring machines involved in the construction of the Channel Tunnel was auctioned on eBay in 2004.[80] A group of four men from Australia auctioned themselves to spend the weekend with the promise of "beers, snacks, good conversation and a hell of a lot of laughs" for A$1,300[81] Disney sold a retired Monorail Red (Mark IV Monorail) for $20,000[82] The German Language Association sold the German language to call attention to the growing influence of English in modern Germany.[83] In late November 2005, the original Hollywood Sign was sold on eBay for $450,400.[84][85]
  •  In February 2007, after Britney Spears shaved all of her hair off in a Los Angeles salon, it was listed on eBay for 1 million USD before it was taken down.[86] In September 2004, the Indiana Firebirds arena football team was auctioned off, first in a regular auction that failed to reach the reserve price,[87] and again as a "Buy it Now" item for $3.9 million.[88] Bridgeville, California (pop. 25) was the first town to be sold on eBay in 2002, and has been up for sale 3 times since.[89] In April 2005, American entrepreneur Matt Rouse sold the right to choose a new middle name for him. After receiving an $8,000 "Buy It Now" bid, the Utahcourts refused to allow the name change. He currently still has his original middle name "Jean".[90] In 2004, a partially eaten, 10-year-old grilled cheese sandwich said to bear the image of the Virgin Mary sold on eBay for $28,000.[91] In January 2008, four golf balls were auctioned on eBay after being surgically removed from the carpet python which had inadvertently swallowed them whilst raiding eggs in a chicken enclosure. The story attracted considerable international attention and the balls eventually sold for more that AUD 1,400. The python recovered and was released.[92] In May 2008, Paul Osborn of the UK listed his wife Sharon for sale on eBay, alleging that she had an affair with a coworker.[93] In June 2008, Ian Usher put up his "entire life" on auction. The auction included his house in Perth, belongings, introduction to his friends, and a trial at his job.[94] When bidding closed, his "life" sold for $384,000.[95] In August 2008, Dr Richard Harrington, Vice President of the UK Royal Entomological Society, announced that a fossilized aphid he bought for £20 from a seller in Lithuania, was a previously unknown species. It has been named Mindarus harringtoni after Dr Harrington. He had wanted to name it Mindarus ebayi, but this name was disallowed as being too flippant. The 45-
  • million-year-old aphid, preserved in a piece of Baltic amber, is now housed in the Natural History Museum in London.[96] In October 2008, amidst the 2008–2009 Icelandic financial crisis one seller had put up Iceland for sale. Auction started with 99 pence but had reached 10 million pounds (US $17.28 million). However, singer Björk was "not included" in the sale. The notice read Located in the mid-Atlantic ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean, Iceland will provide the winning bidder with — a habitable environment, Icelandic Horses and admittedly a somewhat sketchy financial situation. Bidders questions included: "Do you offer volcano/earthquake insurance?"[97] In November 2008, a Swedish man put a digitally hand-drawn picture of a 7- legged spider onto eBay. The picture stemmed from an article on the site 27bslash6.com wherein David Thorne claims to have attempted to pay a chiropractors bill with a picture of a 7-legged spider, which he valued at $233.95. On eBay, the bidding price started at $233.95, with bidding ended at a sale price of US$10,000.[98] Both the e-mail exchange and the picture have become internet hits.[99] In July 2009 Dornoch Capital Advisors placed Englands Coca Cola League One Side Tranmere Rovers F.C. on eBay without permission for them to do so from owner and chairman Peter Johnson. This led to Johnson issuing a statement on the teams website saying that the team was not for sale and that he had contacted eBay to have the listing removed.[100] In August 2009, a mother of six from South Arkansas auctioned off the legal rights to name her unborn child.[101] In December 2009, a woman auctioned the copyright for a never before seen four-minute home video of Marilyn Monroe smoking a joint.[102] In September 2010, a 23 year old man named M00T, Stockton-on-Tees, was trying to raise money for Cancer Research by attempting to sell a Ghost. The auction caught the attention of a local news paper. However, after day 6 of the auction, eBay removed the item stating it was against their policy to sell
  • "useless items or items whose existence cannot be justified or that nobody would want anyways".[103][104]edit]Charity auctions[Using MissionFish as an arbiter, eBay allows sellers to donate a portion of their auction proceeds to a charity ofthe sellers choice. The program is called eBay Giving Works in the US, and eBay for Charity[105] in the UK.eBay provides a partial refund of seller fees for items sold through charity auctions.[106] As of March 4, 2010,$154 million has been raised for U.S. nonprofits by the eBay Community since eBay Giving Works began in2003.[107]Some high-profile charity auctions have been advertised on the eBay home page, and have raised largeamounts of money in a short time. For example, a furniture manufacturer raised over $35,000 for RonaldMcDonald House by auctioning off beds that had been signed by celebrities.[citation needed]To date the highest successful bid on a single item for charity was for the annual "Power Lunch" [108] withinvestor Warren Buffett at the famous Smith & WollenskySteakhouse in New York. The winning bid was $2.63million with all of the proceeds going to the Glide Foundation. At the time of writing, the winning bidder is stillnot publicly known, but they will be able to bring up to seven friends to the lunch.The previous highest successful bid on a single item for charity was for a letter[109] sent to Mark P. Mays, CEOof Clear Channel (parent company of Premiere Radio Networks the production company that produces TheRush Limbaugh Show and Glenn Beck Program) by United States Senator Harry Reid and fortyotherDemocratic senators, complaining about comments made by conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh.The winning bid was $2,100,100, with 100 percent of the proceeds going to the Marine Corps-LawEnforcement Foundation, benefiting the education of children of men and women who have died serving in thearmed forces. The winning bid was matched by Limbaugh in his largest charity donation to date.[110]In 2007, eBay Canada partnered with Montreal-based digital branding agency CloudRaker to develop acampaign to raise money for Sainte-Justine childrens hospital in Montreal. They aligned themselves withinternet phenomenon Têtes à Claques to create an eBay auction based on popular T-A-C character UncleTom, an infomercial host who pitches absurd products. eBay and CloudRaker reproduced Uncle Tom’simaginary products, The Body Toner Fly Swatter, The Willi Waller Potato Peeler, and the LCD Shovel and soldthem online. In 6 weeks, they raised $15,000 for Hopital St-Justine with one fly swatter, one potato peeler, andone shovel, a world record. The Body Toner Fly Swatter sold for $8,600, the Willi Waller Potato Peeler sold for$3,550, and the LCD Shovel sold for $2,146.21.edit]Environmental record[
  • On May 8, 2008, eBay announced the opening of its newest building on the companys North Campus in SanJose, which is the first structure in the city to be built from the ground up to LEED Gold standards.[111] Thebuilding, the first the company has built new in its 13-year existence, uses an array of 3,248 solar panels,spanning 60,000 square feet (5,600 m2), and providing 650 kilowatts of power to eBays campus.[112][113] All toldthe array can supply the company with 15-18 percent of its total energy requirements, reducing the amountof greenhouse gases that would be produced to create that energy by other means.[112] SolarCity, the companyresponsible for designing the array, estimates that the solar panels installed on eBays campus will prevent 37million pounds of carbon dioxide from being released into the environment as a result of replaced powerproduction over the next three decades.[113] Creating an equivalent impact to remove the same amount ofcarbon dioxide from the atmosphere would require planting 322 acres (1.30 km2) of trees.[113] The design of thebuilding also incorporates other elements to reduce its impact on the environment. The building is equippedwith a lighting system that detects natural ambient light sources and automatically dims artificial lighting to save39 percent of the power usually required to light an office building.[111] eBays newest building also reducesdemand on local water supplies by incorporating an eco-friendly irrigation system, low-flow shower heads, andlow-flow faucets.[111] Even during construction, more than 75 percent of the waste from construction wasrecycled.[111] eBay also runs buses between San Francisco and the San Jose campus to reduce the number ofcommuting vehicles.[111]edit]Skype[eBay Inc. acquired Skype in 2005 and significantly expanded its customer base to more than 480 millionregistered users worldwide. To focus on its core e-commerce and payments businesses, eBay Inc. sold amajority stake in Skype in November 2009, retaining a minority investment in the company. [citation needed]edit]Craigslist[ This articles factual accuracy may be compromised because of out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (October 2009)In the summer of 2004, eBay acknowledged that it had acquired 25% of classified listings website, Craigslist.Former Craigslist executive Phillip Knowlton was the seller, and he insisted that his former employer was awareof his plans to divest his holdings. Initially, eBay assured Craigslist that they would not ask the company tochange the way it does business. eBay spokesman Hani Durzy stated that the "investment was really forlearning purposes; it gives us access to learn how the classified market online works." [114]The classifieds service Kijiji was launched by eBay in March 2005. In April 2008, eBay sued Craigslist to"safeguard its four-year financial investment", claiming that in January 2008, Craigslist took actions that"unfairly diluted eBays economic interest by more than 10%."[115] Craigslist countersued in May 2008 "to
  • remedy the substantial and ongoing harm to fair competition" that Craigslist claims is constituted by eBaysactions as a Craigslist shareholder.[116] In September 2010, Delaware Judge William Chandler ruled that theactions of Craigslist were unlawful, and that the actions taken upon by Craigslist founders Jim Buckmaster andCraig Newmark had "breached their fiduciary duty of loyalty", and restored eBays stake in the company to28.4% from a diluted level of 24.85%.[117] However, the judge dismissed eBays objection to a staggered boardprovision citing that Craigslist has the right to protect its own trade secrets.[118][119] eBay spokesman Michael [117]Jacobson stated "We are very pleased that the court gave eBay what it sought from the lawsuit."edit]See also[ San Francisco Bay Area portal Companies portal Internet portal  eBay v. Bidders Edgeedit]References[ a b c 1. ^ "eBay Inc. Reports Strong Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2010 Results". 2. ^ "ebay.com - Traffic Details from Alexa". Alexa Internet, Inc. Retrieved 2009- 10-17. 3. ^ "eBay: The Worlds Online Marketplace". eBay Inc.. Retrieved 2010-04-09. 4. ^ Suciu, Peter (2008-04-18). "Skype and PayPal – A Different Set of Rules". All Business. Retrieved 2008-04-23. a b 5. ^ Cohen, Adam (2003). The Perfect Store. Boston: Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-16493-3. a b 6. ^ How did eBay start?, About.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-26. 7. ^ page 36, The eBay Phenomenon by Elen Lewis publ2008 by Marshall Cavendish books 8. ^ "Echobay Partners LTD". Echobay.com. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 9. ^ Mullen, Amy. "The history of ebay". Happynews.com. Retrieved 2009-03- 24.
  • 10. ^ Stross, Randall (2009-12-29). eBoys: The First Inside Account of Venture Capitalists at Work. Ballantine Books (May 29, 2001). pp. 28–29. ISBN 978- 0345428899.11. ^ Thomas, Owen (October 8, 2009). "eBay founder factchecks John McCain".Valleywag (Gawker Media). Retrieved 2009-03-04. a b12. ^ [1] Ebay, January 23, 2008-Meg Whitman to Step Down as President and CEO of eBay13. ^ "eBay Inc. - MSN Fact Sheet". Moneycentral.hoovers.com. Retrieved 2009- 03-24.14. ^ Kawamoto, Dawn & Grice, Corey: [2] C-Net News, September 24, 1998- eBay roars into public trading15. ^ [3] Crunchbase, People, John Donahoe16. ^ [4] Skype Sale, Washington Post17. ^ eBay sued for $3.8 bln in PayPal patent case AFX-News. Retrieved 2010- 07-14.18. ^ EBay to buy German online shopping club for euro150Mhttp://www.wtopnews.com/?nid=108&sid=220757419. ^ "Prohibited and Restricted Items - Overview". eBay. Retrieved 2006-06-28.20. ^ "eBay Developers Program". eBay. Retrieved 2006-06-28.21. ^ "August 10, 2007, 10:38AM BST post to eBay announcement board by eBays staff". .ebay.com. 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2010-02-25.22. ^ "21 December 2007 12:10PM GMT General announcement by eBay". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. [dead link]23. ^ Announcement posted in a section on ebay called Changes in 200824. ^ "eBay February 2008 announcement board posted on 28 February 2008 02:49PM GMT". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.25. ^ "eBay announcement 24 March 2008 09:00AM GMT". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.26. ^ "January 2008". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.27. ^ "eBay - eine der größten deutschen Shopping-Websites". Ebayexpress.de. Retrieved 2011-01-20.28. ^ "eBay Developers Conference Highlights". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-06- 10.29. ^ "Selling Manager Applications". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  • 30. ^ "eBays explanation of bid increments". Pages.ebay.com. Retrieved 2010- 02-25.31. ^ "February 2008". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.32. ^ "January 2008". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.33. ^ "Upcoming Changes to Feedback". Pages.ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-03- 24.34. ^ "Fees 2008 Overview". Pages.ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.35. ^ "January 2008". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.36. ^ Ina Steiner (January 24, 2010). "Sellers Choice: Merchants Rate Ecommerce Marketplaces". Auctionbytes.com. Retrieved June 27, 2010.37. ^ Ina Steiner (January 24, 2010). "Sellers Choice Marketplace Ratings: eBay". Auctionbytes.com. Retrieved June 27, 2010.38. ^ "Contact Information". Pages.ebay.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-20.39. ^ "Ebays history - know your roots!". Ecommerce Journal. Retrieved 2010- 02-25.40. ^ "eBay Guides - Tickets Buying Guide". Pages.ebay.ca. Retrieved 2010-02- 25.41. ^ "eBay January 2008 announcement board. Posted on 30 January 2008 06:20PM GMT". .ebay.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.42. ^ "eBay Inc. - eBay Inc. Outlines Global Business Strategy". Investor.ebay.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.43. ^ Friday, April 24, 2009 15:59 [IST] (2009-04-24). "The brand that auctioned the www: eBay". Finance.indiainfo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.44. ^ "Q1 eBay earnings call April 16th 2008". Seekingalpha.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.45. ^ "Accepted Payments Policy". Pages.ebay.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.46. ^ "eBay Partner Network". eBay Partner Network. Retrieved 2010-02-25.47. ^ eBay. "Tobacco policy". Retrieved 2010-02-25.48. ^ eBay. "Alcohol policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.49. ^ eBay. "Drugs and drug paraphernalia policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.50. ^ eBay. "Offensive material policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.51. ^ eBay. "Bootleg recordings policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.52. ^ eBay. "Firearms, weapons, and knives policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.53. ^ eBay. "Used clothing policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.
  • 54. ^ eBay. "Government documents, IDs, and licenses policy". Retrieved 2010- 02-25.55. ^ eBay. "Human remains and body parts policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25. a b56. ^ eBay. "Animals and wildlife products policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.57. ^ eBay. "Rules about intellectual property – overview". Retrieved 2010-12-25.58. ^ eBay. "Slot machines policy". Retrieved 25 December 2010. a b59. ^ eBay. "Adult Only category policy". Retrieved 25 December 2010.60. ^ "Digitally delivered goods policy". Retrieved 2010-12-25.61. ^ Anderson, Nate (2007-01-30). "eBay bans the auction of in-game items".Ars Technica. Retrieved 2010-12-25.62. ^ "eBay bans trade in knives in UK". BBC News. 9 February 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-17.63. ^ eBay. "Prohibited and restricted items – overview". Retrieved 2010-12-25.64. ^ Fort Montgomery for sale on eBay Plattsburgh Press Republican, Plattsburgh, New York, June 200665. ^ Next Random Fort Montgomery Island. "Fort Montgomery Island, New York, United States". Privateislandsonline.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.66. ^ "U.S. navy jet fighter F18 is for sale on eBay". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2004-02- 17. Retrieved 2009-03-24.67. ^ "U.S. Virgin Island Bidding Reaches Record $3.5 Million on eBay Real Estate". findarticles.com. 2003-01-01. Retrieved 2010-05-21.68. ^ "Northern Echo archive 5th January 2006". Archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk. 2006-01-05. Retrieved 2010-02-25.69. ^ "Charity sprout craze sweeps the nation as £1,550 bid on eBay". Archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk. 2006-01-06. Retrieved 2009-03-24.70. ^ "The NIBS: Unwanted brussel sprout on sale for charity". Thenibs.blogspot.com. 2006-01-05. Retrieved 2009-03-24.71. ^ "Chinese man buys fighter jet on eBay - Breaking - Technology - theage.com.au". Melbourne: Theage.com.au. 2006-05-01. Retrieved 2009- 03-24.72. ^ May 09, 2006 in International Law (2006-05-09). "Man Wants Money Back for MiG-21 Bought on eBay". Lowering the Bar. Retrieved 2009-03-24.73. ^ "£25,000 revenge of DJs wife". This Is London. 2005-06-21.
  • 74. ^ "Golf IV von Josef Kardinal Ratzinger". Golden Palace. Retrieved 2006-06- 28.75. ^ Tweedie, Neil (2004-01-10). "For internet sale: aircraft carrier, only three owners". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-07-09.76. ^ "http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/4134407.stm". BBC News. 2004-12-30. Retrieved 2010-02-25.77. ^ "http://news.bbc.co.uk./1/hi/england/coventry_warwickshire/4137877.stm". News.bbc.co.uk.. 2004-12-31. Retrieved 2010-02-25.78. ^ Published: 6:14PM Thursday May 11, 2006 (2006-05- 11)."http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/411365/712869". Tvnz.co.nz. Retrieved 2010-02-25.79. ^ "Nutri-Grain that looks like ET". The Daily Telegraph. 2007-12-06.80. ^ "Eurotunnel drill bids reach £5m". BBC. 2004-04-05. Retrieved 2010-01-03.81. ^ Hearn, Louisa (2006-01-17). "Blokes pull in the bids on eBay". The Sydney Morning Herald.82. ^ "http://www.monorails.org/tMspages/CPMarkIV.html". Monorails.org. 2002- 06-06. Retrieved 2010-02-25.83. ^ "10 Millionen Euro für die deutsche Sprache (German)". Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. from the Internet archive84. ^ "Hollywood Sign Sold For $450K". CBS News. 2005-12-07.85. ^ "Buy a piece of HOLLYWOOD". CNN. 2005-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31.86. ^ "Britney Spears Shaved Hair on Sale on eBay!".87. ^ "AFLs Indiana Firebirds for sale on eBay - Operation Sports Forums". Operationsports.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.88. ^ "Indiana Firebirds for sale on eBay [Archive] - OurSports Central Independent and Minor League Sports Forums". Oursportscentral.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24.89. ^ "http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4875206.stm". BBC News. 2006-04-04. Retrieved 2010-02-25.90. ^ "Matthew Sells The Middle". CBS News. 2005-04-05.91. ^ "ABC News: Hungry for Miracles?".92. ^ "Snakes golf balls fetch $1400". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-01-11.93. ^ "Jealous husband puts wife on eBay". 2008-05-15.
  • 94. ^ "Bidding begins on entire life". BBC News. 2008-06-22. Retrieved 2010- 01-03.95. ^ "Man auctions life, but disappointed at bid price". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2008-06-30.96. ^ "Insect expert discovers new species on eBay". 2008-08-19. Retrieved 2008-08-19.97. ^ "Iceland for sale on eBay, winner may collect in person". Reuters (CNN- IBN). October 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-10.98. ^ Matt Bachl (November 14, 2008). "Spider minus a leg sells for thousands". ninemsn. Retrieved 2008-11-18.99. ^ Ananova (November 23, 2008). "Man tried to pay bill with spider drawing". Ghana News. Retrieved 2008-11-25.100. ^ TheBoysInBlue (July 30, 2009). "Football Club For Sale Or Not". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-07-30.101. ^ Joshua Rhett Miller (August 5, 2009). "Arkansas Mother Sells Naming Rights of Unborn Son on eBay". Fox News.com. Retrieved December 5, 2009.102. ^ "Film clip shows Marilyn Monroe smoking pot". Msnbc.com. December 1, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.103. ^ "DJ turns to selling ghost on eBay for cancer charity".104. ^ "Norton DJs charity ghost sale spirited off eBay".105. ^ "eBay for Charity". Pages.ebay.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-02-25.106. ^ "eBay Giving Works fee credits". Pages.ebay.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.107. ^ Funds Raised http://www.ebaygivingworks.com/about- donationamount.html#deductions108. ^ "UPDATE 1-Warren Buffett lunch sells for $2.63 mln on eBay". Reuters.com. 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-06-17.109. ^ "eBay Update: High Bidder on Reid Letter Will Own Historic Document". Rushlimbaugh.com. 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2009-03-24.110. ^ Strom, Stephanie (2007-10-20). "Critical Letter to Limbaugh Fetches $2 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-01. a b c d e111. ^ "eBay Inc. Opens New "Green" Building and Unveils Largest Commercial Solar Installation in San Jose". Csrwire.com. Retrieved 2009-03- 24.
  • a b 112. ^ "EBay opens building with largest solar roof in San Jose - San Jose Mercury News". Origin.mercurynews.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25. a b c 113. ^ "SolarCity Helps eBay Campus, Employees Switch to Clean Power With Largest Commercial Solar Installation in San Jose". Prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 114. ^ Wingfield, Nick: [5] Wall Street Journal, August 13, 2004-EBay Buys Stake in Craigslist 115. ^ "EBay sues Craigslist ad website". BBC. 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2008-05- 08. 116. ^ "Craigslist strikes back at eBay". BBC. 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2008-05-13. a b 117. ^ "EBay wins legal ruling against Craigslist". Market Watch. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 118. ^ "eBay Gets Partial Win in Craigslist Poison Pill Lawsuit". Daily Finance. 2010-09-10. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 119. ^ "Ruling Restores Ebays Stake in Craigslist". The Street. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2010-09-23.edit]Further reading[  Cihlar, Christopher (2006). The Grilled Cheese Madonna and 99 Other of the Weirdest, Wackiest, Most Famous eBay Auctions Ever. Random House. ISBN 0- 7679-2374-X.  Cohen, Adam (2002). The Perfect Store: Inside eBay. Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 0-316-15048-7.  Collier, Marsha (2004). eBay For Dummies. John Wiley. ISBN 0-7645-5654-1.hi  Hillis, Ken and Michael Petit with Nathan Epley (2006). Everyday eBay: Culture, Collecting and Desire. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97436-4.  Jackson, Eric M. (2004). The PayPal Wars: Battles with eBay, the Media, the Mafia, and the Rest of Planet Earth. World Ahead Publishing. ISBN 0-9746701-0- 3.  Kent, Peter & Finlayson, Jill (2005). Fundraising on eBay. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07- 226248-6.  Klink, Edward & Klink, Stephen (2005). Dawn of the eBay Deadbeats: True Tales of Treachery, Lies, and Fraud from the Dark Recesses of the Worlds Largest Online Auction Marketplace. Mooncusser Media. ISBN 0-9768372-1-8.
  •  Nissanoff, Daniel (2006). FutureShop: How the New Auction Culture Will Revolutionize the Way We Buy, Sell and Get the Things We Really Want. The Penguin Press.ISBN 1-59420-077-7.  Spencer, Christopher Matthew (2006). The eBay Entrepreneur. Kaplan Publishing. ISBN 1-4195-8328-X.  Walton, Kenneth (2006). FAKE: Forgery, Lies, & eBay. Simon Spotlight Entertainment. ISBN 1-4169-0711-4.edit]External links[  eBay website [show]v · d · eCompanies of the NASDAQ-100 index [show]v · d · eWebby Awards [show]v · d · eCompanies owned by eBay Categories: Companies listed on NASDAQ | Companies in the NASDAQ-100 Index | EBay | Companies established in 1995 | Internet properties established in 1995 | Companies based in San Jose, California | Internet companies of the United States | National Medal of Technology recipients | Online auction websites |Online retail companies of the United States | Virtual communities | Global internet community | Commerce websites Log in / create accountArticleDiscussionReadEditView history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to WikipediaInteraction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact WikipediaToolbox
  • Print/exportLanguages ‫ال عرب ية‬ Беларуская (тарашкевіца) Bosanski Български Català Česky Dansk Deutsch Eesti Español Esperanto ‫ف ار سی‬ Français Galego 한국어 Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ‫עברית‬ Қазақша Latina Latviešu Lietuvių Magyar Bahasa Melayu Nederlands 日本語 Ozbek Piemontèis Polski Português Română Русский Саха тыла Scots Shqip Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Српски / Srpski Suomi Svenska Tagalog
  • ไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng Việt中文 This page was last modified on 11 February 2011 at 19:49. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers